‘A process that helps to overcome barriers limiting the presence, participation and achievement of learners.’ (UNESCO, 2017: 7). ‘Inclusion involves a process of systemic reform embodying changes and modifications in content, teaching methods, approaches, structures and strategies in education to overcome barriers with a vision serving to provide all students of the relevant age range with an equitable and participatory learning experience and environment that best corresponds to their requirements and preferences. Placing students with disabilities within mainstream classes without accompanying structural changes to, for example, organisation, curriculum and teaching and learning strategies, does not constitute inclusion.’  (CRPD, 2016, paragraph 11).

CRPD (Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities). 2016. General comment No. 4 (2016) on the right to inclusive education. CRPD/C/GC/4. Retrieved from:

UNESCO. 2017. A guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: