Individual learning needs

Education systems have the obligation to provide quality education to all learners, while recognizing that students come from different backgrounds, have diverse characteristics, and therefore have different learning styles and needs (UNESCO, 1994). Education systems must be able to sufficiently cater to every child, providing the opportunity for every child to adequately learn, and offering any additional required support. When children experience any learning difficulties, it is the responsibility of the system to respond and provide support, without isolating them from other students.

Children’s individual learning needs can be supported through adopting inclusive education practices. While in some countries, the approach of inclusion is associated with including children with disabilities in regular schooling systems, inclusive education is more broadly aimed to ‘eliminate social exclusion resulting from attitudes and responses to diversity in race, social class, ethnicity, religion, gender and ability’ (IBE-UNESCO, 2008b: 5). Inclusive education emphasizes the participation of all learners, and that every learner matters, and matters equally; differences between children and their learning capabilities are not seen as problems but rather opportunities that can benefit and enrich the education of all children (UNESCO, 2017a).

Implementing inclusive education and effectively addressing every child’s learning needs involves strengthening national frameworks to ensure that policy emphasizes inclusion and equity; training teachers in inclusive education and to be more sensitive and equipped in responding to children’s individual learning needs; as well as reforming curriculum and assessments for flexibility and accessibility. Additional support may be required for some students such as support centres, resource teachers and assistive and technological devices. Early identification and intervention of any difficulties and/or disabilities will also be key in providing proper support and reducing future learning issues, as well as collaborating with parents and the community. Other factors such as language of teaching, and the school environment must also be considered to ensure that all children’s learning meets are being met.

References
IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). 2008b. Reference document on the 48th session of the International Conference on Education: “Inclusive education: the way of the future.” Geneva: IBE-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Policy_Dialogue/48th_ICE/CONFINTED_48-3_English.pdf

UNESCO. 1994. The Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Educational Needs. Salamanca: Ministry of Education and Science Spain and UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.unesco.org/education/pdf/SALAMA_E.PDF

UNESCO. 2017a. A guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002482/248254e.pdf

Promising policy options

Strengthening national frameworks on inclusive education

National education policies should emphasise inclusion and equity. Instead of creating parallel systems, inclusive systems must cater to the needs of all children, including children with disabilities and special needs, displaced students, and minority populations, among many others. Teachers must be equipped to respond to a wide diversity of students. This can be done through adapted pre-service and in-service teacher training (see below). A flexible curriculum, that can respond to the learning needs and styles of diverse students (see below) must also be promoted.

Provide schools with resources to be fully accessible. Budget allocation for inclusive education should include teaching training, staffing, operational and support costs, as well as resources needed to adapt to school infrastructure, curriculum, and provide assistive devices. It should be based on up-to-date data on the number of children with special needs and/or disabilities and their requirements.

Collaboration and established coordination mechanism with the Ministry of Health and other relevant ministries for a holistic approach to providing services to children with disabilities and special needs. Promote partnerships with parents, community members, Disability People’s Organisations (DPOs), and NGOs working with disadvantaged populations (due to their race, social class, ethnicity, religion, gender, legal status, and ability).

References
UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), DSPD (Division for Social Policy and Development). 2016. Toolkit on disability for Africa: Inclusive education. UNDESA, DSPD. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/documents/disability/Toolkit/Inclusive-Education.pdf

UNESCO. 2009d. Towards inclusive education for children with disabilities: A guideline. Bangkok: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001924/192480e.pdf

UNESCO. 2015f. The right to education for persons with disabilities: Overview of the measures supporting the right to education for persons with disabilities reported on by member states. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002325/232592e.pdf

UNESCO. 2017a. A guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002482/248254e.pdf

Teacher training on inclusive education

Teacher training programmes are reformed to focus on inclusive education principles and techniques, by emphasizing positive attitude towards inclusion for all children, and that every child matters equally, through embedded inclusive pedagogy (Spratt and Florian, 2013).

In-service training can take place as short-term courses, within the school or by support centres, which must be exciting, motivating, participatory and empowering for teachers. Training must change teachers’ perceptions without being threatening or discounting teachers’ experience. It should also encourage teacher collaboration, since supporting each other is key in utilizing new teaching methods and concepts.

Training content should strive to provide an explicit understanding of inclusive education and the right of all children to receive an education, by promoting a positive attitude about inclusive education. Trainings should include methodologies for teaching diverse groups of learners, child-centered participatory pedagogic methods, knowledge about the range of learning issues, disabilities, and special needs, and methods for how to identify and respond to children’s abilities and particular learning barriers. It should also have methodologies for diverse assessment, how to adapt curriculum, how to use assistive devices, and cover classroom and behavior management techniques. Finally, consider that training should be context-specific and based around the local cultural and socio-economic elements.

There are a number of potential strategies for continuous professional development and support:

  • school clusters- networks of 4-6 schools that share resources and encourage professional development;
  • build the capacity of education supervisors, who will follow up with on teachers after training;
  • build the capacity of Head Teachers to support positive change in school and community; and
  • awareness-raising among the student body and school personnel about inclusive education objectives.
References
Ainsow, M. 2004. Special needs in the classroom: A teacher education guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/135116e.pdf

Grimes, P.; Stevens M.; Kumar, K. 2015. Paper commissioned for the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2015, Education for All 2000-2015: achievements and challenges. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002324/232454E.pdf

Mariga, L.; McConkey, R.; Myezwa, H. 2014. Inclusive education in low-income countries: A resource book for teacher educators, parent trainers and community development workers. Cape Town: Atlas Alliance and Disability Innovations Africa. Retrieved from: http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Inclusive_Education_in_Low_Income_Countries.pdf

Spratt, J.; Florian, L. 2013. ‘Applying the principles of inclusive pedagogy in initial teacher education: from university based course to classroom action’. In: Revista de Investigación en Educación, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 133-140.

UNESCO. 2009d. Towards inclusive education for children with disabilities: A guideline. Bangkok: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001924/192480e.pdf

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2009d. Child friendly schools manual. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Child_Friendly_Schools_Manual_EN_040809.pdf

Pedagogical strategies to address individual learning needs

The child-centred teaching approach strives to create accessible learning for all through the use of inclusive pedagogy. Teachers acknowledge the differences between learners, but instead of providing ‘different’ or ‘additional’ teaching and learning experiences for some, they extend the range of options available to all pupils to ensure that all of them participate and learn (this avoids ability-labelling as well as the marginalisation of some children by treating them differently) (Florian, 2015).

To achieve this, it is possible to utilise a range of teaching techniques, such as the use of aids, which can be visual- diagrams, drawings, maps, posters, films, etc., auditory- story-telling, questions, problem solving, music, etc., and kinaesthetic- movement, artistic activities, plays, etc.

Another way of doing this is by modelling- showing learners what they have to do, like breaking learning activity up in small steps, giving annual guidance, gestural prompts, verbal prompts, and rewards, and by using multi-sensory approaches.

Inclusive educational assessments are a way of implementing continuous formative assessments and provide immediate and constructive feedback to students (for more information consult Policy page Student learning assessments).

A number of strategies to provide individual assistance within the classroom exist. The concept of individual assistance or support should be made available for all of the students (with and without disabilities) (Florian, 2016), by identifying the need for additional support, and by analysing if the need for additional support by the students is met, and if the support provided is adequate.

The following strategies should be carefully planned, so as not to segregate certain children, but rather help them to fully and actively participate along with the rest of their peers:

  • the teacher can spend time with individual students needing extra assistance while the rest of the class is working in groups;
  • peer-tutoring;
  • older students assisting;
  • combining classes with other teachers;
  • volunteers who assist students;
  • resource or specialist teachers;
  • teacher’s assistants; and
  • parents go over lessons at home.

Some ways of addressing common learning difficulties are:

  • slow learning pace-accepting that students may learn a little at a time;
  • poor memory- continuous repetition;
  • poor concentration- shorter teaching segments, with breaks in-between; and
  • speech issues- try different methods of communication, be patient, teach in the native language (for more information consult Policy page Language of instruction).

Strategies for encouraging inclusion within the classroom can include:

  • extend the range of teaching and learning options available to all pupils;
  • foster a sense of inclusion within the class (students must understand and embrace diversity);
  • foster a sense of community, encouraging students to support each other in their learning;
  • encourage diverse grouping within the classroom;
  • encourage students to be friendly with everyone; and
  • group class activities where everyone is included.

Finally, in order to improve lesson planning, it is possible to:

  • consider the outcome teachers want for the entire class, and then for individual students;
  • consider how students best learn, take into account diverse learning styles;
  • actively involving children in lessons and maintaining engagement;
  • adjusting the pace of the lesson as needed;
  • group work that involves all students; and
  • consider modifications that are necessary to include all students.

*For specific information concerning inclusive pedagogy consults the section Children with disabilities within the Policy page Classroom practices.

References
Ainsow, M. 2004. Special needs in the classroom: A teacher education guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/135116e.pdf

Florian, L. 2015. ‘Inclusive Pedagogy: A transformative approach to individual differences but can it help reduce educational inequalities?’. In: Scottish Educational Review, Vol. 47, No.1, pp. 5-14.

