Classroom practices

Classroom practices are related to the actions and strategies teachers and students deploy in class during the teaching and learning process. They vary according to social, political, and economic context.

The classroom is a place where social actors interact with each other towards the common objective of giving and receiving knowledge. For it to be well transmitted, classroom practices must be inclusive, to ensure every pupil feels valued and supported in their learning process. In addition, classroom practices include classroom management which is the set of procedures, strategies, and instructional methods that teachers use to create a classroom environment which promotes learning. Classroom management is essential to create a safe and well-ordered environment to teach and learn while promoting quality education and inclusiveness. Classroom practices also include students’ behaviour towards their peers and the teacher. In class, student must be taught in the best conditions to feel ready to learn with the same chances than other students in the classroom. Thus, students’ learning outcomes are largely dependent on the type of pedagogy used by the teacher in the learning process, but also on the learning environment within the classroom.

Teachers are the central actors when it comes to managing classroom practices and must be oriented towards adapting their pedagogy. ‘The “teacher/class/context effect” shows that the teacher plays a decisive role for quality education, but that the teacher-pupil performance relationship is complex (UNESCO, 2009) and is a result of multiple factors demanding a consistent context-related teacher management system.’ (Best, Tournier and Chimier, 2018: 4).

*For more on this subject, consult Policy page Classroom observation.

References
Best, A.; Tournier, B.; Chimier, C. 2018. Topical questions on teacher management. Paris: IIEP- UNESCO  Retrieved from: http://www.iiep.unesco.org/sites/default/files/english_final_topical_questions.pdf

Promising policy options

Foster both student-centred and teacher-centred pedagogies

Pedagogy is defined by UNESCO International Institute for Education Planning (IIEP) as ‘interactions between teachers, students, and the learning environment and the learning tasks.’

The learner-centred pedagogy is generally agreed to be the predominant method to teach in the classroom the knowledge pupils must acquire. This method is defined as constructivist as learners must be active in their learning process. They are encouraged to learn by themselves and develop a critical thinking, while teachers facilitate their knowledge appropriation. Classrooms practices in line with learner-centred pedagogy aim to promote group and peer work, with problems to solve related to their concrete experiences from the daily life. On the other hand, teacher-centred pedagogy places teachers at the centre of the learning process in the classroom. Whole-class lectures, chorus answers or memorization are strategies usually found under this type of pedagogy.

The learning-centred pedagogy is a new term gathering both approaches: learner-centred and teacher-centred pedagogies. It focuses more on local context and the composition of the classroom (number of pupils, physical conditions for teaching and learning). Teachers have an important role in this pedagogical approach since they are the ones who decide which strategy to adopt according to the school environment.

Therefore, the right strategies related to pedagogy should aim to strike a balance between student or learner-centred pedagogy (also known as inquiry-based teaching) and teacher-centred pedagogy (also known as teacher-based instruction). Indeed, ‘teachers should be encouraged to develop a repertoire of methods to use in the classroom and should draw upon their professional knowledge in determining when more teacher-centered or more learner-centered methods are appropriate’ (Peeraer et al., 2015: 9). It is generally agreed that these types of pedagogy impact positively learning outcomes when the “sweet spot” is found. Student centred-pedagogy, applied without a strong teaching foundation do not lead to better outcomes. In developing countries, research proved that priority must be given first to a teacher-centred pedagogy, in order to implement student-centred pedagogy in an inducive environment. These different methods must be matched according to country-specific contexts. Although it is generally agreed, discussion must take place between all the accurate political and local actors to find the “sweet spot”.

No matter which pedagogy or mix of pedagogies are chosen, it is essential to ensure that it has not only been integrated within the classrooms, but also within the curriculum and throughout students’ learning assessments (classroom-based and national examinations) (Peeraer et al., 2-015).

References
Alexander, R. 2008. Education for All, the Quality Imperative and the Problem of Pedagogy. London:  DFID (Department for International Development). Retrieved from:  www.create-rpc.org/pdf_documents/PTA20.pdf

IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2015. Education planners, search no more. Accessed 29 October 2018: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/blog/education-planners-search-no-more

IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2018c. Brief 3: Effective and appropriate pedagogy. Accessed 1 April 2018: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/teachers-and-pedagogy/effective-and-appropriate-pedagogy

IIEP-UNESCO. 2018. Learning at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Science, Measurement, and Policy in Low-Income Countries. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000265581

Mourshed, M.; Krawitz, M.; Dorn, E. 2017. How to improve student educational outcomes: New insights from data analytics. New-York: Mc Kinsey & Company. Retrieved from: https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Industries/Social%20Sector/Our%20Insights/How%20to%20improve%20student%20educational%20outcomes/How-to-improve-student-educational-outcomes-New-insights-from-data-analytics.ashx

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2009a. ‘Chapter 4 Teaching Practices, Teachers’ Beliefs and Attitudes.’ In: Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from:  www.oecd.org/education/school/43023606.pdf

Peace Corps. 2008. Classroom Management: Idea Book. Washington D.C.: Peace Corps. Retrieved from: https://files.peacecorps.gov/multimedia/pdf/library/M0088.pdf

Peeraer, J.; Kabanda, C.; Nzabalirwa, W.; Nizeyimana, G.; Uworwabayeho, A. 2015. Conceptions of learning and uptake of learner-centered pedagogy in initial teacher education in Rwanda. Presented at UKFIET The Education and Development Forum. Retrieved from: https://essa-africa.org/node/501?i=d&id=369

Rosenshine, B. 2011. Principles of Instruction, Educational Practices Series- 21. Paris: IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). Retrieved from: http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/Educational_Practices/EdPractices_21.pdf

UNESCO. 2006. Positive discipline in the inclusive, learning-friendly classroom: A guide for teachers and teacher educators. Bangkok: UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001492/149284e.pdf

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2009b. ‘Chapter 6:6 Learning and Teaching Methods.’ In: Child Friendly Schools: Manual. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from:
https://www.unicef.org/media/66486/file/Child-Friendly-Schools-Manual.pdf

Vavrus, F.; Thomas, M.A.M.; Bartlett, L. 2011. Ensuring quality by attending to inquiry: Learner-centred pedagogy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Addis-Abeba: UNESCO-IICBA (UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa). UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002160/216063e.pdf

Walberg, H.J.; Paik, S.J. 2002. Effective educational practices. Educational Practices Series- 3. Paris: IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). Retrieved from:  http://www.ibe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/resources/edu-practices_03_eng.pdf

Westbrook, J.; Durrani, N.; Brown, R..; Orr, D.; Pryor, J.; Boddy, J.; Salvi, F. 2013. Pedagogy, curriculum, teaching practices and teacher education in developing countries. Education rigorous literature review. London: DFID (Department for International Development). Retrieved form: http://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/cms/Portals/0/PDF%20reviews%20and%20summaries/Pedagogy%202013%20Westbrook%20report.pdf?ver=2014-04-24-121331-867

Make teaching relevant and learning meaningful

Poor pedagogy has been highlighted as one of the most important reasons for poor learning (IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). Thus, it is essential to ‘make teaching relevant and learning meaningful’ (IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). For such a purpose, the following strategies and tactics should be taken into consideration:

  • Ensure structured practices with a clear lesson containing explicit goals, lesson plans, regular reviews (daily, weekly, monthly) and final assessments.
  • Foster discussions in classroom. Question pupils (through open or closed questions) to encourage them to intervene and make sure they have understood the main stakes of the lesson. This should be done while ensuring that students, more than learning answers, are asking questions.
  • View mistakes as opportunities to improve the learning process.
  • Relate to students’ backgrounds through interactive and inclusive lessons: gender, social, cultural differences should be considered equally.
  • Listen to students and take into account their opinion on whether they are enjoying or not what they are learning.
  • Provide innovative and creative demonstrations to motivate pupils to listen as well as challenge them continuously through new material and enjoyable activities.
  • Adapt the language to that of pupils’.
  • Ensure inclusive pedagogies which meet the needs of all students, including those with special needs. 

Student-oriented practices should be geared toward practice time. Emphasis on activities which involve discovering and observing is essential (IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). Problem-based and project-based learning are also recommended (Peeraer et al., 2015). This helps students develop critical minds through the production of work related to the real world (activities, essays, presentation). Teachers should also encourage peer-to-peer instruction as it has been found to boost the learning process (IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). Overall, teachers should enable students to become the agents of their own learning (IIEP-UNESCO, 2018).

Teachers should use Learning and Teaching Materials in a productive way and beyond textbooks (other reading books, classroom materials), and use space outside of the classroom as much as possible to expand the ways to share knowledge (pedagogic activities in the playground for instance). ICTs should also be used to enable pupils to work from outside school and extend the learning possibilities of the classroom.

References
Alexander, R. 2008. Education for All, the Quality Imperative and the Problem of Pedagogy. London:  DFID (Department for International Development). Retrieved from:  www.create-rpc.org/pdf_documents/PTA20.pdf

IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2015. Education planners, search no more. Accessed 29 October 2018: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/blog/education-planners-search-no-more

IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2018c. Brief 3: Effective and appropriate pedagogy. Accessed 1 April 2018: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/teachers-and-pedagogy/effective-and-appropriate-pedagogy

IIEP-UNESCO. 2018. Learning at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Science, Measurement, and Policy in Low-Income Countries. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000265581

Mourshed, M.; Krawitz, M.; Dorn, E. 2017. How to improve student educational outcomes: New insights from data analytics. New-York: Mc Kinsey & Company. Retrieved from: https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Industries/Social%20Sector/Our%20Insights/How%20to%20improve%20student%20educational%20outcomes/How-to-improve-student-educational-outcomes-New-insights-from-data-analytics.ashx

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2009a. ‘Chapter 4 Teaching Practices, Teachers’ Beliefs and Attitudes.’ In: Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from:  www.oecd.org/education/school/43023606.pdf

Peace Corps. 2008. Classroom Management: Idea Book. Washington D.C.: Peace Corps. Retrieved from: https://files.peacecorps.gov/multimedia/pdf/library/M0088.pdf

Peeraer, J.; Kabanda, C.; Nzabalirwa, W.; Nizeyimana, G.; Uworwabayeho, A. 2015. Conceptions of learning and uptake of learner-centered pedagogy in initial teacher education in Rwanda. Presented at UKFIET The Education and Development Forum. Retrieved from: https://essa-africa.org/node/501?i=d&id=369

Rosenshine, B. 2011. Principles of Instruction, Educational Practices Series- 21. Paris: IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). Retrieved from: http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/Educational_Practices/EdPractices_21.pdf

UNESCO. 2006. Positive discipline in the inclusive, learning-friendly classroom: A guide for teachers and teacher educators. Bangkok: UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001492/149284e.pdf

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2009b. ‘Chapter 6:6 Learning and Teaching Methods.’ In: Child Friendly Schools: Manual. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from:
https://www.unicef.org/media/66486/file/Child-Friendly-Schools-Manual.pdf

Vavrus, F.; Thomas, M.A.M.; Bartlett, L. 2011. Ensuring quality by attending to inquiry: Learner-centred pedagogy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Addis-Abeba: UNESCO-IICBA (UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa). UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002160/216063e.pdf

Walberg, H.J.; Paik, S.J. 2002. Effective educational practices. Educational Practices Series- 3. Paris: IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). Retrieved from:  http://www.ibe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/resources/edu-practices_03_eng.pdf

Westbrook, J.; Durrani, N.; Brown, R..; Orr, D.; Pryor, J.; Boddy, J.; Salvi, F. 2013. Pedagogy, curriculum, teaching practices and teacher education in developing countries. Education rigorous literature review. London: DFID (Department for International Development). Retrieved form: http://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/cms/Portals/0/PDF%20reviews%20and%20summaries/Pedagogy%202013%20Westbrook%20report.pdf?ver=2014-04-24-121331-867

Enhance a positive, safe and well-ordered learning environment in the classroom

In addition, teachers should boost positive discipline and attitude through positive statements, listening carefully and giving learners the opportunity to make choices. Teachers should strive to reinforce positive student’s behaviour by redirecting negative behaviour in a positive manner; fostering respectful communication and collaboration in conflict resolution; and showing appropriate body language (for more information consult Policy page School climate).

Creating a safe and well-ordered environment in the classroom is also essential. This involves setting clear and simple discipline rules to respect inside and outside the classroom, to be shared with parents as well. In addition, teachers should be able to see all the pupils in the classroom and each one of them should have a seat. Furniture, materials, and resources should be organized so as to free space for students. Students’ work should be organized in a way that sets a motivating environment (an exposition on the walls, for instance).

References
Alexander, R. 2008. Education for All, the Quality Imperative and the Problem of Pedagogy. London:  DFID (Department for International Development). Retrieved from:  www.create-rpc.org/pdf_documents/PTA20.pdf

IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2015. Education planners, search no more. Accessed 29 October 2018: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/blog/education-planners-search-no-more

IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2018c. Brief 3: Effective and appropriate pedagogy. Accessed 1 April 2018: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/teachers-and-pedagogy/effective-and-appropriate-pedagogy

IIEP-UNESCO. 2018. Learning at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Science, Measurement, and Policy in Low-Income Countries. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000265581

Mourshed, M.; Krawitz, M.; Dorn, E. 2017. How to improve student educational outcomes: New insights from data analytics. New-York: Mc Kinsey & Company. Retrieved from: https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Industries/Social%20Sector/Our%20Insights/How%20to%20improve%20student%20educational%20outcomes/How-to-improve-student-educational-outcomes-New-insights-from-data-analytics.ashx

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2009a. ‘Chapter 4 Teaching Practices, Teachers’ Beliefs and Attitudes.’ In: Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from:  www.oecd.org/education/school/43023606.pdf

Peace Corps. 2008. Classroom Management: Idea Book. Washington D.C.: Peace Corps. Retrieved from: https://files.peacecorps.gov/multimedia/pdf/library/M0088.pdf

Rosenshine, B. 2011. Principles of Instruction, Educational Practices Series- 21. Paris: IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). Retrieved from: http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/Educational_Practices/EdPractices_21.pdf

UNESCO. 2006. Positive discipline in the inclusive, learning-friendly classroom: A guide for teachers and teacher educators. Bangkok: UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001492/149284e.pdf

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2009b. ‘Chapter 6:6 Learning and Teaching Methods.’ In: Child Friendly Schools: Manual. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from:
https://www.unicef.org/media/66486/file/Child-Friendly-Schools-Manual.pdf

Vavrus, F.; Thomas, M.A.M.; Bartlett, L. 2011. Ensuring quality by attending to inquiry: Learner-centred pedagogy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Addis-Abeba: UNESCO-IICBA (UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa). UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002160/216063e.pdf

Walberg, H.J.; Paik, S.J. 2002. Effective educational practices. Educational Practices Series- 3. Paris: IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). Retrieved from:  http://www.ibe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/resources/edu-practices_03_eng.pdf

Westbrook, J.; Durrani, N.; Brown, R..; Orr, D.; Pryor, J.; Boddy, J.; Salvi, F. 2013. Pedagogy, curriculum, teaching practices and teacher education in developing countries. Education rigorous literature review. London: DFID (Department for International Development). Retrieved form: http://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/cms/Portals/0/PDF%20reviews%20and%20summaries/Pedagogy%202013%20Westbrook%20report.pdf?ver=2014-04-24-121331-867

Support teachers to integrate the chosen pedagogy within their classroom practice

Overall, decision-makers should keep in mind that it is important to provide teachers with adequate support, training, teaching materials and pedagogical resources so that they can integrate the chosen pedagogies in the classroom. This involves the provision of ‘self-study materials, training materials, good practices, library/resource centres, and online and searchable open resource centres’, among others (Peeraer et al., 2015: 10). It is also important to provide them adequate ICT material. PISA results have proved that giving ICT material to teachers (video-projector) rather than students (tablets or e-books) leads to a more positive impact on learning outcomes. Yet, it is also essential to ensure that the available resources and materials are being used (Peeraer et al., 2015).

