Classroom practices supervision

Schooling inputs are transformed into learning outcomes in the classroom, which is why understanding and controlling classroom practices is of utmost importance. By analysing classroom dynamics, decision-makers can develop pertinent policy measures that will ultimately favour education quality and student learning outcomes.

* For more information on specific classroom practices, consult Policy page Classroom practices.

References
Ortega Goodspeed, T. 2014. PREAL Policy Brief: How Effectively do Latin American Teachers Manage their Classrooms to Support Learning? Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Dialogue. Retrieved from: https://prealblog.files.wordpress.com/2014/07/final-time-on-task-brief-7-23-14-pdf.pdf

Promising policy options

Classroom observation systems

Decision-makers can control and analyse classroom practices through classroom observation systems. Classroom observation systems are methods in which direct observation transforms qualitative data –more specifically certain classroom behaviours– into quantitative data. These observation systems are meant to generate robust, representative data about classroom practices in the school, region and more generally in the entire education system, but are not meant to analyse individual teacher practices (this must be specifically explained to teachers to prevent the risk of rehearsed classes). Data produced by classroom observation systems can be used to generate system-wide policy measures, which aim to strengthen education systems and increase student learning outcomes. Institutionalise and standardise annual observations in a representative sample of schools to track progress in classroom practices. For example, Jamaica has trained all its supervisors in the Stallings classroom observation systems, and since 2012 Peru has scaled up Stallings observations to a national sample of schools (Ortega Goodspeed, 2014).) 

Multiple classroom observation systems exist such as Stallings, CLASS, POCET, TIPPS, MELQO, SSME, Tangerine: Tutor, Simple interactions, and the Thoughtful Classroom Teacher Effectiveness Framework. To date, the Stallings Classroom Snapshot is the most common, simple and cost-effective system (e.g. generalized in countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (The World Bank, 2015a)).

When choosing or developing their own observation system, decision-makers should keep in mind the purpose of the collection of data, in this case, the specific aspects of classroom practice that will be analysed (make sure that those aspects are perceived by teachers as elements for improving student’s learning). Make sure to involve in the process the actors who will use the observation system, define the frequency and time allocated for observation, determine the skill level of the observers, and define how data will be managed and analysed.

A number of strategies exist to mitigate technical issues of the systems (Pouezevara et al., 2016). Some of them are:

  • improve the reliability of the system by performing more than a single observation;
  • increase the validity of the observations; in some cases, it is beneficial to use external, trained observers who do not know the teachers; and
  • improve cost-effectiveness, since high-quality observation systems require the training of observers and representative time spent in collecting and analysing data. This cost needs to be understood in terms of cost-effectiveness. In fact, the data produced will provide high-quality information which will ultimately lead to the improvement of classroom practices and learning outcomes. If the budget is very limited, school system supervisors should be trained to carry out the observations instead of external trained observers, as is the case in many Latin American and the Caribbean countries. If there is enough budget, study the possibility of installing video cameras in the classrooms. A group of expert observers can then use standardized methods for coding and analysing videotaped classroom practices.
References
Bruns, B.; Luque, J. 2015. Great Teachers: How to Raise Student Learning in Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://www.teachersforefa.unesco.org /tmwg/blog2/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Teachers-in-Latin-America.pdf

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2018c. ‘Topic 2: Giving Teachers better Feedback’. In: Teaching for the Future, Effective classroom practices to transform education (p. 104-112). Paris: OECD Publishing. Retrieved from: https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/teaching-for-the-future_9789264293243-en#page3

Ortega Goodspeed, T. 2014. PREAL Policy Brief: How Effectively do Latin American Teachers Manage their Classrooms to Support Learning? Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Dialogue. Retrieved from: https://prealblog.files.wordpress.com/2014/07/final-time-on-task-brief-7-23-14-pdf.pdf.

Pouezevara, S.; Pflepsen, A.; Nordstrum, L.; King, S.; Gove, A. 2016. Measures of quality through classroom observation for Sustainable Development Goals: Lessons from low-and-middle-income countries. Paris: RTI International. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002458/245841E.pdf

Silver Strong & Associates Thoughtful Education Press. 2014. The Thoughtful Classroom Teacher Effectiveness Framework: Basic Rubric. New Jersey: Silver Strong & Associates Thoughtful Education Press. Retrieved from: https://www.thoughtfulclassroom.com/PDFs/TCTEF/TCTEF_Basic_Rubric.pdf

The World Bank. 2015a. Conducting Classroom Observations: Analyzing Classrooms Dynamics and Instructional Time, Using the Stallings “Classroom Snapshot” Observation System. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/790221467997639302/pdf/97904-WP-Box391498B-PUBLIC-WB-Stallings-web.pdf

Provide actionable feedback, training, and peer collaboration

After having completed the classroom observation, it is recommended to provide data about the observation –and, if possible, comparative data as well– back to schools. Provide actionable feedback to the teachers to help them improve their classroom practices. Change the mindset around feedback, let teachers understand that it is done to help them improve their practice, not to criticize them. As a result, teachers’ stress during observations will reduce. The following methods differ from classroom observation systems as they intend to analyse individual teacher practices (Feldman, 2016):

  • Observational coaching: groups of four to eight teachers observe their peers for 20 minutes. An observation framework is used to take notes. After the observation, productive feedback is given to the teacher;
  • Peer to Peer: a teacher observes its peer for 20 to 30 minutes using an observation framework and gives actionable feedback afterwards;
  • Video feedback: teachers watch other teachers’ videos and then they view and analyse their self-performance. This process should be accompanied by an expert teacher who provides feedback to teachers; and
  • School head or supervisor’s observation: they observe teachers, take detailed notes and provide meaningful feedback by going over every note taken and why it matters. Strengths and areas for improvement should be treated.

Complement feedback with on-going, supportive professional coaching, as is done in Brazil, where the Lehmann Foundation and the Ceara state government evaluated in 2014 and 2015 a one-year program that tested whether providing teachers with classroom observation feedback and expert coaching improved classroom practices and raised student learning outcomes. The results showed that teachers who received detailed feedback, coaching sessions and bi-weekly support from expert coaches via Skype, increased instruction time by 10% which represents almost three additional weeks of instruction per year. In addition, they increased the use of question and answer-based pedagogy which boosted students’ engagement in class (The World Bank, 2015a).)

Use a bottom-up approach by identifying the aspects in the classroom in which teachers need support. For example, in Ecuador, training needs are identified at the school level and peers are trained together. In Peru’s teacher mentoring program external coaches provide real-time feedback to teachers based in the observation and understanding of the school’s context and challenges (Bruns and Luque, 2015).)

Develop teacher training courses focused on classroom management techniques to improve instructional time at a national level: train teachers to manage time effectively, to ensure classroom transitions and administrative process as efficiently as possible, to establish classroom routines, and control student behaviour.

Train school heads to promote effective classroom practices. For instance, Brazilian schools in Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais train school heads to help teachers improve their classroom practices (Ortega Goodspeed, 2014).)

Realize new forms of teacher training with the aid of videotaped classroom practice by recording classroom practices and showing teachers good and weak examples. Allow teachers to view and analyse their self-performance (Fieldman, 2016; Finley, 2017; Pouezevara et al., 2016; Pruyear, 2015).

Foster peer collaboration and exchange of practice within schools, as this is a cost-effective strategy for improving classroom practices (e.g. in Finland and Japan (Bruns and Luque, 2015)).

References
Bruns, B.; Luque, J. 2015. Great Teachers: How to Raise Student Learning in Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://www.teachersforefa.unesco.org /tmwg/blog2/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Teachers-in-Latin-America.pdf

Feldman, K. 2016. Actionable Feedback for Teachers: The Missing Element in School Improvement. St Paul: Minnesota Association of School Administrators. Retrieved from: https://www.mnasa.org/cms/lib6/MN07001305/Centricity/Domain/44/Feldman%20Actionable%20Feedback%20for%20Teachers.pdf

Finley, T. 2017. Teaching Performance Feedback with Video: 21st-Century Tools and Tips. Accessed 9 April 2018: http://www.insightadvance.com/blog/teaching-performance-feedback-with-video-21st-century-tools-and-tips

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2018c. ‘Topic 2: Giving Teachers better Feedback’. In: Teaching for the Future, Effective classroom practices to transform education (p. 104-112). Paris: OECD Publishing. Retrieved from: https://read.oecd-ilibrary.org/education/teaching-for-the-future_9789264293243-en#page3

Ortega Goodspeed, T. 2014. PREAL Policy Brief: How Effectively do Latin American Teachers Manage their Classrooms to Support Learning? Washington, D.C.: Inter-American Dialogue. Retrieved from: https://prealblog.files.wordpress.com/2014/07/final-time-on-task-brief-7-23-14-pdf.pdf

Puryear, J. 2015. Producing High Quality Teachers in Latin-America. PREAL Policy Brief. Washington D.C.: Inter-American Dialogue. Retrieved from: http://www.thedialogue.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/Producing-High-Quality-Teachers-v.2.pdf

The World Bank. 2016. Using Teacher Feedback Program to Improve Learning: A SIEF-supported Impact Evaluation in Brazil. Accessed 10 April 2018: http://www.worldbank.org/en/programmes/sief-trust-fund/brief/ceara-teacher-feedback-program

To explore further

For more information about each specific observation system:

References
Pouezevara, S.; Pflepsen, A.; Nordstrum, L.; King, S.; Gove, A. 2016. Measures of quality through classroom observation for Sustainable Development Goals: Lessons from low-and-middle-income countries. Paris: RTI International. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002458/245841E.pdf

Silver Strong & Associates Thoughtful Education Press. 2014. The Thoughtful Classroom Teacher Effectiveness Framework: Basic Rubric. New Jersey: Silver Strong & Associates Thoughtful Education Press. Retrieved from: https://www.thoughtfulclassroom.com/PDFs/TCTEF/TCTEF_Basic_Rubric.pdf

For a comparison between Stallings and CLASS:

References
Bruns, B.; Luque, J. 2015. Great Teachers: How to Raise Student Learning in Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://www.teachersforefa.unesco.org /tmwg/blog2/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Teachers-in-Latin-America.pdf

For specific information about CLASS:

References
The World Bank. 2017c. The Classroom Assessment Scoring System (CLASS). Accessed 9 April 2018: http://www.worldbank.org/en/programmes/sief-trust-fund/brief/the-classroom-assessment-scoring-system-class).

For specific information about Stallings Classroom Snapshot:

References
The World Bank. 2015a. Conducting Classroom Observations: Analyzing Classrooms Dynamics and Instructional Time, Using the Stallings “Classroom Snapshot” Observation System. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/790221467997639302/pdf/97904-WP-Box391498B-PUBLIC-WB-Stallings-web.pdf

The World Bank. 2017d. The Stallings classroom observation system. Accessed 9 April 2018: http://www.worldbank.org/en/programmes/sief-trust-fund/brief/the-stallings-classroom-snapshot

The World Bank. 2017e. What is the Stallings Classroom Snapshot. Accessed 9 April 2018: http://pubdocs.worldbank.org/en/367741474387667551/How-to-Install-Stallings-V2.pdf

Policy options for improving Equity and Inclusion

Gender-responsive policies

Promising policy options

Track classroom practices’ gender-responsiveness through classroom observation systems

Classroom observation systems can be used by educational planners and decision-makers to track the extent to which policies –taken at the national or local level– to create inclusive, gender-responsive education systems, are transforming teachers’ practice within the classrooms (e.g. teaching pedagogies, relationships between the teachers and the students, seating arrangements, language employed by teachers and students, among others.) They can also be used to identify the factors contributing to a low level of participation and learning attainment of specific students in the classroom (Rimer et al., n.d.).

To assess the impact of gender-responsive policy reform in classroom practice and the extent to which classroom practices promote equity, a consensus must be built upon the specific aspects of gender sensitivity in teaching practices which will be included in the classroom observation tools (UNESCO, 2016).

The following tools can be used:

Classroom mapping tools: serve to ‘determine the equitable distribution of space, attention and participation among female and male students’ (Rimer et al., n.d.: 144). (For more specific information on how to conceive and use a mapping tool as well as learn about specific country examples consult Rimer et al., n.d.: 144-148.)

Classroom observation tools to analyse teachers and learners’ interactions: classroom observations tools can be used to track the quality of the interactions between teachers and students, and monitor the extent to which pedagogic approaches implemented by teachers are gender-responsive. Through this instrument, it is possible to analyse:

  • the type and frequency of interactions between the teacher and the student;
  • the amount of attention provided to girls and boys;
  • whether boys participate more than girls, or vice versa;
  • which students are not participating and why;
  • whether feedback is provided by teachers and what type of feedback it is; and
  • the extent to which the language and examples provided by the teacher are gender-responsive (for more information on gender-sensitive, non-violent and non-abusive language consult Policy page Language of instruction).  

(Jung and Chung, 2006; Rimer et al., n.d.; UNESCO Bangkok, 2005).

(For a specific example of such instrument as well as country examples consult Rimer et al., n.d.: 155-158. For a guidance on gender-responsive school observations consult UNESCO Bangkok, 2009: 63).

The data produced by classroom observation systems can be used to generate system-wide policy measures, which aim to strengthen the gender-responsiveness throughout the education system and increase student learning outcomes (Pouezevara et al., 2016).

References
Jung, K.; Chung, H. 2006. Gender Equality in Classroom Instruction: Introducing Gender Training for Teachers in the Republic of Korea. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok. Retrieved from https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000145992

Pouezevara, S.; Pflepsen, A.; Nordstrum, L.; King, S.; Gove, A. 2016. Measures of quality through classroom observation for Sustainable Development Goals: Lessons from low-and-middle-income countries. Paris: RTI International. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002458/245841E.pdf

Rimer, W.; Llewellyn, D.; Anderson, S.; Ellison, S.; Maldonado, M.S.; Aldave, A. n.d. Toolkit for Assessing and Promoting Equity In The Classroom: A Production Of The Equity In The Classrooms (EIC) Project. Washington: Creative Associates International, USAID. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/lifeskills/files/AssessingEquity-EIC_Toolkit.pdf

UNESCO Bangkok. 2005. Regional workshop on Inclusive Education ‘Getting All Children into School and Helping Them Learn’. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000139563?posInSet=16&queryId=0689d378-82b3-4fb0-8bee-32e8a4fff38e

UNESCO Bangkok. 2009. Gender in Education Network in Asia-Pacific (GENIA) Toolkit: Promoting Gender Equality in Education. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000186495

UNESCO. 2016. Global Education Monitoring Report Gender 2016 Education for people and planet: Creating Sustainable Futures for All. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000245752

UNESCO. 2016. Global Education Monitoring Report Gender Review: Creating Sustainable Futures for All. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000246045

Provide actionable feedback, training, and peer collaboration

In order to create a gender-responsive education system, the methods described in the general part of this Policy page apply as well (c.f. observational coaching, peer-to-peer collaboration, video feedback, school head or supervisor’s observation). Teachers will benefit from those observations by reflecting –in collaboration with their peers– the extent to which their individual teaching practices are gender-responsive and the ways in which they can enhance them to make them more gender-sensitive and inclusive in general (UNESCO, 2004).

Provide constructive feedback, as well as on-going support, as this is essential in the process (Meijer, 2001; UNESCO, 2017a). Peer-feedback is proven to help teachers improve their teaching skills and facilitate student’s learning (for a specific guide on how to introduce peer feedback, supervision and teacher feedback consult Hollenweger and Krompák, 2017).

References
Hollenweger, J.; Krompák, E. 2017. Teacher manual of school-based and classroom-based activities to support all learners. Skopje: UNICEF. https://www.unicef.org/serbia/sites/unicef.org.serbia/files/2018-10/Teacher_manual.pdf

Meijer, C.J.W. 2001. Inclusive Education and Effective Classroom Practices. Odense: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. Retrieved from: https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/inclusive-education-and-effective-classroom-practice_IECP-Literature-Review.pdf

UNESCO. 2004. Teacher Education Resource Pack Student materials. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000137881?posInSet=4&queryId=8c276c0b-c4a9-450d-b9c9-96641e8bb69e

UNESCO. 2017a. A guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002482/248254e.pdf

Policies for children with disabilities

Promising policy options

Track inclusive practices through classroom observation systems

Classroom observations can help educational planners, school management and teachers to ‘learn more about inclusive and exclusive education practices’ (EENET, 2015: 34). They can help recognize ‘current practices and measure changes in practices over time as a result of interventions such as teacher training, policy developments or other inputs’ (Pouezevara et al., 2016: 50). Therefore, classroom observation tools can be mobilized by educational planners and decision-makers to assess the extent to which policy reforms, meant to create inclusive schools, are transforming teachers’ classroom practice so that it benefits all students. These tools can also help identify factors contributing to low levels of participation and learning attainment of students with disabilities in the classroom (Rimer et al., n.d.).

