Teaching skills

On occasions, high drop-out and repetition rates in students can be traced back to issues of low academic level related to teachers. If such is the case, there are a number of strategies, short-, medium- and long-term, to address and correct this problem. These strategies can be categorized into those dealing with the formation of teachers, their inclusion into the workforce, and their promotion through time.

Promising policy options

In-class training and supervision

A quick and effective way of improving the academic level of teachers in the field, without having to perform additional training in specialised centres, is to carry out in-class training and supervision. The possibility to have experts giving counsel in the classrooms, in the topics on which the teacher needs reinforcement, can be a highly cost-effective method of improvement.

The training can be carried out either by specially trained government officials who go in the field, or by experienced teachers who assess and support their fellow professors. In the first case, the entry of government-instructed personnel into the school will have to be previously consulted and agreed on by all relevant stakeholders, as to prevent the training to be ineffective due to personal or political reasons. In the case where its fellow teachers who carry out the teaching and supervision in class, it must be done in such a way that the training is done following government-approved methodologies and themes. When possible, priority should be given to teachers with few or no initial education.

* For more information on this subject consult Policy page Content knowledge.

References
Caena, F. 2011. Literature review Quality in Teachers’ continuing professional development. Brussels: European Commission. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/11c9/e90f3fb8 a97e463882d5ab0846b2373279a2.pdf?fbclid=IwAR1S1cSt3DQv8rFidKt8-ryjw4rFkPiSz_ 6moSLef0BBZ8YAGs5dSiDmPOc

Chang, M. C.; Shaeffer, S.; Al-Samarri, S.; Ragatz, A. B.; de Ree, J.; Stevenson, R. 2013. Teachers as the cornerstone of educational quality. In M. C. Chang, S. Shaeffer, S. Al-Samarri, A. B. Ragatz, J. de Ree, & R. Stevenson, Teacher Reform in Indonesia: The Role of Politics and Evidence in Policy Making (pp. 39 – 58). Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). n.d. Enhancing the effectiveness of in-service teacher training. Geneva: IBE-UNESCO. Accessed 19 May 2018: http://www.ibe.unesco.org/en/geqaf/annexes/promising-practices/enhancing-effectiveness-service-teacher-training

Mulkeen, A. 2010c. ‘Chapter 10 Teacher Finance’. In: Teachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in teacher supply, training, and management. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from:  http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/Resources/278200-1099079877269/Teachers_Anglophone_Africa.pdf

Namit, K. 2017. Lessons from Ghana: A cost-effective way to train teachers. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Accessed 19 May 2018: https://blogs.worldbank.org/education/lessons-ghana-cost-effective-way-train-teachers

Namit, K. 2017. Lessons from Ghana: A cost-effective way to train teachers. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Accessed 19 May 2018: https://blogs.worldbank.org/education/lessons-ghana-cost-effective-way-train-teachers

Nannyonjo, H.; Mulaa, J.; Lee, C.; Warren, D. 2009. Attracting and Retaining Qualified Teachers in the OECS. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org /EDUCATION/Resources/WB_OECSTeacherReport.pdf

The World Bank. 2009e. Teacher motivation, incentives and working conditions. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/ 468341468306561093 /pdf/705540BRI0P1060ion0300December02009.pdf

UNESCO-BREDA (UNESCO’s Regional Bureau for Education in Africa), IIEP Pôle de Dakar. 2010. Methodological Guide for the Analysis of Teacher Issues. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://poledakar.iiep.unesco.org/sites/default/files/fields/publication_files/methodological_guide_for_the_analysis_of_teacher_issues_-_2010.pdf

UNESCO. 2013a. Education for All 2013-2014: Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002256/225660e.pdf

Vargas, E.; Umansky, I. 2005. Improving teaching and learning through effective incentives: What can we learn from education reforms in Latin America? Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/8694/33266.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Villegas-Reimers, E. 2003. Teacher professional development: an international review of the literature. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000133010

Curriculum reform for aspiring teachers

In order to align the needs of the students with what teachers learn during their formation, it might be necessary to reform the curriculum for aspiring teachers. This strategy is medium- to long-term, since from its implementation until the time of seeing the results, several years can pass. In general, a curriculum reform needs to be data-driven, using insights from students’ assessments and in-class analysis, in order to determine the source of problems and the appropriate changes to be made in what teachers learn.

Overall, it is a straightforward strategy with high potential benefits, which should be based on appropriate data: students’ assessments and In-class observations. 

References
Chang, M. C.; Shaeffer, S.; Al-Samarri, S.; Ragatz, A. B.; de Ree, J.; Stevenson, R. 2013. Teachers as the cornerstone of educational quality. In M. C. Chang, S. Shaeffer, S. Al-Samarri, A. B. Ragatz, J. de Ree, & R. Stevenson, Teacher Reform in Indonesia: The Role of Politics and Evidence in Policy Making (pp. 39 – 58). Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

Tatto, M. T.; Schwille, J.; Senk, S. L.; Ingvarson, L., Peck, R.; Rowley, G. 2008. Teacher Education and Development Study in Mathematics (TEDS-M): Policy, Practice, and Readiness to Teach Primary and Secondary Mathematics. East Lansing: Michigan State University. Retrieved from: https://arc.uchicago.edu/reese/projects/teacher-education-and-development-study-mathematics-teds-m

Taylor, P. 2004. How can participatory processes of curriculum development impact on the quality of teaching and learning in developing countries? Brighton: Institute of Development Studies – UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/7359/7859c4ef4bb972fdbd4a81 c1a11bc7d96a90.pdf

UNESCO-BREDA (UNESCO’s Regional Bureau for Education in Africa), IIEP Pôle de Dakar. 2010. Methodological Guide for the Analysis of Teacher Issues. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://poledakar.iiep.unesco.org/sites/default/files/fields/publication_files/methodological_guide_for_the_analysis_of_teacher_issues_-_2010.pdf

Villegas-Reimers, E. 2003. Teacher professional development: an international review of the literature. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000133010

Entry-level tests and trial period

One way of countering the entry of low-achieving teachers into the teaching workforce is to implement entry-level tests, followed by a 1-year trial period. The tests must be designed to assess if the aspiring teacher has acquired sufficient academic and teaching capacity to effectively engage with a classroom and if the minimum quality standards are being accomplished in the teachers’ formation. This test, designed bearing the students’ curriculum in mind, should include a complete review of everything needed to be an effective teacher. 

Once the aspiring teacher completes the appropriate knowledge tests, they should be sent to the field, to interact with a real classroom. This should be done with the direct supervision of a senior professor, who would be in charge of accompanying and surveying the new teacher, making sure that not only he or she possesses the necessary knowledge, but that the actual teaching capacities exist. Only candidates who successfully pass both the entry-level exam and the trial period can be admitted within the teaching profession. This will guarantee a high academic level for all new teachers.

* For more information on this subject consult Policy page Content knowledge.

References
Chang, M. C., Shaeffer, S., Al-Samarri, S., Ragatz, A. B., de Ree, J., & Stevenson, R. 2013. Teachers as the cornerstone of educational quality. M.
C. Chang, S. Shaeffer, S. Al-Samarri, A. B. Ragatz, J. de Ree, & R. Stevenson, Teacher Reform in Indonesia: The Role of Politics and Evidence in Policy Making. Washington D.C., The World Bank. pp. 39 – 58.

Nannyonjo, H.; Mulaa, J.; Lee, C.; Warren, D. 2009. Attracting and Retaining Qualified Teachers in the OECS. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org /EDUCATION/Resources/WB_OECSTeacherReport.pdf

UNESCO-BREDA (UNESCO’s Regional Bureau for Education in Africa), IIEP Pôle de Dakar. 2010. Methodological Guide for the Analysis of Teacher Issues. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://poledakar.iiep.unesco.org/sites/default/files/fields/publication_files/methodological_guide_for_the_analysis_of_teacher_issues_-_2010.pdf

UNESCO. 2013a. Education for All 2013-2014: Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002256/225660e.pdf

Vargas, E.; Umansky, I. 2005. Improving teaching and learning through effective incentives: What can we learn from education reforms in Latin America? Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/8694/33266.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Performance-based scholarships for aspiring teachers

It is imperative that only the most qualified applicants enter the process to become teachers. To ensure this, strategies such as a performance-based scholarship system and competitive salaries can be implemented. Scholarships can be given by the State-run teaching school (if any) or by private universities that offer teaching careers. Each choice implies different public policies and should be taken considering all stakeholders included. 

As other strategies presented in this policy page, this is a medium- to long-term strategy, since at the best it implies that the new teachers would take up their functions after completing the years it takes to finish teaching school. However, in the long run, it is a highly cost-effective policy, since the returns on investment would be high and help not only in creating a more prepared teaching workforce but would form better students, who, in turn, could be motivated to enter the teaching profession.

References
Chang, M. C.; Shaeffer, S.; Al-Samarri, S.; Ragatz, A. B.; de Ree, J.; Stevenson, R. 2013. Teachers as the cornerstone of educational quality. In M. C. Chang, S. Shaeffer, S. Al-Samarri, A. B. Ragatz, J. de Ree, & R. Stevenson, Teacher Reform in Indonesia: The Role of Politics and Evidence in Policy Making (pp. 39 – 58). Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). n.d. Examples of countries which managed to attract the best students to the profession. Geneva: IBE-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.ibe.unesco.org/en/geqaf/annexes/promising-practices/examples-countries-which-managed-attract-best-students-profession

Nannyonjo, H.; Mulaa, J.; Lee, C.; Warren, D. 2009. Attracting and Retaining Qualified Teachers in the OECS. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org /EDUCATION/Resources/WB_OECSTeacherReport.pdf

UNESCO-BREDA (UNESCO’s Regional Bureau for Education in Africa), IIEP Pôle de Dakar. 2010. Methodological Guide for the Analysis of Teacher Issues. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://poledakar.iiep.unesco.org/sites/default/files/fields/publication_files/methodological_guide_for_the_analysis_of_teacher_issues_-_2010.pdf

Vargas, E.; Umansky, I. 2005. Improving teaching and learning through effective incentives: What can we learn from education reforms in Latin America? Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/ 8694/33266.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Distance training of teachers

In cases where there is good access to the internet, and where logistical constraints make a face-to-face training program difficult, a distance training of teachers is a highly cost-effective option to bridge gaps in an academic level. The development of capacities and the effective acquisition of knowledge through technological tools is a great way to train a large number of people, while more long-term strategies are put in place. This is particularly important when dealing with teachers in rural areas, who would otherwise not have the same opportunities to receive quality in-service training. These tools allow for quick interaction between teachers and trainers and give teachers tools to learn about their particular interests and challenges freely.

The main restriction to this approach, however, remains the installed ICT infrastructure, since it relies heavily on internet and electricity access, which can be often challenging. Yet, initiatives around the world have been developed to counter those challenges. For instance, Uganda’s in-service training platform known as Teachers’ E-learning Portal (TEP) was precisely conceived for places with inadequate access to computers and internet (Oyo, Kalema and Byabazaire, 2017). The platform is accessible both online and offline. Managed by local universities in collaboration with beneficiary schools, it encourages school’s management to support teacher’s study progress, leading to higher completion rates (Oyo, Kalema and Byabazaire, 2017).  

References
Chang, M. C.; Shaeffer, S.; Al-Samarri, S.; Ragatz, A. B.; de Ree, J.; Stevenson, R. 2013. Teachers as the cornerstone of educational quality. In M. C. Chang, S. Shaeffer, S. Al-Samarri, A. B. Ragatz, J. de Ree, & R. Stevenson, Teacher Reform in Indonesia: The Role of Politics and Evidence in Policy Making (pp. 39 – 58). Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

Oyo, B.; Kalema, B.M.; Byabazaire, J. 2017. ‘MOOCs for in-service teachers: The case of Uganda and lessons for Africa’. In: Revista Espanola de Pedagogia, vol. 75, 121–141. Retrieved from: https://essa-africa.org/node/501?i=d&id=3008

Perraton, H.; Robinson, B.; Creed, C. 2001. Teacher education through distance learning. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001242/124208e.pdf

UNESCO-BREDA (UNESCO’s Regional Bureau for Education in Africa), IIEP Pôle de Dakar. 2010. Methodological Guide for the Analysis of Teacher Issues. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://poledakar.iiep.unesco.org/sites/default/files/fields/publication_files/methodological_guide_for_the_analysis_of_teacher_issues_-_2010.pdf

UNESCO. 2013a. Education for All 2013-2014: Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002256/225660e.pdf

Other policy options

Give teachers licenses and scholarships to further specialize

In order to have teachers fill knowledge gaps and further specialize in their fields of knowledge, a possible public policy can be to give scholarships and monetary incentives for teachers to return to school to do Master programs, whether one- or two-year programs, on topics related with their teaching responsibilities. This possibility is a medium-term strategy since it implies a lag of at least one year before changes can be observed. It is also financially demanding, since in general Master programs cost more than Undergraduate programs, and requires full-time dedication, which would imply also monetary support throughout the academic formation.

It is important for these types of initiatives to be highly controlled by the government, in order to guarantee both that the programs chosen are directly related to the area of expertise and teaching of the teacher, and that the newly trained teachers return for a set number of years to the teaching workforce, in order to get an adequate return on investment. 

References
Chang, M. C.; Shaeffer, S.; Al-Samarri, S.; Ragatz, A. B.; de Ree, J.; Stevenson, R. 2013. Teachers as the cornerstone of educational quality. In M. C. Chang, S. Shaeffer, S. Al-Samarri, A. B. Ragatz, J. de Ree, & R. Stevenson, Teacher Reform in Indonesia: The Role of Politics and Evidence in Policy Making (pp. 39 – 58). Washington D.C.: The World Bank.

Nannyonjo, H.; Mulaa, J.; Lee, C.; Warren, D. 2009. Attracting and Retaining Qualified Teachers in the OECS. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org /EDUCATION/Resources/WB_OECSTeacherReport.pdf

UNESCO-BREDA (UNESCO’s Regional Bureau for Education in Africa), IIEP Pôle de Dakar. 2010. Methodological Guide for the Analysis of Teacher Issues. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://poledakar.iiep.unesco.org/sites/default/files/fields/publication_files/methodological_guide_for_the_analysis_of_teacher_issues_-_2010.pdf

Vargas, E.; Umansky, I. 2005. Improving teaching and learning through effective incentives: What can we learn from education reforms in Latin America? Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/ 8694/33266.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Performance- and position-based bonuses and promotions (based on unequal geographic distribution of low-achieving teachers)

In the case where the issue of low academic level related to teachers is unequally distributed throughout the country, several public policies can be implemented in an effort to have a more equitable system. In many countries, the entry-level test is used as a measure of the quality of teachers, with one of the incentives being that whoever scores higher on this test gets first-pick on where to be located. This leads in occasions to the best teachers self-selecting themselves into the best schools, the ones located in populated urban centres or the ones that have the students with the most advantaged socioeconomic characteristics. This naturally leads to the teachers with the lowest scores in the entry-level test going to the worst-off schools, or those located in remote, rural areas.

One strategy to solve this issue is to make promotions to certain positions, or monetary bonuses, available only to those teachers who choose to go to the worst-ranked schools. In that way, teachers wanting a promotion as head of a school will have to teach for a number of years in a lagged-behind school, which will ultimately help close the geographical gap between schools in the country, avoiding low-achieving teachers to concentrate in certain areas.

References
Karachiwalla, N.; Park, A. 2015. ‘Promotion Incentives in the Public Sector: Evidence from Chinese Schools’. Journal of Public Economics. Vol. 146, pp. 109-128. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0047272716302079?via%3Dihub

Hire professionals outside of the teaching profession

In occasions, when immediate corrections are needed within the teacher workforce, and the newly graduated teachers do not comply with the academic level required for the profession, it is conceivable to hire professionals from outside of the teaching profession to fill out positions within schools, particularly on areas of hard and social sciences. While this strategy might give oxygen to an educational system while additional changes are done to strengthen the teachers’ formation system, it should be used with caution. The teaching profession requires skills and abilities beyond those of academic knowledge (such as pedagogy and group management) and the use of professionals not trained to deal with school-level children might have unplanned repercussions.

References
Symeonidis, V. 2015. The Status of Teachers and the Teaching Profession. Brussels: Education International. Retrieved from: https://download.ei-ie.org/Docs/WebDepot/The%20Status% 20of%20Teachers%20 and%20the%20Teaching%20Profession.pdf

Policy options for improving Equity and Inclusion

Gender-responsive policies

Promising policy options

Perform a gender assessment for teacher education

gender assessment for teacher education allows decision-makers, heads of Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs) and teachers to recognize the strengths and weaknesses regarding gender equity in teacher education and propose tailored responses to close existing gaps (UNESCO Bangkok, WeiDong Group and HNA Group of People’s Republic of China, n.d.). The six tools known as Gender Assessment Tools for Teacher Education (GATTE) can be mobilized for this purpose (consult the different tools at Bangkok, n.d.). After the assessments, educational planners and policy-makers will be able to develop data-driven solutions to the specific challenges encountered.

The following measures should be taken into account when aiming to improve teacher’s education gender-responsiveness (Mulugeta, 2012; UNESCO Bangkok, WeiDong Group and HNA Group of People’s Republic of China, n.d.):

References
Mulugeta, E. 2012. Gender Mainstreaming in Teacher Education Policy: A Training Module. Addis Ababa: UNESCO-IIBA (International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa). Retrieved from: http://www.iicba.unesco.org/sites/default/files/Gender_Mainstreaming_in_Teacher_Education_Policy.pdf

UNESCO Bangkok; WeiDong Group; HNA Group of People’s Republic of China. n.d. GATTE Gender Assessment Tools for Teacher Education. Retrieved from: https://bkkproj.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/GuidelinesGATTE.pdf

UNESCO Bangkok. n.d. Gender Assessment Tools for Teacher Education (GATTE): Tools. Accessed 25 May 2019: https://bkkproj.com/tools/

Teacher training

Teachers’ knowledge of gender equity as well as their attitudes and mindsets impact student’s learning experiences (UNESCO Bangkok; WeiDong Group and HNA Group of People’s Republic of China, n.d.). Thus, teaching skills employed in the classroom should be gender-responsive. Teachers must value equally the ability to learn of all students and facilitate their learning process and progress to the fullest extent possible (USAID, n.d.). They must ensure class sessions are free of gender bias and geared towards deconstructing gender stereotypes. For this purpose, teachers must use an appropriate gender-sensitive language. (For more information consult Policy pages Classroom practices and Language of instruction). Moreover, quality pre-service and in-service teacher training should develop, in addition to content knowledgegender-responsive knowledge, skills, and attitudes (For precise information consult Policy page Content knowledge).

Ministries of Education should ensure that governmental- and non-governmental-managed teacher training providers comply with a set of norms and standards regarding the gender-responsiveness of their curricula. Institutional reforms should be performed to mainstream gender throughout the training offer and curricula (in addition to offering specialized modules on gender). This should be done through a data-driven approach, for instance use insights from students’ assessments and in-class observations to determine the source of the gender gaps in student learning and provide the appropriate modifications to teachers’ training and their practice.
(For specific information about how to mobilise data from learning assessments consult Policy page Student learning assessments).

Recruiting trainers who possess a sound theoretical and practical knowledge on the incorporation of gender into teaching and on gender-responsive pedagogies, methods, management, and assessment practices is of outmost importance (UNESCO Bangkok, 2017b). Moreover, in order to guarantee that current teachers lacking these skills get up to date, the Ministry of Education –in close collaboration with external donors– should ensure the development and funding of continuous professional development opportunities, such as workshops, seminars, e-learning modules (Lumadi and Shongwe, 2010). 

References
Frei, S.; Leowinata, S. 2014. Gender Mainstreaming Toolkit for Teachers and Teacher Educators. Burnaby: Commonwealth of Learning. Retrieved from: https://www.rosavzw.be/digidocs/dd-000656_2014_Gender_Mainstreaming_Toolkit_for_Teachers_and_Teacher_Educators_CoL.pdf

Lumadi, M.W.; Shongwe, S.S. 2010. ‘The Need For Training Gender-Sensitive Teachers: Addressing Education Challenges For Gender Sensitive National Development’. In: Contemporary Issues in Education Research, Vol.3, No. 3. Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1072589.pdf

UNESCO Bangkok. 2017b. Integration of Gender-Responsive Pedagogy in pre- and in-service teacher training courses in Ethiopia. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok. Retrieved from: https://bangkok.unesco.org/sites/default/files/assets/article/Teachers%20Education/GenderAssessment-May2017/Ethiopia_Demissew.pdf

UNESCO Bangkok. 2017c. Preparation of a comprehensive Gender-Responsive Pedagogy (GRP) Toolkit. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok. Retrieved from: https://bangkok.unesco.org/sites/default/files/assets/article/Teachers%20Education/GenderAssessment-May2017/Ethiopia_Demissew.pdf

UNESCO, UNGEI (United Nations Girls’ Education Initiative). 2015. Gender and EFA 2000-2015, Achievements and Challenges: Gender Summary. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.ungei.org/234809E.pdf

UNESCO. 2017. Evaluation of UNESCO’s Programme Interventions on Girls’ and Womens’ Education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000258978?posInSet=22&queryId=df97886c-2701-4a75-bfdb-46986e8ebf8e

USAID (United States Agency for International Development). n.d. Introduction to Gender-Responsive Teaching Methods. Retrieved from: https://www.mcsprogram.org/wp-content/uploads/dlm_uploads/2018/11/PowerPoint-Introduction-to-Gender-Responsive-Teaching-Methods.pdf

Track teacher skills’ gender-responsiveness through classroom observation systems

Classroom observation systems can be used by educational planners and decision-makers to:

  • Track the extent to which policies –taken at the national or local level– create inclusive, gender-responsive education systems, and how these are transforming teachers’ practice within the classrooms (e.g. teaching pedagogies, relationships between the teachers and the students, seating arrangements, language employed by teachers and students, among others.).
  • Identify the persistent challenges faced by teachers while implementing gender-responsive pedagogies, as well as the gendered factors contributing to low levels of participation and learning attainment of students (Rimer et al., n.d.). This data can be used to generate tailored responses, such as training, information, support, and resources, meant to address teachers’ –and ultimately the student’s– needs.

* For more information consult Policy page Classroom practices supervision.

References
Jung, K.; Chung, H. 2006. Gender Equality in Classroom Instruction: Introducing Gender Training for Teachers in the Republic of Korea. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok. Retrieved from https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000145992

Rimer, W.; Llewellyn, D.; Anderson, S.; Ellison, S.; Maldonado, M.S.; Aldave, A. n.d. Toolkit for Assessing and Promoting Equity In The Classroom: A Production Of The Equity In The Classrooms (EIC) Project. Washington: Creative Associates International, USAID. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/lifeskills/files/AssessingEquity-EIC_Toolkit.pdf

UNESCO Bangkok. 2005. Regional workshop on Inclusive Education ‘Getting All Children into School and Helping Them Learn’. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000139563?posInSet=16&queryId=0689d378-82b3-4fb0-8bee-32e8a4fff38e

UNESCO Bangkok. 2009. Gender in Education Network in Asia-Pacific (GENIA) Toolkit: Promoting Gender Equality in Education. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000186495

Distance training of teachers

Mainstream gender throughout the distance training offer (GPE and UNGEI, 2017). New distance training should be conceived through a gender perspective. If existent courses are implemented, they should be reviewed to increase gender equity in content, context, and terminology.

Moreover, developing specific gender-sensitivity distance training –for example, online gender tutorials as well as e-learning modules meant to improve teachers’ gender-responsive knowledge and skills– is proven to be a cost-effective measure (GPE and UNGEI, 2017).

* Consult Bostwana, 2008, for a country-based example of how to mainstream gender in open and distance learning. For a study on the role of distance education in Gender Equality and Women Empowerment consult Msoffe, 2016.

References
Botswana. 2008. Directorate of Social and Human Development & Special Programmes. Gender Mainstreaming Strategy for Open and Distance Learning 2008-2012. Gaborone: Directorate of Social and Human Development & Special Programmes. Retrieved from: https://www.sadc.int/files/2613/7820/8537/THE_GMS_DOCUMENT___for_ODL_final_version_2008-2012.pdf

GPE (Global Partnership for Education), UNGEI (United Nations Girls’ Education Initiative). 2017. Guidance for Developing Gender-Responsive Education Sector Plans. Washington D.C.: The Global Partnership for Education. Retrieved from: https://www.globalpartnership.org/content/guidance-developing-gender-responsive-education-sector-plans

Msoffe, R.M. 2016. ‘The Role of Open and Distance Learning in Gender Equality and Women Empowerment – A Case of Diploma in Primary Teacher Education – The Open University of Tanzania’. In: Developing Country Studies, Vol. 6, No.9. International Knowledge Sharing Platform (online). Retrieved from: https://iiste.org/Journals/index.php/DCS/article/view/32948/34242

UK Aid. 2016. Girls’ Education Challenge: GEC thematic discussion papers. London: UK Aid. Retrieved from: http://www.ungei.org/GEC_Thematic_discussion_papers.pdf

Policies for children with disabilities

Promising policy options

Adapt teacher training

An inclusive education system goes beyond the question of accessibility, as it must make sure that all students are engaged and participate actively in meaningful and tailored learning opportunities in the classroom (UNESCO, 2005c). To do this, teacher training (and the curricula) must be redesigned or adapted so that teachers have the necessary skills to respond to the needs of all children. Consider the following recommendations:

  • Mainstream inclusive education within teacher training and its corresponding curricula (IDDC, 2013). Teachers must possess a robust theoretical and practical knowledge, as well as attitudes and values, on inclusive education (Howgego, Miles and Myers, 2014; Spratt and Florian, 2013; UNICEF, 2014).
  • Involve multiple stakeholders in the process, including persons with disabilities.
  • Ensure the reform is data-driven. For instance, use insights from students’ assessments and in-class observations to determine pressing challenges and provide appropriate responses through teachers’ training and its corresponding curriculum.

* For specific recommendations on how to adapt teachers’ training offer consult Policy page Content knowledge (section Children with disabilities).

* For specific policy options regarding inclusive instructional practices, classroom management, and classroom set-up consult Policy page Classroom practices (section Children with disabilities).

* For specific information on how to use data produced by inclusive learning assessments consult Policy page Student learning assessments.

References
EDT (Education Development Trust); UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2016. Eastern and Southern Africa regional study on the fulfilment of the right to education of children with disabilities. Reading: EDT. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/esaro/Regional-children-with-disabilities-UNICEF-EDT-2016.pdf

Howgego, C.; Miles, S.; Myers, J. 2014. Inclusive Learning: Children with disabilities and difficulties in learning. Oxford: HEART (Health & Education Advice & Resource Team). Retrieved from: http://www.heart-resources.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Inclusive-Learning-Topic-Guide.pdf?9d29f8=.  

Humanity & Inclusion. 2015. Education for all? This is still not a reality for most children with disabilities. Retrieved from: https://hi.org/sn_uploads/document/Education-pour-tous_un-mythe-pour-la-plupart-des-enfants-handicapes_en_1.pdf

IDDC (International Disability and Development Consortium). 2013. Every child needs a quality, inclusive teacher. Brussels: IDDC. Retrieved from: http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/IDDC_Every_Child_Needs_a_Teacher_leaflet.pdf

IIEPUNESCO Learning Portal. 2019. Brief 3: Disability inclusive education and learning. Accessed 4 November 2019: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/learners-and-support-structures/disability-inclusive-education-and

Inclusion International. n.d. FAQs – Frequently Asked Questions: Questions You Have About Inclusive Education But Didn’t Know Whom To Ask. Accessed 4 November 2019: https://inclusion-international.org/catalyst-for-inclusive-education/faq/#_ftn2

Sæbønes, A.-M.; Berman Bieler, R.; Baboo, N.; Banham, L.; Singal, N.; Howgego, C.; Vuyiswa McClain-Nhlapo, C.; Riis-Hansen, T. C.; Dansie, G. A. 2015. ‘Towards a disability inclusive education’. Background paper for the Oslo Summit on Education for Development, 6-7 July 2015. Retrieved from: https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1865/Oslo_Ed_Summit_DisabilityInclusive_Ed.pdf

Spratt, J.; Florian, L. 2013. ‘Applying the principles of inclusive pedagogy in initial teacher education: from university based course to classroom action’. In: Revista de Investigación en Educación, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 133-140.

UNESCO. 2005c. Guidelines for inclusion: Ensuring access to education for all. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001402/140224e.pdf

UNESCO. 2019. The right to education for persons with disabilities. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000371249

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2014. Teachers, Inclusive, Child-Centred Teaching and Pedagogy: Webinar 12 – Companion Technical Booklet. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/eca/education

Track inclusive practices through classroom observation systems

Track the extent to which policies taken at the national and local levels to create an inclusive education system is transforming teachers’ skills and classroom practice. Identify persistent challenges faced by teachers in inclusive education systems as well as the factors contributing to low levels of participation and learning attainment of students with disabilities in the classroom. Generate tailored responses, such as training, information, support, and resources, meant to address teachers’ –and ultimately the student’s– needs.

* For more information consult Policy page Classroom practices supervision.

References
EENET (Enabling Education Network). 2005. Learning from Difference: An Action Research Guide for Capturing the Experience of Developing Inclusive Education. Oxford: EENET. Retrieved from: https://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Learning%20from%20Difference%20Guidelines.pdf

Pouezevara, S.; Pflepsen, A.; Nordstrum, L.; King, S.; Gove, A. 2016. Measures of quality through classroom observation for Sustainable Development Goals: Lessons from low-and-middle-income countries. Paris: RTI International. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002458/245841E.pdf

Rimer, W.; Llewellyn, D.; Anderson, S.; Ellison, S.; Maldonado, M.S.; Aldave, A. n.d. Toolkit for Assessing and Promoting Equity In The Classroom: A Production Of The Equity In The Classrooms (EIC) Project. Washington: Creative Associates International, USAID. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/lifeskills/files/AssessingEquity-EIC_Toolkit.pdf

Save the Children. 2016. Inclusive Education: What, Why, and How – A Handbook for Program Implementers.  London: Save the Children. Retrieved from: https://www.savethechildren.it/sites/default/files/files/uploads/pubblicazioni/inclusive-education-what-why-and-how.pdf

UNESCO. 2004. Embracing Diversity: Toolkit for creating inclusive, learning-friendly environments. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000137522

Distance training of teachers

Distance training of teachers is a highly cost-effective option to enhance teachers’ skills necessary in inclusive education systems (IBE-UNESCO, 2016). For example, UK’s National College for Teaching and Learning NCTL offers advanced online modules on areas such as autism, speech and language needs to enhance teachers’ knowledge and skills (European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education, 2015).

In addition, it is essential to ensure that every distance education opportunity has been designed to be accessible for all, taking into account the principles of universal design (UNESCO, 2016).

References
European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education. 2015. Empowering Teachers to Promote Inclusive Education. A case study of approaches to training and support for inclusive teacher practice. Odense: European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education. Retrieved from: https://www.europeanagency.org/sites/default/files/Empowering%20Teachers%20to%20Promote%20Inclusive%20Education.%20A%20case%20study.pdf

IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). 2016.Training Tools for Curriculum Development – Reaching Out to All Learners: a Resource Pack for Supporting Inclusive Education. Geneva: IBE-UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000243279?posInSet=26&queryId=583170d7-cb0d-430f-bc8e-c0ced5165649

UNESCO. 2016. Learning for All: Guidelines on the Inclusion of Learners with Disabilities in Open and Distance Learning. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000244355

Other policy options

Give teachers licenses and scholarships to further specialize

To fill teacher’s knowledge gaps and help them develop specialist expertise, teacher education programs should include post-diploma specialisations, Master’s Degrees, and Ph.D.’s in inclusive education. For instance, a programme implemented for teacher education reform and inclusive education in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo, Serbia, and Montenegro, with the support of Finland, allowed multiple teachers to get post-diploma specialisation and Master’s Degrees in inclusive education (Finland, n.d.).

As illustrated in the general section of the present Policy page, it is important to provide scholarships and monetary incentives to motivate qualified teachers to return to school to complete post-diploma specialisation, Master’s Degrees, and or Ph.D.’s. For example, in Thailand, 30 teachers were provided scholarships to complete a Master in inclusive education (UNESCO, 2009d).

References
European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education. 2015. Empowering Teachers to Promote Inclusive Education. A case study of approaches to training and support for inclusive teacher practice. Odense: European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education. Retrieved from: https://www.europeanagency.org/sites/default/files/Empowering%20Teachers%20to%20Promote%20Inclusive%20Education.%20A%20case%20study.pdf

Finland. n.d. Ministry for Foreign Affairs. The Reform of Education for Students with Special Educational Needs in South Eastern Europe: Lessons and Experiences from Finland’s Bilateral Support. Helsinki: Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/finland/38665264.pdf

UNESCO. 2009d. Towards inclusive education for children with disabilities: A guideline. Bangkok: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001924/192480e.pdf

Policies for displaced populations and host communities

All the policies mentioned in the general section of this page apply to this category.

Other policy options

Provide formal and non-formal training to refugee teachers

The Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE) recommends that teacher training be designed to fulfil national requirements and to qualify teachers of refugees so they can eventually join the regular teaching force. Formal training also mitigates possible problems with MoEs, which may be unfamiliar with non-formal teacher training programmes or disapprove of such programmes’ methods. For example, the Kenyan government has sought to reduce classroom pupil-teacher ratios by sending untrained or ‘incentive’ refugee teachers to attain P1 Diploma and Early Childhood Development Certificates. These newly certified teachers are then integrated into host community institutions.