In addition, it is also recommended to adapt teacher guides and lesson plans to their needs; tailor the supervision of teachers in school; as well as provide in- and pre-service training to sensitise teachers to new pedagogies adapted to their specific context of teaching. Indeed, ‘structured pedagogy’ interventions where pedagogic techniques, curricula, teaching materials and teacher training are tailored to address local barriers to education have been found to enhance learning (IIEP-UNESCO, 2018).

Moreover, peer-work and collaboration are relevant factors impacting teachers’ implementation of certain pedagogies in the classroom, as illustrated by a study done with Rwandan teachers on learner-centered pedagogy uptake (Peeraer et al., 2015). Teachers’ cooperation can be enhanced through lesson observations; feedback; research studies; work discussions and meetings, among others. The creation of communities of practice can also stimulate teachers’ learning of new pedagogies, by boosting communication, knowledge-sharing, coaching as well as self-reflection (Peeraer et al., 2015). Overall, peer-work can help teachers feel more confident and trusted while teaching pupils.

References
Alexander, R. 2008. Education for All, the Quality Imperative and the Problem of Pedagogy. London:  DFID (Department for International Development). Retrieved from:  www.create-rpc.org/pdf_documents/PTA20.pdf

IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2015. Education planners, search no more. Accessed 29 October 2018: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/blog/education-planners-search-no-more

IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2018c. Brief 3: Effective and appropriate pedagogy. Accessed 1 April 2018: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/teachers-and-pedagogy/effective-and-appropriate-pedagogy

IIEP-UNESCO. 2018. Learning at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Science, Measurement, and Policy in Low-Income Countries. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000265581

Mourshed, M.; Krawitz, M.; Dorn, E. 2017. How to improve student educational outcomes: New insights from data analytics. New-York: Mc Kinsey & Company. Retrieved from: https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Industries/Social%20Sector/Our%20Insights/How%20to%20improve%20student%20educational%20outcomes/How-to-improve-student-educational-outcomes-New-insights-from-data-analytics.ashx

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2009a. ‘Chapter 4 Teaching Practices, Teachers’ Beliefs and Attitudes.’ In: Creating Effective Teaching and Learning Environments: First Results from TALIS. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from:  www.oecd.org/education/school/43023606.pdf

Peace Corps. 2008. Classroom Management: Idea Book. Washington D.C.: Peace Corps. Retrieved from: https://files.peacecorps.gov/multimedia/pdf/library/M0088.pdf

Peeraer, J.; Kabanda, C.; Nzabalirwa, W.; Nizeyimana, G.; Uworwabayeho, A. 2015. Conceptions of learning and uptake of learner-centered pedagogy in initial teacher education in Rwanda. Presented at UKFIET The Education and Development Forum. Retrieved from: https://essa-africa.org/node/501?i=d&id=369

Rosenshine, B. 2011. Principles of Instruction, Educational Practices Series- 21. Paris: IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). Retrieved from: http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/Educational_Practices/EdPractices_21.pdf

UNESCO. 2006. Positive discipline in the inclusive, learning-friendly classroom: A guide for teachers and teacher educators. Bangkok: UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001492/149284e.pdf

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2009b. ‘Chapter 6:6 Learning and Teaching Methods.’ In: Child Friendly Schools: Manual. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from:
https://www.unicef.org/media/66486/file/Child-Friendly-Schools-Manual.pdf

Vavrus, F.; Thomas, M.A.M.; Bartlett, L. 2011. Ensuring quality by attending to inquiry: Learner-centred pedagogy in Sub-Saharan Africa. Addis-Abeba: UNESCO-IICBA (UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa). UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002160/216063e.pdf

Walberg, H.J.; Paik, S.J. 2002. Effective educational practices. Educational Practices Series- 3. Paris: IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). Retrieved from:  http://www.ibe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/resources/edu-practices_03_eng.pdf

Westbrook, J.; Durrani, N.; Brown, R..; Orr, D.; Pryor, J.; Boddy, J.; Salvi, F. 2013. Pedagogy, curriculum, teaching practices and teacher education in developing countries. Education rigorous literature review. London: DFID (Department for International Development). Retrieved form: http://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/cms/Portals/0/PDF%20reviews%20and%20summaries/Pedagogy%202013%20Westbrook%20report.pdf?ver=2014-04-24-121331-867

Complement classroom’s practices with parents/guardians’ active involvement in student’s learning process

While classroom practices are essential, teachers should keep in mind that involving parents or guardians throughout students’ learning process is key to boost their learning achievements. Research done by Mahuro and Hungi (2016) in Iganga and Mayuge districts in Uganda revealed that a unit increase in parental participation led to an increase up to 15 percentage points in numeracy scores and up to 12 percentage points in literacy scores. Another study done with 1,200 girls living in two Nairobi urban slums in Kenya showed similar results; the girls exposed to parental involvement increased their numeracy and literacy mean scores by over 10 standardized mean scores (Abuya et al., 2014 cited by Mahuro and Hungi, 2016). Those results imply that ‘for students to reap maximum benefits in an education system, the learning should not be solely left to the student–teacher relationship but should be extended to include active parental involvement among other education stakeholders’ (Mahuro and Hungi, 2016: 1).  

There are six types of parental involvement (Epstein, 1995, cited by Mahuro and Hungi, 2016):

  • Parenting: this includes supporting families to establish a conducive learning environment at home. Schools should share information related to parenting approaches on child’s health, nutrition, discipline, among others. In return, schools should incorporate the student’s family life orientation into what is taught in the classroom.
  • Communication: regular communication between schools and parents concerning school’s programmes and students’ progress is key. This can be done through periodical parent-teacher meetings, telephone conversations and messaging, and/or providing to parents their children’s report cards (for more information consult Policy pages School community relationship as well as Student learning assessments).
  • Volunteering: Encourage parents to volunteer in school events and activities. For instance, parents could be assigned to mentor students during school open forums, organize school events with role models, join students during sport activities, among others.
  • Learning at home: schools and teachers should support parents by providing them interactive activities to enhance the student’s learning process at home.
  • Decision-making: schools should involve parents in the school’s decision-making process, this can be done through parent-teacher associations and school management committees (for more information consult Policy page School community relationship).
  • Collaboration with the community: the community should also be involved in the school (for more information consult Policy page School community relationship).

Overall, research has shown that ‘parental involvement in their schooling include improved learner attitudes towards schooling; developing positive behaviour; improved school attendance; decreased school dropouts; and improved academic performance’ (Desforges and Abouchaar, 2003; McNeal, 2001 cited by Mahuro and Hungi, 2016: 2). For all those reasons, teachers should ensure an active parental involvement in their classroom practice and in children’s learning process.

References
Mahuro, G.M.; Hungi, N. 2016. ‘Parental participation improves student academic achievement: A case of Iganga and Mayuge districts in Uganda’. In: Cogent Education, vol. 3, 1264170. Retrieved from: https://essa-africa.org/node/501?i=d&id=3257

Policy options for improving Equity and Inclusion

Gender-responsive policies

Promising policy options

Gender-responsive pedagogy

To fully engage students in the learning process, it is necessary to pay particular attention to the dynamics inside the classroom. The way in which content is delivered by the teacher, the interactions between the teacher and the students, as well as the interactions between the students, have a significant impact on teaching and learning processes (Mlama et al., 2005). Gender roles and relations have repercussions on these dynamics which is why they should be taken into account by implementing a gender-responsive pedagogy (FAWE, 2006). To establish this, it is necessary to ensure quality pre- and in-service teacher training to develop teacher’s gender-responsive knowledge, skills, and attitudes, as well as school management that focuses on developing a gender-responsive school environment. Furthermore, it is important to facilitate and encourage teacher’s peer-collaboration in this regard. 

(For specific information on gender-responsive teacher training and peer-collaboration, consult the section Gender in the Policy pages Teacher content knowledge and Classroom observation).