Florian, L. 2016. ‘Inclusive Pedagogy in Scotland: from theory to practice’. Presented at the Conférence de Comparaisons Internationales – Ecole inclusive pour les élèves en situation de handicap, 28-29 January 2019. Retrieved from: http://www.cnesco.fr/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/10_Florian.pdf

IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). 2017c. Training Tools for Curriculum Development: Personalized Learning. Geneva: IBE-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0025/002500/250057e.pdf

Mariga, L.; McConkey, R.; Myezwa, H. 2014. Inclusive education in low-income countries: A resource book for teacher educators, parent trainers and community development workers. Cape Town: Atlas Alliance and Disability Innovations Africa. Retrieved from: http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Inclusive_Education_in_Low_Income_Countries.pdf

Rieser, R. 2012. Implementing inclusive education: A commonwealth guide to implementing article 24 of the UN Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. London: Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved from: http://www.globaldisabilityrightsnow.org/sites/default/files/related-files/346/Implementing_Inclusive_Education_Article_24_in_CRPD.pdf

Spratt, J.; Florian, L. 2013. ‘Applying the principles of inclusive pedagogy in initial teacher education: from university based course to classroom action’. In: Revista de Investigación en Educación, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 133-140.

UNESCO. 2005c. Guidelines for inclusion: Ensuring access to education for all. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001402/140224e.pdf

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2014. Teachers, Inclusive, Child-Centred Teaching and Pedagogy: Webinar 12 – Companion Technical Booklet. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/eca/education

Individual Education Plans

Guarantee that Individual Education Plans (IEP) are being used to ensure that all children get the necessary support they need to effectively participate and learn in mainstream settings, without leading to the exclusion or isolation of certain children (UNESCO, 2001). The following considerations should be kept in mind for that purpose:

  • ‘Are Individual Education Plans about providing access to, and supporting participation within, a common curriculum?
  • Do Individual Education Plans for some students improve the teaching and learning arrangements for all students?’ (Booth and Ainscow, 2002: 64).

IEPs should:

  • take into account diversity and the specific needs of each student;
  • be provided to all students (instead of solely to children with disabilities to avoid ability labelling);
  • track the students’ progress in relation to their individualized learning goals;
  • be made in collaboration with the classrooms teacher, the student, the student’s family and if possible and when required, with support or specialized education centres;
  • be shared among all of the teachers to cater to all students’ needs; and
  • be reviewed by Head Teachers.
References
Booth, T.; Ainscow, M. 2002. Index for Inclusion: developing learning and participation in schools. Bristol: CSIE (Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education). Retrieved from: https://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Index%20English.pdf   

Florian, L. 2015. ‘Inclusive Pedagogy: A transformative approach to individual differences but can it help reduce educational inequalities?’. In: Scottish Educational Review, Vol. 47, No.1, pp. 5-14

Loreman, T. 2017. Pedagogy for Inclusive Education. Oxford Research Enclyclopedias. Retrieved from: https://oxfordre.com/education/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.001.0001/acrefore-9780190264093-e-148

Mariga, L.; McConkey, R.; Myezwa, H. 2014. Inclusive education in low-income countries: A resource book for teacher educators, parent trainers and community development workers. Cape Town: Atlas Alliance and Disability Innovations Africa. Retrieved from: http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Inclusive_Education_in_Low_Income_Countries.pdf

Meijer, C.J.W. 2001. Inclusive Education and Effective Classroom Practices. Odense: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. Retrieved from: https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/inclusive-education-and-effective-classroom-practice_IECP-Literature-Review.pdf

Norwich, B. 2016. ‘Conceptualizing Special Educational Needs Using a Biopsychosocial Model in England: The Prospects and Challenges of Using the International Classification of Functioning Framework’. In: Frontiers in Education. 1:5. Retrieved from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feduc.2016.00005/full

Rieser, R. 2012. Implementing inclusive education: A commonwealth guide to implementing article 24 of the UN Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. London: Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved from: http://www.globaldisabilityrightsnow.org/sites/default/files/related-files/346/Implementing_Inclusive_Education_Article_24_in_CRPD.pdf.

Rotter, K. 2014. ‘IEP Use by General and Special Education Teachers’. In: Sage Open. Retrieved from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2158244014530410#articleCitationDownloadContainer

Save the Children. 2016. Inclusive Education: What, Why, and How – A Handbook for Program Implementers.  London: Save the Children. Retrieved from: https://www.savethechildren.it/sites/default/files/files/uploads/pubblicazioni/inclusive-education-what-why-and-how.pdf

Spratt, J.; Florian, L. 2013. ‘Applying the principles of inclusive pedagogy in initial teacher education: from university based course to classroom action’. In: Revista de Investigación en Educación, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 133-140.