Distance education programmes are also an option. While distance education programmes leading to qualifications through correspondence may take longer, this option allows teachers to continue teaching and receive compensation throughout the training.

Moreover, non-formal, in-service professional development opportunities are especially important in emergency settings in which education systems, curricular content, and education policy are rapidly evolving to meet changing needs. Moreover, a lack of teaching capacity can amplify inequitable access, corruption, and fragmented community structures. For example, in Turkey, professional development programmes for teachers have trained 7,000 Syrian volunteer teachers on methodologies, psychosocial support, and classroom management. Additionally, UNICEF has offered one-day training for Syrian teachers, with plans to expand the programme to include host community teachers.

References
INEE (Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2009. Guidance notes on teacher compensation in fragile states, situations of displacement and post-crisis recovery. New York: INEE. Retrieved from: http://www.ineesite.org/en/teacher-compensation-initiative

INEE (Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2010. Guidance notes on teaching and learning. New York: INEE. Retrieved from: http://toolkit.ineesite.org/toolkit/INEEcms/uploads/1004/Guidance_Notes_on_Teaching_and_Learning_EN.pdf

Jordan. 2014. Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation. National resilience Plan 2014-2016. Retrieved from: http://www.jordanembassyus.org/sites/default/files/NRP_FinalDraft_08.29.2014_MOPIC.pdf.

INEE (Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2014. Mapping the education response to the Syrian crisis. Retrieved from: www.ineesite.org/en/blog/mapping-theeducation-response-to-the-syrian-crisis1

Policies for minority populations

All policies in the general section apply to this category.

Promising policy options

Acknowledge and respond to minority students’ needs

The following recommendations should be considered to ensure that teachers have the necessary skills to respond to minority student’s needs within the classroom:

  • Provide training opportunities to teachers so that they develop a sensitivity to the history, culture, contemporary lifestyle, and enduring characteristics of their Indigenous or minority students.  
  • Teachers should acknowledge Indigenous patterns of discourse. This will help them minimise misunderstandings between teacher and student in the classroom.
  • Teachers should recognise the importance of focusing on the learning needs of the individual student, and the use of teaching strategies that match those needs.
  • Teachers should take into account the value of the students’ cultural background and the skills and knowledge which they bring with them into the classroom.
  • Use a whole-school approach based on a commitment to providing successful learning experiences and outcomes for all students.
  • Provide a safe, secure school environment, characterised by good teacher/student relationships, which is free from racism and is welcoming to Indigenous students, parents and community members.
References
Bourke C.J.; Rigby, K.; Burden, J. 2000. Better practice in school attendance: Improving the school attendance of Indigenous students. Melbourne: Report prepared for the Commonwealth Department of Education Training and Youth Affairs by Monash University.

Campbell, D.; Wright, J. 2005. Rethinking welfare school attendance policies. Social Service Review, 79:2–28.

UNESCO; UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2007.  A Human Rights-Based Approach to Education. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/A_Human_Rights_Based_Approach_to_Education_for_All.pdf

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2015. For every child a fair chance: the promise of equity. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/For_every_child_a_fair_chance.pdf

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2012. Integrated Social Protection Systems: Enhancing Equity for Children. UNICEF Social Protection Strategic Framework. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/socialpolicy/files/UNICEF_Social_Protection_Strategic_Framework_full_doc_std.pd

Policies for OVCs and HIV affected populations

Promising policy options

Training on HIV/AIDS issues and life skills

Pre-service and in-service training can be provided on HIV/AIDS and on relevant life skills, including knowledge about the virus, prevention, care, and treatment. Training programs should recognize that before being able to address student’s knowledge and beliefs surrounding HIV/AIDS, teachers will need to address their own attitudes, which may include stigma and bias. It has been observed that while HIV related training programs can be effective in transmitting knowledge to teachers, it does not always lead to the actual implementation of the content in classrooms (Wood & Goba, 2011). More effective approaches involve teachers in the design of the training, utilizing their knowledge of the specific context and cultural and social norms. It is also important that there is a whole-school approach, and individual teachers are not singled out to be the sole experts. There should also be support systems on these issues.

A number of policies can be implemented on this topic. For instance, it is essential to ensure a comprehensive pre-service and in-service training which:

  • Helps teachers know how to address stigma and myths surrounding HIV/AIDS, as well as how to promote compassionate, non-judgemental beliefs and attitudes.
  • Addresses teacher’s own attitudes and experiences surrounding HIV and its own vulnerabilities.
  • Provides deep knowledge on HIV/AIDS care, treatment, and prevention and how to discuss these issues with students.
  • Provides knowledge of the etiology of HIV (Coombe (2002) recommended that every teacher be provided with a low-cost, illustrated book in accessible language).
  • Provides knowledge on life skills, including decision making, self-esteem, peer pressure, communication skills, caring for the sick, sexual reproductive health. Including national training guidelines and materials on those topics.
  • Encourages the implementation of interactive and engaging pedagogy.
  • Helps teachers learn to identifying OVCs and children in need.
  • Encourages the home-school liaison.
  • Ensures supportive supervision, such as observation by other teachers and suggestions on how to improve.
  • Are based on the real needs of the teachers and their specific context.
  • Ensure that every teacher is trained, including principals and school leaders.

Materials and resources are also of key importance and should be designed with multiple stakeholders, including parents, teachers, and community leaders. Resources must consider the values of the community, and how sensitive topics such as sex and reproductive health issues can best be addressed. For in-service training, facilitators can involve teachers in developing a specific plan for their school. Moreover, the trainers of teachers should be part of the school system, to understand how the material can actually be implemented. It is also essential to ensure that life skills and HIV topics are embedded within the curriculum. An enabling environment and whole-school approach should receive support from administrators, school governing bodies, principals, communities, and parents. Regular dialogue between all actors should be ensured. Fostering collaboration between teachers is key. Moreover, strive for support from outside organizations and motivate faculty to promote an accepting, tolerant school environment; find opportunities for additional training; and provide leadership to comprehensively address the issues.