The following are key practices found in gender-responsive classrooms:

  • Teachers must value equally the ability to learn of all students and facilitate their learning process and progress to the fullest extent possible (USAID, n.d.). Treat all students fairly and ensure their active participation. Make all appointments based on the pupil’s skills, not on their gender (UNESCO, 2015).
  • Pay attention and encourage equal contribution of all students. Teachers should become conscious of the number of questions asked and answered by each student as well as the amount of attention given to each (INEE, 2010). Ensure that students participate equally and actively throughout different classroom activities (e.g. group work, group discussion, role-play and case studies).
  • Employ learner-centred collaborative teaching methods that help improve the learning experience for all children (UNESCO and UNGEI, 2015).
  • Class sessions should be free of gender-bias. Tackle down classroom practices that reinforce gender stereotypes (e.g. appointing boys as group leaders and girls as note-takers) (Chan, 2010; FAWE, 2006; Mlama et al., 2005). They should also be geared towards deconstructing gender roles and stereotypes. Identify traits resulting from gendered-social norms which may hinder the learning process and provide an appropriate response (e.g. girls might be shy, lack confidence, and feel fear when speaking out loud in class, to respond to this teachers should encourage them to speak out and allow them sufficient time to answer questions (USAID, n.d.).).
  • Guide students to question gender-biased attitudes and consider different approaches that move away from binary gender norms (Girard, 2015). Expand the student’s knowledge of gender diversity, taking into consideration culture and context-based particularities. Teachers should make sure that they are not relying on hetero-normative and gender-normative images or viewpoints throughout their teaching (GLSEN, 2016). Avoid classroom practices that reinforce the perception of gender as binary (e.g. employ the term “students” instead of boys and girls; do not group or line up by using gender, use birthdays, the initial letter of names or numbering instead (Girard, 2015).).
  • Teachers must pay attention to the language they employ (for information on how to develop a gender-sensitive, non-violent and non-abusive language consult Policy page Language of instruction). 
  • Teachers should make sure their classroom is a safe environment for all students. They must know the school’s anti-bullying policy and communicate it to all students. Respond to any gender-biased, homophobic, transphobic or biphobic comment or attitude (New Zealand, 2019). Develop a confidential classroom system that encourages students to share information and seek help when needed.
References
Chan, L. H. 2010. Reorienting Teacher Education to Address Sustainable Development: Guidelines and Tools — Gender Sensitizing. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000189054?posInSet=11&queryId=71a0a70a-ea47-49f4-88f3-9c737d27f0ca

FAWE (Forum for African Women Educationalists). 2006. Gender Responsive Pedagogy. Working Document Draft for the Biennale on Education in Africa. Libreville: ADEA (Asosciation for the Development of Education in Africa). Retrieved from:  http://www.adeanet.org/adea/biennial-2006/doc/document/B5_2_fawe_en.pdf

Girard, C. 2015. Four Ways To Make a Classroom Gender-Inclusive. Accessed 13 May 2019: https://www.hrc.org/blog/four-ways-to-make-a-classroom-gender-inclusive

GLSEN (Gay, Lesbian and Straight Education Network). 2016. Ready, Set, Respect! GLSEN’s Elementary School Toolkit. New York: GLSEN. Retrieved from: https://www.glsen.org/sites/default/files/GLSEN%20Ready%20Set%20Respect.pdf

INEE (Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2010. Gender Equality in and through Education: INEE Pocket Guide to Gender. Geneva: INEE. Retrieved from: https://toolkit.ineesite.org/resources/ineecms/uploads/1009/INEE_Pocket_Guide_to_Gender_EN.pdf

Mlama, P.; Dioum, M.; Makoye, H.; Murage, L.; Wagah, M.; Washika, R. 2005. Gender Responsive Pedagogy: A Teacher’s Handbook. Nairobi: Forum for African Women Educationalists (FAWE). Retrieved from: http://www.ungei.org/files/FAWE_GRP_ENGLISH_VERSION.pdf

New Zealand. 2019. Ministry of Education. Inclusive Education: Develop inclusive classroom routines. Wellington: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: www.inclusive.tki.org.nz/guides/supporting-lgbtiqa-students/develop-inclusive-classroom-roles-routinesand-systems

UNESCO. 2015. A Guide for Gender Equality in Teacher Education Policy and Practices. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000231646/

UNESCO, UNGEI (United Nations Girls’ Education Initiative). 2015. Gender and EFA 2000-2015, Achievements and Challenges: Gender Summary. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.ungei.org/234809E.pdf

USAID (United States Agency for International Development). n.d. Introduction to Gender-Responsive Teaching Methods. Retrieved from: https://www.mcsprogram.org/wp-content/uploads/dlm_uploads/2018/11/PowerPoint-Introduction-to-Gender-Responsive-Teaching-Methods.pdf

Gender-responsive classroom set-up

gender-responsive classroom set-up pays attention to the specific needs of all students and is conducive to learning (FAWE, 2006; New Zealand, 2019). In order to have a gender-responsive classroom set-up, teachers should:

  • organize the classroom in a way that is not based on gender, but rather one in which all students are mixed (FAWE, 2006; Mlama et al., 2005); and
  • define a classroom set-up that enhances the participation of all students and which pays attention to particular needs (e.g. in many cultures, gendered social norms state that girls should not speak out, therefore, placing girls in the back or in corners will reinforce this tendency (Mlama et al., 2005).)
References
FAWE (Forum for African Women Educationalists). 2006. Gender Responsive Pedagogy. Working Document Draft for the Biennale on Education in Africa. Libreville: ADEA (Asosciation for the Development of Education in Africa). Retrieved from:  http://www.adeanet.org/adea/biennial-2006/doc/document/B5_2_fawe_en.pdf

New Zealand. 2019. Ministry of Education. Inclusive Education: Develop inclusive classroom routines. Wellington: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: www.inclusive.tki.org.nz/guides/supporting-lgbtiqa-students/develop-inclusive-classroom-roles-routinesand-systems

Mlama, P.; Dioum, M.; Makoye, H.; Murage, L.; Wagah, M.; Washika, R. 2005. Gender Responsive Pedagogy: A Teacher’s Handbook. Nairobi: Forum for African Women Educationalists (FAWE). Retrieved from: http://www.ungei.org/files/FAWE_GRP_ENGLISH_VERSION.pdf

Policies for children with disabilities

Promising policy options

Build an inclusive classroom environment where all students feel welcome, valued and supported

Teachers should observe the student’s emotional well-being and promote a culture of support in the classroom (Save the Children, 2016; IBE-UNESCO, 2016). Likewise, teachers must foster constructive interactions among learners and respond to any attitude or comment meaning to label, stereotype, or bully children with disabilities (Save the Children, 2016).

Finally, teachers should have a positive attitude towards all of their students and have the same kind of expectations for all (Ghana, 2015; IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal, 2018c).

References
Ghana. 2015. Ministry of Education. 2015. Standards and Guidelines for Practice of Inclusive Education In Ghana. Accra: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/sites/planipolis/files/ressources/ghana_final_standards_guidelines_cd.pdf

IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). 2016.Training Tools for Curriculum Development – Reaching Out to All Learners: a Resource Pack for Supporting Inclusive Education. Geneva: IBE-UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000243279?posInSet=26&queryId=583170d7-cb0d-430f-bc8e-c0ced5165649

IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2018c. Brief 3: Effective and appropriate pedagogy. Accessed 1 April 2018: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/teachers-and-pedagogy/effective-and-appropriate-pedagogy

Save the Children. 2016. Inclusive Education: What, Why, and How – A Handbook for Program Implementers.  London: Save the Children. Retrieved from: https://www.savethechildren.it/sites/default/files/files/uploads/pubblicazioni/inclusive-education-what-why-and-how.pdf

Inclusive Pedagogy

Inclusive pedagogy is an ‘alternative pedagogical approach that has the potential to reduce educational inequality by enhancing learning opportunities for everyone’ (Florian, 2015: 6). Through inclusive pedagogy, teachers aim to find ways to work ‘with and through others’ (Spratt and Florian, 2013: 136), understand and take into consideration pupils’ individual needs, provide a wide range of options and make them available to all of the children within the classroom in order to help all of them to meet their full potential, and teach through multiple mediums and allow students to express their understanding through multiple ways as well (Loreman, 2017; Spratt and Florian, 2013; Florian, 2015; UNICEF, 2014) .

The key principles of inclusive pedagogy which teachers must take into account during their classroom practice are to welcome diversity, believe in the capacity of all children to learn, belief in their capacity to teach all children, and constantly reflect on their own teaching practice and modify it whenever students are not learning (work with other teachers for this purpose, see below) (Spratt and Florian, 2013).