The data produced by classroom observation systems can be used to generate system-wide policy measures, which aim to strengthen equity throughout the education system and increase students learning outcomes (Pouezevara et al., 2016). (For an example of a classroom observation tool used to track how inclusive classroom practices are, consult Save the Children, 2016: 50). 

References
EENET (Enabling Education Network). 2005. Learning from Difference: An Action Research Guide for Capturing the Experience of Developing Inclusive Education. Oxford: EENET. Retrieved from: https://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Learning%20from%20Difference%20Guidelines.pdf

Pouezevara, S.; Pflepsen, A.; Nordstrum, L.; King, S.; Gove, A. 2016. Measures of quality through classroom observation for Sustainable Development Goals: Lessons from low-and-middle-income countries. Paris: RTI International. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002458/245841E.pdf

Rimer, W.; Llewellyn, D.; Anderson, S.; Ellison, S.; Maldonado, M.S.; Aldave, A. n.d. Toolkit for Assessing and Promoting Equity In The Classroom: A Production Of The Equity In The Classrooms (EIC) Project. Washington: Creative Associates International, USAID. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/lifeskills/files/AssessingEquity-EIC_Toolkit.pdf

Save the Children. 2016. Inclusive Education: What, Why, and How – A Handbook for Program Implementers.  London: Save the Children. Retrieved from: https://www.savethechildren.it/sites/default/files/files/uploads/pubblicazioni/inclusive-education-what-why-and-how.pdf

Provide actionable feedback, training and peer collaboration

‘Inclusive Teachers are life-long learners; they are interested in improving their practices and are open to feedback. This attitude should be nurtured and supported in schools’ (Hollenweger and Krompák, 2017: 28). School management should make sure to apply and enhance methods such as observational coaching, peer-to-peer collaboration, video feedback, as well as school head or supervisor’s observation, in order to support teachers in their improvement process. This will ultimately lead to creating more inclusive teaching practices and generally an inclusive education system.

Teachers will benefit from observations by reflecting –in collaboration with their peers– the extent to which their individual teaching practices are inclusive and help teachers identify effective teaching strategies and classroom practices to promote equitable participation and address the diverse needs of all learners (IBE-UNESCO, 2016; Ainscow, 2005; UNESCO, 2004). 

Provide constructive feedback, as well as on-going support, as this is essential in the process (Meijer, 2001; UNESCO, 2017a). Peer-feedback is proven to help teachers improve their teaching skills and enable all children to learn (for a specific guide on how to introduce peer feedback, supervision feedback and teacher feedback consult Hollenweger and Krompák, 2017).

References
Ainscow, M. 2005. ‘Developing inclusive education systems: what are the levers for change?’ In: Journal of Educational Change, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 109-124.

Hollenweger, J.; Krompák, E. 2017. Teacher manual of school-based and classroom-based activities to support all learners. Skopje: UNICEF. https://www.unicef.org/serbia/sites/unicef.org.serbia/files/2018-10/Teacher_manual.pdf

IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). 2016.Training Tools for Curriculum Development – Reaching Out to All Learners: a Resource Pack for Supporting Inclusive Education. Geneva: IBE-UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000243279?posInSet=26&queryId=583170d7-cb0d-430f-bc8e-c0ced5165649

Meijer, C.J.W. 2001. Inclusive Education and Effective Classroom Practices. Odense: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. Retrieved from: https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/inclusive-education-and-effective-classroom-practice_IECP-Literature-Review.pdf