References
Boler, T.; Carroll, K. 2003. Addressing the educational needs of orphans and vulnerable children. London: ActionAid International and Save the Children Fund. Retrieved from: http://www.hivpolicy.org/Library/HPP001284.pdf

Campbell C.; Andersen L.; Mutsikiwa A.; Madanhire C.; Nyamukapa C.; Gregson S. 2016. ‘Can schools support HIV/AIDS-affected children? Exploring the ‘ethic of care’ amongst rural Zimbabwean teachers.’ In:  PLoS ONE, 11(1), 1-22. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4720431/pdf/pone.0146322.pdf

Coombe, C. 2002. ‘Mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS on education supply, demand and quality.’ In AG Cornia (ed.), AIDS, public policy and child well-being.  Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Florence, 2007. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/aids_book/chapter9_coombe.pdf

Mwoman, T.; Pillay, J. 2015. ‘Psychosocial support for orphans and vulnerable children in public primary schools: Challenges and intervention strategies.’ In: South African Journal of Education, 35 (3), 1-9. Retrieved from: http://www.scielo.org.za/pdf/saje/v35n3/09.pdf

UNESCO. 2006. HIV & AIDS and safe, secure and supportive learning environments. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.hivpolicy.org/Library/HPP001275.pdf

UNESCO. 2008. Booklet 3: Educator development and support. Good policy and practice in HIV & AIDS and education (booklet series). Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000146308

Wood, L.; Goba, L. 2011. ‘Care and support of orphaned and vulnerable children at school: helping teachers to respond.’ In: South African Journal of Education, 31, 275-290. Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1136757.pdf

Training on counselling and psychosocial support

OVCs often experience emotional and psychological distress, discrimination, as well as increased home responsibilities, which can negatively affect their school performance and attendance. Schools and educators are in a unique position to support students through these issues as teachers are often the adults that children spend the most time with on a daily basis, and children are already connected to school services. However, care should be taken to not overburden teachers with these extra roles and responsibilities, as many teachers are already overworked and under-valued. It is also important to recognize that teachers are impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic and are dealing with these issues themselves. Teachers should, therefore, be fairly recognized and compensated for extra social support roles. Schools should provide designated social workers or counsellors to provide further support to children, as well as referrals to external services and organisations.

Teachers should receive training on:

  • basic counselling and listening skills;
  • supporting grief;
  • recognizing signs of emotional issues, sensitivity, trauma, and abuse;
  • awareness of and referral to external sources of support;
  • the psychological and emotional impacts of HIV/AIDS; and
  • how to show children kindness and support.

The training program should fit into local and cultural context (determining whether or not teachers are the most appropriate resource, in consideration of the possible hierarchical relation between students and teachers).

It is important to grant recognition of and compensation for teachers taking on extra roles, with these tasks being included in job descriptions and timetables and being a condition for promotions and salary increases. Likewise, it is important to monitor and follow-up on training on counselling and support, considering that these skills take time to develop.

Schools should provide designated counsellors or social workers to more extensively support children through psychosocial issues, as well as collaboration with external organisations and services. Furthermore, schools can appoint specific teachers for counselling and mentoring roles (if provided additional compensation).

Foster an enabling environment and whole-school approach in caring for OVCs:

  • Ensure the support from administrators, school governing bodies, principals, communities and parents. Guarantee regular dialogue between all actors;
  • Boost the collaboration between teachers;
  • Gain support from outside organizations;
  • Ensure that head teachers motivate faculty to promote an accepting, tolerant school environment; find opportunities for additional training; provide leadership to comprehensively address the issues.
References
Andersen, L.; Nyamukapa, C.; Gregson, S.; Pufall, E.; Mandanhire, C.; Mutsikiwa, A.; Gawa, R.; Skovdal, m.; Campbell, C. 2014. The role of schools in supporting children affected by HIV: Stakeholder report 2014. Harare: Biomedical Research and training Institute. Retrieved from: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/57266/1/__lse.ac.uk_storage_LIBRARY_Secondary_libfile_shared_repository_Content_Andersen,%20L_Role%20of%20schools%20supporting%20children_Andersen_Role%20of%20schools%20supporting_2014.pdf

Boler, T.; Carroll, K. 2003. Addressing the educational needs of orphans and vulnerable children. London: ActionAid International and Save the Children Fund. Retrieved from: http://www.hivpolicy.org/Library/HPP001284.pdf

Campbell C.; Andersen L.; Mutsikiwa A.; Madanhire C.; Nyamukapa C.; Gregson S. 2016. ‘Can schools support HIV/AIDS-affected children? Exploring the ‘ethic of care’ amongst rural Zimbabwean teachers.’ In:  PLoS ONE, 11(1), 1-22. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4720431/pdf/pone.0146322.pdf

Coombe, C. 2002. ‘Mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS on education supply, demand and quality.’ In AG Cornia (ed.), AIDS, public policy and child well-being.  Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, Florence, 2007. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/aids_book/chapter9_coombe.pdf

Mwoman, T.; Pillay, J. 2015. ‘Psychosocial support for orphans and vulnerable children in public primary schools: Challenges and intervention strategies.’ In: South African Journal of Education, 35 (3), 1-9.  Retrieved from: http://www.scielo.org.za/pdf/saje/v35n3/09.pdf

Wood, L.; Goba, L. 2011. ‘Care and support of orphaned and vulnerable children at school: helping teachers to respond.’ In: South African Journal of Education, 31, 275-290. Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1136757.pdf

Enabling environment for implementing HIV/life skills teacher training

Various recommendations should be considered in order to ensure an enabling environment:

  • Mainstream pre-service training on HIV issues into education and workplace policies.
  • Promote an inclusive teaching and learning environment in teacher training institutions, as well as non-discrimination, tolerance and providing care and support to HIV affected teaching students.
  • Offer experiential learning opportunities for student teachers in HIV affected communities.
  • Provide HIV/AIDS-related content. Embed it within the teacher training curriculum and include it as a mandatory course (that is tested).
  • Ensure continuous professional development and certification opportunities. Include refresher training, with supportive supervision. This can also be provided through distance learning, such as through using training manuals, radio, and ICT.
  • Make sure there are in place quality assurance mechanisms to monitor the implementation of HIV/life skills curriculum in teacher training institutions, including pre- and post-tests on teaching strategies, planning tools, activities, curriculum delivery, and lesson observation.
References
Desalegn, A.; Tadele, G.; Cherinet, H. 2008. The response of teacher training institutions to HIV and AIDS: A case study of Ethiopia. Paris: UNESCO IIEP. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000163605

UNESCO. 2006. HIV and AIDS education: Teacher training and teaching. A web-based desk study of 10 African countries. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unessdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000143607

UNESCO. 2008a. Booklet 3: Educator development and support. Good policy and practice in HIV & AIDS and education (booklet series). Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000146308

UNESCO. 2008b.EDUCAIDS technical briefs. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000158436

UNESCO. 2011. Booklet 6: Pre-service teacher training. Good policy and practice in HIV & AIDS and education (booklet series). Paris, UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000179865

Policies for pastoralists and nomadic populations

Promising policy options

Hire local teachers from pastoralist/nomadic communities and provide high-quality training

Ideally, local pastoralist/nomadic teachers would be hired to teach within their own communities, as they will have the required knowledge of the local language, lifestyle, and context that allows them to serve the pastoralist/nomadic population. This is particularly relevant for mobile school models, as teachers would much more easily be able to move with their students. However, there is often not a large supply of a skilled workforce to recruit from. In these cases, pre-service and in-service training can be provided to locally recruited community members, but training must be of sufficient relevance and quality. Communities can nominate the most qualified community members for these positions. Pastoralist/nomadic teachers should be given the same status and opportunities as other teachers, with equivalent pay and sufficient training and professional development opportunities.

Pastoralist/nomadic communities nominate candidates for teacher training (including nominating young community members for pre-service training), with high-quality pre-service and in-service training to competent locally recruited community members.