(For complementary information consult Policy page Teacher content knowledge).

The following are some specific inclusive instructional practices which teachers can mobilize in the classroom (Bulat et al., 2017):

  • Build on student’s previous knowledge and present the information in an explicit and systematic way. Apparent links must be made between new, previous, and future content and assess students’ comprehension of the concepts taught before moving to a new lesson.
  • Encourage students to repeat concepts until mastery. Implement a peer-to-peer approach and make sure the relationships built are reciprocal.
  • Monitor student’s learning progress. Implement continuous formative assessments and provide immediate and constructive feedback to students (for more information consult Policy page Student learning assessments). Track the student’s strengths and weaknesses through Individual Education Plans (IEP). Ensure teachers are using IEPs judicially to improve students’ learning while avoiding the labelling and segregation of students with disabilities (Loreman, 2017; Meijer, 2001; Save the Children, 2016).
References
Florian, L. 2015. ‘Inclusive Pedagogy: A transformative approach to individual differences but can it help reduce educational inequalities?’. In: Scottish Educational Review, Vol. 47, No.1, pp. 5-14.

IIEPUNESCO Learning Portal. 2019. Brief 3: Disability inclusive education and learning. Accessed 4 November 2019: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/learners-and-support-structures/disability-inclusive-education-and

Loreman, T. 2017. Pedagogy for Inclusive Education. Oxford Research Enclyclopedias. Retrieved from: https://oxfordre.com/education/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.001.0001/acrefore-9780190264093-e-148

Meijer, C.J.W. 2001. Inclusive Education and Effective Classroom Practices. Odense: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. Retrieved from: https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/inclusive-education-and-effective-classroom-practice_IECP-Literature-Review.pdf

Save the Children. 2016. Inclusive Education: What, Why, and How – A Handbook for Program Implementers.  London: Save the Children. Retrieved from: https://www.savethechildren.it/sites/default/files/files/uploads/pubblicazioni/inclusive-education-what-why-and-how.pdf

Spratt, J.; Florian, L. 2013. ‘Applying the principles of inclusive pedagogy in initial teacher education: from university based course to classroom action’. In: Revista de Investigación en Educación, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 133-140.

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2014. Teachers, Inclusive, Child-Centred Teaching and Pedagogy: Webinar 12 – Companion Technical Booklet. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/eca/education

Inclusive classroom management strategies and classroom set-up

Teachers should accommodate their classroom management strategies to make them inclusive (Bulat et al., 2017). Take into account student’s fatigue and allow them to take regular short breaks. This can help them concentrate better and maximise their time in class. Make sure to repeat the important information at their return.

Present the information slowly, clearly and through multiple modalities, and encourage note-taking during class. Develop guided or partial notes for all students and encourage them to complete them throughout the class; this will keep them actively involved. Use writing aids (e.g. allow children to write in the air or in sand, use weighted pencils or mechanisms that gently attach the pencil to the student’s hand.)

Give face-to-face instruction and check on student’s understanding. Ensure that everyone hears what is being said. Make sure students know the schedule and goals for the day, regularly refer to them throughout the class and let students know when changes will happen.

Allow students to provide answers in their preferred language and allot adequate time (e.g. for sign language, teacher training in sign language is of utmost importance). Encourage students to say their name every time they speak if children with visual impairments are inside the classroom. Set behaviour expectations with the help of all students.

In addition, the seating arrangement should be planned strategically to make it inclusive. For example, organize the classroom in a U shape. Allow students with hearing impairments to sit near the teacher. Always face students who have hearing impairments when speaking to them and make gestures. For children with light and mild visual impairments take into account the light in the seating planning. Finally, set-up the classroom in a way that allows all students to move easily and freely.

References
Bulat, B.; Hayes, A. M.; Macon, W.; Tichá, R.; Abery, B. H. 2017. School and Classroom Disabilities Inclusion Guide for Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press. Retrieved from: https://www.rti.org/sites/default/files/resources/school_and_classroom_disabilities_inclusion_guide.pdf

Ghana. 2015. Ministry of Education. 2015. Standards and Guidelines for Practice of Inclusive Education In Ghana. Accra: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/sites/planipolis/files/ressources/ghana_final_standards_guidelines_cd.pdf

Howgego, C.; Miles, S.; Myers, J. 2014. Inclusive Learning: Children with disabilities and difficulties in learning. Oxford: HEART (Health & Education Advice & Resource Team). Retrieved from: http://www.heart-resources.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Inclusive-Learning-Topic-Guide.pdf?9d29f8=.  

IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). 2016.Training Tools for Curriculum Development – Reaching Out to All Learners: a Resource Pack for Supporting Inclusive Education. Geneva: IBE-UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000243279?posInSet=26&queryId=583170d7-cb0d-430f-bc8e-c0ced5165649

UNESCO. 2004. Embracing Diversity: Toolkit for creating inclusive, learning-friendly environments. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000137522

Enhance the use of assistive technologies and ICTs within the classroom

Teachers should carefully consider the use of information and communication technology (ICT) within the classrooms to enhance the learning opportunities for all (Loreman, 2017). Assistive technologies can be helpful. Low-tech methods include visual aids, magnifying glass, audiobooks, tape recorders, stylus, large print and adaptive learning material (for more information consult Bulat et al., 2017).

References
Bulat, B.; Hayes, A. M.; Macon, W.; Tichá, R.; Abery, B. H. 2017. School and Classroom Disabilities Inclusion Guide for Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press. Retrieved from: https://www.rti.org/sites/default/files/resources/school_and_classroom_disabilities_inclusion_guide.pdf

Loreman, T. 2017. Pedagogy for Inclusive Education. Oxford Research Enclyclopedias. Retrieved from: https://oxfordre.com/education/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.001.0001/acrefore-9780190264093-e-148

UNESCO. 2019. The right to education for persons with disabilities. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000371249

Provide additional support to teachers and students

Support systems must be coordinated, planned and well thought to avoid segregation of children with disabilities within mainstream schools (Ghana, 2015; UNICEF, 2014; Meijer, 2001; Save the Children, 2002). For example, in Kenya, Uganda, and Malawi, specialist support is provided to children with visual impairments and their teachers in mainstream classrooms through the employment of ‘itinerant’ teachers (Howgego, Miles and Myers, 2014). In the Czech Republic and Georgia, there are support teaching assistants to help the inclusion of students with disabilities in mainstream settings (UNESCO, 2019).

Support can be provided by children, parents, and community members (UNICEF, 2014). Teachers’ collaboration should be encouraged and facilitated, with teachers and specialists teachers working together. Peer observation, peer coaching and co-operative teaching are effective strategies to achieve better results (Ainscow, 2005; UNICEF, 2014). For instance, as illustrated by Elder and Kuja (2019) in Kenya, teachers from special and primary schools implemented co-teaching strategies, based on the six models of co-teaching developed by Friend et al.’s (2010) to enhance inclusive classroom practices. Some of them implemented the ‘one teach, one assist model’, while others the ‘one teach, one observe model’. The former model helped teachers develop trust among each other and establish complex co-teaching routines (Elder and Kuja, 2019). The latter strategy was used to provide constructive feedback, followed by a debriefing session which allowed the teachers to reflect on their shared experience (Elder and Kuja, 2019). Overall, co-teaching practices were found to be effective in helping teachers develop new ways to support students with disabilities and thus ‘get better at meeting the needs of the students in the class’ (Elder and Kuja, 2019: 271).    

References
Ainscow, M. 2005. ‘Developing inclusive education systems: what are the levers for change?’ In: Journal of Educational Change, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 109-124.

Elder, B.C.; Kuja, B. 2019. ‘Going to school for the first time: inclusion committee members increasing the number of students with disabilities in primary schools in Kenya’. In: International Journal of Inclusive Education, 23:3, 261–279. Retrieved from: https://essa-africa.org/node/501?i=d&id=4102

Ghana. 2015. Ministry of Education. 2015. Standards and Guidelines for Practice of Inclusive Education In Ghana. Accra: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/sites/planipolis/files/ressources/ghana_final_standards_guidelines_cd.pdf

Howgego, C.; Miles, S.; Myers, J. 2014. Inclusive Learning: Children with disabilities and difficulties in learning. Oxford: HEART (Health & Education Advice & Resource Team). Retrieved from: http://www.heart-resources.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Inclusive-Learning-Topic-Guide.pdf?9d29f8=.  