Rimer, W.; Llewellyn, D.; Anderson, S.; Ellison, S.; Maldonado, M.S.; Aldave, A. n.d. Toolkit for Assessing and Promoting Equity In The Classroom: A Production Of The Equity In The Classrooms (EIC) Project. Washington: Creative Associates International, USAID. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/lifeskills/files/AssessingEquity-EIC_Toolkit.pdf

UNESCO. 2004. Teacher Education Resource Pack Student materials. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000137881?posInSet=4&queryId=8c276c0b-c4a9-450d-b9c9-96641e8bb69e

UNESCO. 2017a. A guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002482/248254e.pdf  

Policies for displaced populations and host communities

Promising policy options

Sensitivity training for teachers to foster Emotional Skill Development

It is important to focus on managing emotions for the development of the students. Students whose normal development has been hindered may not have had the chance to learn how to manage intense feelings. Basic emotional skill development includes naming feelings, expressing feelings appropriately, changing the intensity of feelings (i.e., stronger feeling, less intense feeling, no feeling or switched to another feeling). In order to achieve this in a classroom, host communities need to equip teachers to deal with this in an efficient and effective manner. Some of the ways in which this can be fostered are (TeachingRefugees 2014):

  • Usage of feeling words and expressions in classrooms: Teaching appropriate emotional expressions correlates with teaching emotional vocabulary. Explaining students the words they need to use instead of hitting or pushing is important. Schools should focus on working with refugee students to work out the conflicts they face in classrooms. Appropriate exercises need to be put in place to assist students to understand their emotions and work through them. For example, TeachingRefugees suggests an exercise where they coloured feelings on life-size body tracings of the students, to show where they felt the feeling of happiness, anger, sadness, etc. They also built a personal book of how to turn happiness up, turn sad down, etc. (Teachingrefugees 2014)
  • Focusing on calming actions, programs and spaces: Calming and motivating sentences need to be adapted by teachers when having discussions with refugees students, for example, starting a sentence with “What I like about you is..”. Calming strategies will need to apply on an individual level to reap maximum benefits. Pairing up refugee students with other students who speak their language also helps in creating a more conducive environment for them to open up about their emotions.
  • Identifying when a student needs to be referred for counselling: Teachers are often the first to refer students for additional support such as counselling. Students with a refugee background are at risk for mental health issues from past losses, multiple stressors and traumas, as well as current acculturation challenges and additional stressors.
  • Basic counselling teacher-training should become a priority when dealing with students from displaced populations, in order to avoid self-harm and harm to others. This will train them to identify destructive behaviour in classrooms and curtail them from getting out of hand.

* All of the policies and strategies previously recommended apply for this category.

References
Teaching refugees with limited formal schooling. 2014. Retrieved from: http://teachingrefugees.com/socio-emotional-supports/classroom-strategies/tips-for-teachers/

Veronica Lopez. 2014. Education and Development Post-2015. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso. UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.unesco.org/new/fileadmin/MULTIMEDIA/FIELD/Santiago/pdf/APUNTE04-ING.pdf

Plan International. The Right to Inclusive, Quality Education. Retrieved from: https://plan-international.org/publications/inclusive-quality-education

UNESCO. 2018. Ensuring the right to equitable and inclusive quality education–Results of the 9th Consultation. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000251463?posInSet%20=6&queryId=9e5cc75d-0a13-40b6-b696-45c01bdec668

UNESCO. 2019. Enforcing the right to education of refugees: a policy perspective (Draft). Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000366839?posInSet=22&queryId=N-0e43e906-a7de-4f08-a262-f3118e5a27a1

Policies for minority populations

Promising policy options

Continuous Assessment and Evaluation

Assessment and evaluation are guided by the objective of enabling and empowering students to become culturally grounded and knowledgeable participants and actors in their own communities as well as in the national and global society. This means basing assessment and evaluation on culturally appropriate standards and criteria as well as on general national standards. (Linda and Sabine 2004). Assessment and evaluation should incorporate the role and responsibilities of the parents, community elders, teachers and schools.

Continuous evaluation should aim at including strategies as observation, informal interviews, self-evaluation and continual assessment of performance throughout the class programme or term.