Equivalent pay, training, and professional development opportunities as other national teachers are offered, and there are collaboration and partnership between communities, schools, government, and development partners to recruit and train nomadic teachers.

References
Kratli, S.; Dyer, C. 2009. Mobile pastoralists and education: Strategic options. Education for nomads working paper 1. London: International Institute for Environment and Development. Retrieved from: https://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/10021IIED.pdf?

Commonwealth Secretariat; Pastoral and Environmental Network in the Horn of Africa; Council for Education in the Commonwealth. Seminar on educating nomadic and pastoralist children, Marlborough House London, September 26, 2007. Summary Report. Retrieved from: http://www.penhanetwork.org/sites/default/files/uploads/manual/documents/Educating%20Nomadic%20%26%20Pastoralist%20children%20Final%2020-03-10.pdf

Souza de, A. 2006. Forum on flexible education: Reaching nomadic populations in Africa. Garissa, Kenya, June 20-23.  Summary report. Vancouver: Commonwealth of Learning. Retrieved from: http://dspace.col.org/bitstream/handle/11599/276/NomadicReport.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Tahir, G.; Muhammad Dahiru, N.; Mohammed Modibbo, A. 2005. Improving the quality of nomadic education in Nigeria: Going beyond access and equity. Paris: ADEA. Retrieved from: http://www.adeanet.org/clearinghouse/sites/default/files/docs/03_Nigeria_eng.pdf

Specific training on pastoralist/nomadic context, culture and curriculum

Teachers working in pastoralist areas need to be specifically trained on the pastoralist context. Thus, pre-service and/or in-service teacher training should have an understanding of and respect for pastoralist/nomadic way of life, include pastoralist/nomadic-relevant curriculum, and how to adapt curriculum contents to a specific community context.

Collaboration and partnership between teachers, schools, pastoralist/nomadic families and communities, and government is key to develop relevant training. If qualified teachers who speak the local language are not available, consider hiring teacher aides/assistants who speak the language.

References
Kratli, S.; Dyer, C. 2009. Mobile pastoralists and education: Strategic options. Education for nomads working paper 1. London: International Institute for Environment and Development. Retrieved from: https://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/10021IIED.pdf?

Oxfam. 2005. Beyond the mainstream: Education for nomadic and pastoralist girls and boys. Education and gender equality series, programme insights. Oxford: Oxfam GB. Retrieved from: https://oxfamilibrary.openrepository.com/bitstream/handle/10546/120589/pi-beyond-mainstream-education-nomadic-pastoralist-191205-en.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Tahir, G.; Muhammad Dahiru, N.; Mohammed Modibbo, A. 2005. Improving the quality of nomadic education in Nigeria: Going beyond access and equity. Paris: ADEA. Rerieved from: http://www.adeanet.org/clearinghouse/sites/default/files/docs/03_Nigeria_eng.pdf

Provide incentives for teachers working in pastoralist/nomadic areas

Considering the difficult circumstances and extra demands placed on teachers working in nomadic areas, they will likely require extra incentives. It should also be ensured that teachers in these areas, including those working in alternative schooling models, are provided adequate remuneration, professional development opportunities, and full teaching status.

Provide incentives for qualified teachers to teach in pastoralist/nomadic areas, or programs, such as hardship allowance, scholarships, special salary provision, transportation, professional development and training opportunities, promotion opportunities, social welfare services, accommodation, better salary scale, while making sure to involve teachers in the design of incentive packages.

References
Mogues, B. ‘Children’s participation in schooling and education in pastoralist wordeas of Afar region: Prospects, challenges and policy implications. In: Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Science 5(2), 50-63. Retrieved from: http://www.questjournals.org/jrhss/papers/vol5-issue2/J525063.pdf

Tahir, G.; Muhammad Dahiru, N.; Mohammed Modibbo, A. 2005. Improving the quality of nomadic education in Nigeria: Going beyond access and equity. Paris: ADEA. Retrieved from: http://www.adeanet.org/clearinghouse/sites/default/files/docs/03_Nigeria_eng.pdf

Woldesenbet, P.W. 2015. ‘Provision and participation in primary education in the pastoralist regions of Afar and Somali of Ethiopia.’ Academic dissertation. Tampere: Tampere University Press. Retrieved from: http://tampub.uta.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/98033/978-951-44-9942-5.pdf;sequence=1

Open and distance learning for teacher training

The use of Open and Distance Learning (ODL) for teacher training is particularly relevant for pastoralist/nomadic areas. The Pivotal Teachers Training Programme (PTTP) in Nigeria is an example of such an initiative. The program uses a combination of radio, face-to-face content, and print resources, with adapted locally relevant curriculum and teaching practice in nomadic schools. ODL teacher training programs should consider aspects such as: entry requirements (balancing the need for supply adequate with sufficient qualifications); incentives to attract candidates; locally relevant adapted curriculum; the most appropriate technologies available in the communities; and the need for long-term funding.

References
National Teachers Institute Nigeria. 2017. ‘Pivotal teacher training program PTTP [website]. www.nti.edu.ng/programmes/pivotal-teacher-training-programme-pttp/

Souza de, A. 2006. Forum on flexible education: Reaching nomadic populations in Africa. Garissa, Kenya, June 20-23.  Summary report. Vancouver: Commonwealth of Learning. Retrieved from: http://dspace.col.org/bitstream/handle/11599/276/NomadicReport.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Specific training for alternative school models

Teacher training will have to be specifically tailored for the particular school models. This can include:

  • alternative pedagogies and classroom management for multi-grade teaching;
  • adapted planning and preparation skills for multi-grade teaching;
  • in the case of ODL, how to operate and care for ODL equipment;
  • experiential learning pedagogy;
  • adapting the curriculum to fit the cultural context and make it locally relevant; and
  • regular refresher trainings.
References
Hailombe, O. 2011. ‘Education equity and quality in Namibia: A case study of mobile schools in the Kunene region.’ PhD Thesis, University of Pretoria, South Africa. Retrieved from: https://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/24256/Complete.pdf?sequence=10&isAllowed=y

Swift, J. 2010. Getting to the hardest to reach: A strategy to provide education to nomadic communities in Kenya through distance learning. Ministry of State for Development of Northern Kenya and Other Arid Lands. Retrieved from: https://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/G02742.pdf

Ngugi, M. 2016. ‘Challenges facing mobile schools among pastoralists: A case study of Turkana County, Kenya.’ In: American Journal of Educational Research 4(1), 22-32. Retrieved from: http://www.sciepub.com/portal/downloads?doi=10.12691/education-4-1-6&filename=education-4-1-6.pdf

Ruto, S.J.; Ongwenyi, Z.N.; Mugo, J.K. 2009. Education marginalization in northern Kenya. Paper commissioned for the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2010, Reaching the marginalized. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000186617

Updated on 2021-06-16

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