Meijer, C.J.W. 2001. Inclusive Education and Effective Classroom Practices. Odense: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. Retrieved from: https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/inclusive-education-and-effective-classroom-practice_IECP-Literature-Review.pdf

Save the Children. 2002. Schools for All: Including disabled children in education. London: Save the Children. Retrieved from: http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/schools_for_all.pdf

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2014. Teachers, Inclusive, Child-Centred Teaching and Pedagogy: Webinar 12 – Companion Technical Booklet. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/eca/education

Grant Lewis, S. 2019. ‘Opinion: The urgent need to plan for disability-inclusive education’. Devex. 6 February 2019. Accessed 4 November 2019: https://www.devex.com/news/opinion-the-urgent-need-to-plan-for-disability-inclusive-education-94059

Hayes, A. M.; Bulat, J. 2017. Disabilities Inclusive Education Systems and Policies Guide for Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.3768/rtipress.2017.op.0043.1707

UNESCO. 2019. The right to education for persons with disabilities. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000371249

Policies for displaced populations and host communities

Contents under review

References
European Union. 2019. The contributions of youth work in the context of migration and refugee matters. A practical toolbox for youth workers and recommendations for policymakers. Retrieved from: https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/1bcaf566-6a29-11e9-9f05-01aa75ed71a1/language-en/format-PDF/source-search

Ghana. 2015. Ministry of Education. 2015. Standards and Guidelines for Practice of Inclusive Education In Ghana. Accra: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/sites/planipolis/files/ressources/ghana_final_standards_guidelines_cd.pdf

INEE (Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2016. Teachers in Crisis Contexts Training for Primary School Teachers. Retrieved from: https://inee.org/resources/teachers-crisis-contexts-training-primary-school-teachers

Mary Mendenhall. Susan Garnett Russell. Elizabeth Bruckner. 2017. Urban Refugee Education: Strengthening Policies and Practices for Access, Quality, and Inclusion. Teachers College. Columbia University. Retrieved from : https://www.tc.columbia.edu/media/centers/refugee-education-research-and-projects/Urban-Refugee-Education-Infographic.pdf

Meijer, C.J.W. 2001. Inclusive Education and Effective Classroom Practices. Odense: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. Retrieved from: https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/inclusive-education-and-effective-classroom-practice_IECP-Literature-Review.pdf

Plan International. The Right to Inclusive, Quality Education. Retrieved from: https://plan-international.org/publications/inclusive-quality-education

Teachers College. Columbia University. A Graduate School of Education, Health & Psychology. Urban Refugee Team. Retrieved from :  https://www.tc.columbia.edu/refugeeeducation/urban-refugee-education/

Teaching refugees with limited formal schooling. 2014. Retrieved from: http://teachingrefugees.com/socio-emotional-supports/classroom-strategies/tips-for-teachers/

UNESCO. 2006. Positive discipline in the inclusive, learning-friendly classroom: A guide for teachers and teacher educators. Bangkok: UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001492/149284e.pdf

UNESCO. 2018. Ensuring the right to equitable and inclusive quality education–Results of the 9th Consultation. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000251463?posInSet%20=6&queryId=9e5cc75d-0a13-40b6-b696-45c01bdec668

UNESCO. 2019. Enforcing the right to education of refugees: a policy perspective (Draft). Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000366839?posInSet=22&queryId=N-0e43e906-a7de-4f08-a262-f3118e5a27a1

UNHCR. 2001. Learning for a future: refugee education in developing countries. https://www.unhcr.org/4a1d5ba36.pdf

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2009b. ‘Chapter 6:6 Learning and Teaching Methods.’ In: Child Friendly Schools: Manual. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: www.unicef.org/publications/files/Child_Friendly_Schools_Manual_EN_040809.pdf

Veronica Lopez. 2014. Education and Development Post-2015. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso. UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/FIELD/Santiago/pdf/APUNTE04-ING.pdf
References
European Union. 2019. The contributions of youth work in the context of migration and refugee matters. A practical toolbox for youth workers and recommendations for policymakers. Retrieved from: https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/1bcaf566-6a29-11e9-9f05-01aa75ed71a1/language-en/format-PDF/source-search

Ghana. 2015. Ministry of Education. 2015. Standards and Guidelines for Practice of Inclusive Education In Ghana. Accra: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/sites/planipolis/files/ressources/ghana_final_standards_guidelines_cd.pdf

INEE (Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2016. Teachers in Crisis Contexts Training for Primary School Teachers. Retrieved from: https://inee.org/resources/teachers-crisis-contexts-training-primary-school-teachers

Mary Mendenhall. Susan Garnett Russell. Elizabeth Bruckner. 2017. Urban Refugee Education: Strengthening Policies and Practices for Access, Quality, and Inclusion. Teachers College. Columbia University. Retrieved from : https://www.tc.columbia.edu/media/centers/refugee-education-research-and-projects/Urban-Refugee-Education-Infographic.pdf

Meijer, C.J.W. 2001. Inclusive Education and Effective Classroom Practices. Odense: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. Retrieved from: https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/inclusive-education-and-effective-classroom-practice_IECP-Literature-Review.pdf

Plan International. The Right to Inclusive, Quality Education. Retrieved from: https://plan-international.org/publications/inclusive-quality-education

Teachers College. Columbia University. A Graduate School of Education, Health & Psychology. Urban Refugee Team. Retrieved from :  https://www.tc.columbia.edu/refugeeeducation/urban-refugee-education/

Teaching refugees with limited formal schooling. 2014. Retrieved from: http://teachingrefugees.com/socio-emotional-supports/classroom-strategies/tips-for-teachers/

UNESCO. 2006. Positive discipline in the inclusive, learning-friendly classroom: A guide for teachers and teacher educators. Bangkok: UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001492/149284e.pdf

UNESCO. 2018. Ensuring the right to equitable and inclusive quality education–Results of the 9th Consultation. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000251463?posInSet%20=6&queryId=9e5cc75d-0a13-40b6-b696-45c01bdec668

UNESCO. 2019. Enforcing the right to education of refugees: a policy perspective (Draft). Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000366839?posInSet=22&queryId=N-0e43e906-a7de-4f08-a262-f3118e5a27a1

UNHCR. 2001. Learning for a future: refugee education in developing countries. https://www.unhcr.org/4a1d5ba36.pdf

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2009b. ‘Chapter 6:6 Learning and Teaching Methods.’ In: Child Friendly Schools: Manual. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: www.unicef.org/publications/files/Child_Friendly_Schools_Manual_EN_040809.pdf

Veronica Lopez. 2014. Education and Development Post-2015. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso. UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/FIELD/Santiago/pdf/APUNTE04-ING.pdf
References
European Union. 2019. The contributions of youth work in the context of migration and refugee matters. A practical toolbox for youth workers and recommendations for policymakers. Retrieved from: https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/1bcaf566-6a29-11e9-9f05-01aa75ed71a1/language-en/format-PDF/source-search

Ghana. 2015. Ministry of Education. 2015. Standards and Guidelines for Practice of Inclusive Education In Ghana. Accra: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/sites/planipolis/files/ressources/ghana_final_standards_guidelines_cd.pdf

INEE (Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2016. Teachers in Crisis Contexts Training for Primary School Teachers. Retrieved from: https://inee.org/resources/teachers-crisis-contexts-training-primary-school-teachers

Mary Mendenhall. Susan Garnett Russell. Elizabeth Bruckner. 2017. Urban Refugee Education: Strengthening Policies and Practices for Access, Quality, and Inclusion. Teachers College. Columbia University. Retrieved from : https://www.tc.columbia.edu/media/centers/refugee-education-research-and-projects/Urban-Refugee-Education-Infographic.pdf

Meijer, C.J.W. 2001. Inclusive Education and Effective Classroom Practices. Odense: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. Retrieved from: https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/inclusive-education-and-effective-classroom-practice_IECP-Literature-Review.pdf