Culturally appropriate evaluation should integrate the traditional ethnic strategies with the standardised national strategies involving the inquiry and testing during the evaluation, in order to identify educational development in terms of cultural knowledge and skills, including proficiency in local and national languages, along with academic and scientific knowledge.

Data collection and implementation of favourable classroom practices for ethnic minorities

The assessment and evaluation should be compared via data collection and analysis from a nationally-representative sample of schools. There is a need to focus on the implementation of favourable improvement efforts at both the district and school levels that are incorporated into every facet of the school’s function, such as curricular choices, extracurricular activities, rules and policies, and the school’s goals and mission, this should be done by involving every member of the school community. (National Institute of Justice, 2018)

Other policies options for Ethnic minorities are: (a) providing actionable feedback, training and peer collaboration; (b) Classroom observation systems. These methods are described in the General Policies section of this Policy page.

References
King Linda. Schielmann Sabine. 2004. The Challenge of indigenous education: practice and perspectives. Unesco. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000134773

U.S. Department of Justice. 2018. Creating and Sustaining a Positive and Communal School Climate. National Institute of Justice. Retrieved from: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/250209.pdf

Meijer, C.J.W. 2001. Inclusive Education and Effective Classroom Practices. Odense: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. Retrieved from: https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/inclusive-education-and-effective-classroom-practice_IECP-Literature-Review.pdf

UNESCO. 2004. Teacher Education Resource Pack Student materials. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000137881?posInSet=4&queryId=8c276c0b-c4a9-450d-b9c9-96641e8bb69e

UNESCO. 2017a. A guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002482/248254e.pdf

Policies for OVCs and HIV affected populations

Promising policy options

Link behavioral management with consideration of children’s personal circumstances

Teachers need to be aware of the link between children’s psycho-emotional trauma, home circumstances, and their behavior in school in order to properly address their behavioral issues in the classroom. A child may be late to school because they are caring for a sick family member, or younger siblings in the absence of a capable guardian. Punishing this child would likely not achieve anything, and could discourage them from participating and attending school. Part of this understanding will involve cultivating a caring, compassionate relationship with students as when teachers respond harshly to students, it might make them fearful and unwilling to disclose the personal issues that they are facing.

A number of strategies exist, including training teachers on recognizing signs for when children need help and how to respond to them, collaboration with administration to address children’s specific needs, and adapt disciplinary measures, create assignments giving children the opportunity to discuss personal issues, anonymous suggestion boxes where children can inform teachers or the school of anything they want them to know, and increasing awareness of children’s home circumstances and communication with caregivers, such as through social records, regular meetings between teachers and guardians, home visits, and « Communication books” where guardians can write down notes to teachers and vice versa (UNESCO Nairobi, 2005).

References
Andersen, L.; Nyamukapa, C.; Gregson, S.; Pufall, E.; Mandanhire, C.; Mutsikiwa, A.; Gawa, R.; Skovdal, m.; Campbell, C. 2014. The role of schools in supporting children affected by HIV: Stakeholder report 2014. Harare: Biomedical Research and training Institute. Retrieved from: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/57266/1/__lse.ac.uk_storage_LIBRARY_Secondary_libfile_shared_repository_Content_Andersen,%20L_Role%20of%20schools%20supporting%20children_Andersen_Role%20of%20schools%20supporting_2014.pdf

Namibia. 2008. Ministry of Education. Education sector policy for orphans and vulnerable children. ‘Building a learning nation.’ Windhoek. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/namibia/MoE_2008_Policy_on_OVC_for_MoE_text.pdf

UNESCO. 2006. HIV & AIDS and safe, secure and supportive learning environments. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.hivpolicy.org/Library/HPP001275.pdf

UNESCO Nairobi. 2005. From policy to practice: An HIV and AIDS training kit for education sector professionals (Draft). UNESCO: Nairobi. Retrieved from: https://hivhealthclearinghouse.unesco.org/sites/default/files/resources/Training%20kit_HIVAIDS_UNESCO.pdf

Policies for pastoralists and nomadic populations

All of the policies and strategies previously recommended apply for this category. While at this time there is no specific literature on classroom observation systems for pastoralist/nomadic schools, there is a need for further research in this area, particularly for alternative school models.

Updated on 2021-06-16

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