Plan International. The Right to Inclusive, Quality Education. Retrieved from: https://plan-international.org/publications/inclusive-quality-education

Teachers College. Columbia University. A Graduate School of Education, Health & Psychology. Urban Refugee Team. Retrieved from :  https://www.tc.columbia.edu/refugeeeducation/urban-refugee-education/

Teaching refugees with limited formal schooling. 2014. Retrieved from: http://teachingrefugees.com/socio-emotional-supports/classroom-strategies/tips-for-teachers/

UNESCO. 2006. Positive discipline in the inclusive, learning-friendly classroom: A guide for teachers and teacher educators. Bangkok: UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001492/149284e.pdf

UNESCO. 2018. Ensuring the right to equitable and inclusive quality education–Results of the 9th Consultation. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000251463?posInSet%20=6&queryId=9e5cc75d-0a13-40b6-b696-45c01bdec668

UNESCO. 2019. Enforcing the right to education of refugees: a policy perspective (Draft). Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000366839?posInSet=22&queryId=N-0e43e906-a7de-4f08-a262-f3118e5a27a1

UNHCR. 2001. Learning for a future: refugee education in developing countries. https://www.unhcr.org/4a1d5ba36.pdf

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2009b. ‘Chapter 6:6 Learning and Teaching Methods.’ In: Child Friendly Schools: Manual. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: www.unicef.org/publications/files/Child_Friendly_Schools_Manual_EN_040809.pdf

Veronica Lopez. 2014. Education and Development Post-2015. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso. UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/FIELD/Santiago/pdf/APUNTE04-ING.pdf
References
European Union. 2019. The contributions of youth work in the context of migration and refugee matters. A practical toolbox for youth workers and recommendations for policymakers. Retrieved from: https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/1bcaf566-6a29-11e9-9f05-01aa75ed71a1/language-en/format-PDF/source-search

Ghana. 2015. Ministry of Education. 2015. Standards and Guidelines for Practice of Inclusive Education In Ghana. Accra: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/sites/planipolis/files/ressources/ghana_final_standards_guidelines_cd.pdf

INEE (Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2016. Teachers in Crisis Contexts Training for Primary School Teachers. Retrieved from: https://inee.org/resources/teachers-crisis-contexts-training-primary-school-teachers

Mary Mendenhall. Susan Garnett Russell. Elizabeth Bruckner. 2017. Urban Refugee Education: Strengthening Policies and Practices for Access, Quality, and Inclusion. Teachers College. Columbia University. Retrieved from : https://www.tc.columbia.edu/media/centers/refugee-education-research-and-projects/Urban-Refugee-Education-Infographic.pdf

Meijer, C.J.W. 2001. Inclusive Education and Effective Classroom Practices. Odense: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. Retrieved from: https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/inclusive-education-and-effective-classroom-practice_IECP-Literature-Review.pdf

Plan International. The Right to Inclusive, Quality Education. Retrieved from: https://plan-international.org/publications/inclusive-quality-education

Teachers College. Columbia University. A Graduate School of Education, Health & Psychology. Urban Refugee Team. Retrieved from :  https://www.tc.columbia.edu/refugeeeducation/urban-refugee-education/

Teaching refugees with limited formal schooling. 2014. Retrieved from: http://teachingrefugees.com/socio-emotional-supports/classroom-strategies/tips-for-teachers/

UNESCO. 2006. Positive discipline in the inclusive, learning-friendly classroom: A guide for teachers and teacher educators. Bangkok: UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001492/149284e.pdf

UNESCO. 2018. Ensuring the right to equitable and inclusive quality education–Results of the 9th Consultation. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000251463?posInSet%20=6&queryId=9e5cc75d-0a13-40b6-b696-45c01bdec668

UNESCO. 2019. Enforcing the right to education of refugees: a policy perspective (Draft). Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000366839?posInSet=22&queryId=N-0e43e906-a7de-4f08-a262-f3118e5a27a1

UNHCR. 2001. Learning for a future: refugee education in developing countries. https://www.unhcr.org/4a1d5ba36.pdf

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2009b. ‘Chapter 6:6 Learning and Teaching Methods.’ In: Child Friendly Schools: Manual. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: www.unicef.org/publications/files/Child_Friendly_Schools_Manual_EN_040809.pdf

Veronica Lopez. 2014. Education and Development Post-2015. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso. UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/FIELD/Santiago/pdf/APUNTE04-ING.pdf

Policies for minority populations

Contents under review

References
Bourke C.J.; Rigby, K.; Burden, J. 2000. Better practice in school attendance: Improving the school attendance of Indigenous students. Melbourne: Report prepared for the Commonwealth Department of Education Training and Youth Affairs by Monash University.

Campbell, D.; Wright, J. 2005. Rethinking welfare school attendance policies. Social Service Review, 79:2–28.

UNESCO; UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2007.  A Human Rights-Based Approach to Education. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/A_Human_Rights_Based_Approach_to_Education_for_All.pdf

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2015. For every child a fair chance: the promise of equity. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/For_every_child_a_fair_chance.pdf

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2012. Integrated Social Protection Systems: Enhancing Equity for Children. UNICEF Social Protection Strategic Framework. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/socialpolicy/files/UNICEF_Social_Protection_Strategic_Framework_full_doc_std.pdf
References
King Linda. Schielmann Sabine. 2004. The Challenge of indigenous education: practice and perspectives. Unesco. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000134773

U.S. Department of Justice. 2018. Creating and Sustaining a Positive and Communal School Climate. National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/250209.pdf

Meijer, C.J.W. 2001. Inclusive Education and Effective Classroom Practices. Odense: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. Retrieved from: https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/inclusive-education-and-effective-classroom-practice_IECP-Literature-Review.pdf

UNESCO. 2004. Teacher Education Resource Pack Student materials. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000137881?posInSet=4&queryId=8c276c0b-c4a9-450d-b9c9-96641e8bb69e

UNESCO. 2017a. A guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002482/248254e.pdf

Policies for OVCs and HIV affected populations

Promising policy options

Address HIV stigma and discrimination

In order for HIV positive children, or children who have been affected by the virus, to feel comfortable in their learning environment, underlying stigmas and discrimination should be addressed. This includes the attitudes and beliefs of both teachers and peers. Teachers will need to understand the facts about HIV/AIDS and how to respond to their own attitudes, as well as the discriminatory beliefs among their students.

This can be achieved by having comprehensive pre-service and in-service training on how to address stigma and myths surrounding HIV/AIDS, sensitivity training, how to promote compassionate, non-judgmental beliefs and attitudes, knowledge of HIV and AIDS including prevention, treatment and care, and responding to bullying and teasing within the classroom and school environment.

Strong leadership from headteachers and school management on promoting a tolerant, inclusive learning environment is also important, backed-up by a code of conduct against discrimination, and consequences for perpetrators.

For more on the topic HIV/AIDS and life skills training see Policy pages Teacher content knowledge and Teaching skills.

References
Coombe, C. 2002. ‘Mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS on education supply, demand and quality.’ In AG Cornia (ed.), AIDS, public policy and child well-being.  Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Florence, 2007. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/aids_book/chapter9_coombe.pdf

UNESCO. 2006. HIV & AIDS and safe, secure and supportive learning environments. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.hivpolicy.org/Library/HPP001275.pdf

Improve the caring attitude of teachers

When teachers provide a caring, empathetic relationship with their students, children will feel more supported to stay in school and will be more encouraged to reach out when they require extra assistance or are experiencing difficulties. This is particularly important for OVCs/HIV affected students who may not have other strong adult relationships that they can rely on. How this can be implemented will also depend on the local context, as in some settings it may not be considered appropriate for teachers to break from the hierarchical relationship with their students.

Embed expectation of caring attitude and support as part of the teaching role by including it in job descriptions and hiring requirements. This includes the expectation that all teachers and staff are compassionate, empathetic, and respect the diversity of their students (Namibia, 2008). Providing a sufficient salary, support and recognition of caring work of teachers will encourage them to take on this additional role.

Schools should provide designated counsellors or social workers to more extensively support children through psychosocial issues, with teachers that have referral networks to external organisations and services, including community organizations.

* For more information on the topic of training on counselling and psychological support, see Policy pages Teacher content knowledge and Teaching skills.

References
Andersen, L.; Nyamukapa, C.; Gregson, S.; Pufall, E.; Mandanhire, C.; Mutsikiwa, A.; Gawa, R.; Skovdal, m.; Campbell, C. 2014. The role of schools in supporting children affected by HIV: Stakeholder report 2014. Harare: Biomedical Research and training Institute. Retrieved from: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/57266/1/__lse.ac.uk_storage_LIBRARY_Secondary_libfile_shared_repository_Content_Andersen,%20L_Role%20of%20schools%20supporting%20children_Andersen_Role%20of%20schools%20supporting_2014.pdf

Campbell C.; Andersen L.; Mutsikiwa A.; Madanhire C.; Nyamukapa C.; Gregson S. 2016. ‘Can schools support HIV/AIDS-affected children? Exploring the ‘ethic of care’ amongst rural Zimbabwean teachers.’ In:  PLoS ONE, 11(1), 1-22. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4720431/pdf/pone.0146322.pdf

Namibia. 2008. Ministry of Education. Education sector policy for orphans and vulnerable children. ‘Building a learning nation.’ Windhoek. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/namibia/MoE_2008_Policy_on_OVC_for_MoE_text.pdf

Implement classroom practices for identifying at-risk students

Schools can develop identification systems to register OVCs and marginalized children who are at-risk of dropping out and may need extra support. This will require teachers to be aware of the signs of a student struggling or living through difficult home circumstances. These signs can include, for example, school work worsening, the child’s appearance changing, the child becoming withdrawn, lack of concentration, behaviour problems, falling asleep in class, the child being targeted by peers or are bullying others, loss of a parent or caregiver, sick parent or caregiver, and increased absenteeism (UNESCO 2006). There are some in-class practices teachers can establish to help facilitate these efforts:

  • keep records on absenteeismtardiness, and incomplete assignments;
  • provide training on specific warning signs and how to respond to them;
  • create assignments giving children the opportunity to discuss personal issues;
  • have anonymous suggestion boxes be available where children can inform teachers or the school of anything they want them to know;
  • increase awareness of children’s home circumstances and communication with caregivers, such as through social records, regular meetings between teachers and guardians, home visits, and ‘communication books’ where guardians can write down notes to teachers and vice versa (UNESCO Nairobi 2005); and
  • teachers should then bring issues to the attention of headteachers, and counselling services and make referrals to outside services as needed.
References
Andersen, L.; Nyamukapa, C.; Gregson, S.; Pufall, E.; Mandanhire, C.; Mutsikiwa, A.; Gawa, R.; Skovdal, m.; Campbell, C. 2014. The role of schools in supporting children affected by HIV: Stakeholder report 2014. Harare: Biomedical Research and training Institute. Retrieved from: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/57266/1/__lse.ac.uk_storage_LIBRARY_Secondary_libfile_shared_repository_Content_Andersen,%20L_Role%20of%20schools%20supporting%20children_Andersen_Role%20of%20schools%20supporting_2014.pdf

Namibia. 2008. Ministry of Education. Education sector policy for orphans and vulnerable children. ‘Building a learning nation.’ Windhoek. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/namibia/MoE_2008_Policy_on_OVC_for_MoE_text.pdf

UNESCO. 2006. HIV & AIDS and safe, secure and supportive learning environments. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.hivpolicy.org/Library/HPP001275.pdf

UNESCO Nairobi. 2005. From policy to practice: An HIV and AIDS training kit for education sector professionals (Draft). UNESCO: Nairobi. Retrieved from: https://hivhealthclearinghouse.unesco.org/sites/default/files/resources/Training%20kit_HIVAIDS_UNESCO.pdf

Policies for pastoralists and nomadic populations

Promising policy options

Teachers understand and value the pastoralist/nomadic livelihood

Teacher’s attitudes towards pastoralist/nomadic communities and lifestyle will affect their interactions with pastoralist students and therefore these student’s schooling experiences. Teachers need to have a real respect for and understanding of the value of pastoralism and nomadism, or students will pick up on their disdain and internalize it. Teacher attitude will also affect the way that they teach pastoralist students; if teachers truly believe in the value of pastoralism, they will be motivated to provide an education that properly equips pastoralist students to continue this livelihood.

Provide special training on pastoralist/nomadic livelihood and management systems and culturally sensitive pedagogical methods. When possible, train and hire pastoralist/nomadic teachers from local communities, who themselves value the lifestyle and have local expertise, and promote an inclusive, tolerant learning environment among teachers and students, valuing each child’s unique background.

References
Bishop, E. (nd.) The policy and practice of educational service provision for pastoralists in Tanzania. London: University College London. Retrieved from: http://www.saga.cornell.edu/saga/ilri0606/22bishop.pdf

Hailombe, O. 2011. ‘Education equity and quality in Namibia: A case study of mobile schools in the Kunene region.’ PhD Thesis, University of Pretoria, South Africa. Retrieved from: https://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/24256/Complete.pdf?sequence=10&isAllowed=y

Krätli, S. 2001. Education provision to nomadic pastoralists: A literature review. IDS working paper 126. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies. Retrieved from: https://www.ids.ac.uk/files/Wp126.pdf

Adapting teaching methods for alternative schooling models

Generally, in order to be compatible with the pastoralist lifestyle, teaching to pastoralist/nomadic children could be more focused on the ‘practical exploratory learning method’ (Ayiro & Sang, 2017) to allow children to gain the practical functional skills they will need to be productive in the pastoral environment. (In-line with the traditional way of passing on knowledge in family units.)

Pedagogical methods will also have to be adapted more specifically depending on the type of schooling model, including pastoralist field schools, open and distance learning, as well as mobile schools.

Pastoralist field schools are based on the experiential learning model, which involves a different teaching method than the typical school-based system. Learning occurs through hands-on activities and experiences, requiring a very well-trained facilitator.. Thus, it is key to provide continuous adapted training opportunities to have highly skilled and motivated facilitators, able to place learning processes within the local environment and adapt to participant’s needs. In addition, implementing retention strategies to combat a high turn-over rate is essential.

Open and distance learning (ODL) technologies offer great potential in reaching pastoralist/nomadic populations, but governments are often hesitant to diverge from the school-based teaching model. Rather than technologies such as radios being seen as a “stand-in” for a teacher, replicating a teacher-centred pedagogy, ODL presents opportunities for other types of informal learning that take advantage of the medium (see Kratli & Dyer 2009,  pg 59-63 for specific examples). Further research is required to determine how to most appropriately adapt ODL at scale and harness its possibilities.  ODL will also still have to be complemented with face-to-face interactions and quality learning materials, with the relevant culturally appropriate curriculum.

Mobile schools are often multi-grade, which requires different teaching skills than single grade teaching. Training for teachers in mobile schools should include:

  • alternative pedagogies for teaching multiple grade-level at once;
  • how to manage a multi-grade classroom;
  • adapted planning and preparation skills.
References
Ayiro, L. P.; Sang, J. K. 2017. ‘Provision of education to the ‘hard to reach’ amidst discontinuity in nomadic communities in Kenya. In: FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education, 3(3). Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1132890.pdf

Dyer, C. 2016. ‘Approaches to education provision for mobile pastoralists.’ In: Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz, 35 (2), 631-638. Retrieved from: http://boutique.oie.int/extrait/24dyer631638.pdf

Hailombe, O. 2011. ‘Education equity and quality in Namibia: A case study of mobile schools in the Kunene region.’ PhD Thesis, University of Pretoria, South Africa. Retrieved from: https://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/24256/Complete.pdf?sequence=10&isAllowed=y

Kratli, S.; Dyer, C. 2009. Mobile pastoralists and education: Strategic options. Education for nomads working paper 1. London: International Institute for Environment and Development. Retrieved from: https://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/10021IIED.pdf?

Ngugi, M. 2016. ‘Challenges facing mobile schools among pastoralists: A case study of Turkana County, Kenya.’ In: American Journal of Educational Research 4(1), 22-32. Retrieved from: http://www.sciepub.com/portal/downloads?doi=10.12691/education-4-1-6&filename=education-4-1-6.pdf

Updated on 2021-10-08

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