UNESCO. 2001. Open File on Inclusive Education: Support Materials for Managers and Administrators. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000125237

Early intervention and identification of learning and/or developmental issues

Encourage families to send their children to pre-school and promote the importance of early learning. Collaborate with different Ministries (such as the Ministry of Social Affairs and the Ministry of Health), NGOs, DPOs, and other relevant stakeholders to develop a system for early identification of learning issues, special needs, and disabilities, and early intervention services. Services should be available both as home visits or in health and education centres, be in constant coordination with community-based services, and design awareness campaigns and capacity building at the community level.

Collaboration between early intervention services and pre-schools is important, as well as the fact that pre-school teachers be trained in the different types of learning issues and disabilities, and specific strategies for identification and intervention (use of screening tools). Early childhood education curriculum should promote inclusive learning by recognizing that children learn at different paces in the early years.

* For more on this subject, consult Policy page School readiness.

References
UNESCO. 2015c. Embracing Diversity: Toolkit for creating inclusive, learning-friendly environments- Specialized booklet 3: Teaching children with disabilities in inclusive settings. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001829/182975e.pdf

Accessible and flexible curriculum

There are certain criteria that need to be respected in order to have an accessible and flexible curriculum. For a curriculum to be considered accessible and flexible:

  • it should be gender-responsive and inclusive;
  • it recognizes different learning capabilities, and a range of learning styles;
  • it is structured but also flexible for different levels of achievement among students: Flexible time-frame for students to accomplish skills at different periods;
  • the curriculum is student-centred and interactive;
  • teachers can adjust curriculum to fit the needs of individual students;
  • not only emphasis on academics, but also life skills, social development, and practical skills;
  • takes into account backgrounds and diversity of the students (gender, cultural and ethnic identity, language and ability); and
  • promotes human rights and non-violence.

* For more on this subject, consult Policy page Curriculum.

References
IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). 2017c. Training Tools for Curriculum Development: Personalized Learning. Geneva: IBE-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0025/002500/250057e.pdf

Mariga, L.; McConkey, R.; Myezwa, H. 2014. Inclusive education in low-income countries: A resource book for teacher educators, parent trainers and community development workers. Cape Town: Atlas Alliance and Disability Innovations Africa. Retrieved from: http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Inclusive_Education_in_Low_Income_Countries.pdf

UNESCO. 2015c. Embracing Diversity: Toolkit for creating inclusive, learning-friendly environments- Specialized booklet 3: Teaching children with disabilities in inclusive settings. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001829/182975e.pdf

UNESCO. 2015f. The right to education for persons with disabilities: Overview of the measures supporting the right to education for persons with disabilities reported on by member states. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002325/232592e.pdf

UNESCO. 2009d. Towards inclusive education for children with disabilities: A guideline. Bangkok: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001924/192480e.pdf

Adapting assessments

Adaptative assessments are flexible approaches that focus on individual achievements and diverse learning styles. Assessments are considered a continuous process, that is a responsibility of teachers, and are alternatives to examinations such as portfolios, projects, and peer and self-evaluation.

Concerning children with special needs, it is important to adapt to the format of assessments. Exempt certain assessments as appropriate and allow the use of technology or assistive devices.

References
IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). 2017c. Training Tools for Curriculum Development: Personalized Learning. Geneva: IBE-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0025/002500/250057e.pdf

Mariga, L.; McConkey, R.; Myezwa, H. 2014. Inclusive education in low-income countries: A resource book for teacher educators, parent trainers and community development workers. Cape Town: Atlas Alliance and Disability Innovations Africa. Retrieved from: http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Inclusive_Education_in_Low_Income_Countries.pdf

Rieser, R. 2012. Implementing inclusive education: A commonwealth guide to implementing article 24 of the UN Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. London: Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved from: http://www.globaldisabilityrightsnow.org/sites/default/files/related-files/346/Implementing_Inclusive_Education_Article_24_in_CRPD.pdf.

UNESCO. 2015f. The right to education for persons with disabilities: Overview of the measures supporting the right to education for persons with disabilities reported on by member states. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002325/232592e.pdf

UNESCO. 2017a. A guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002482/248254e.pdf

Inclusive school environments/infrastructure

School infrastructure must be gender-responsive and accessible for all students. It should provide a positive learning environment.

* For more on this subject, consult Policy page School physical infrastructure.

Language of teaching

The language of teaching may affect a student’s development and learning outcomes. It is important to teach children in their native language in the early years. Adopt a multi-language policy if there are children from different backgrounds, with the language used being gender-responsive.

* For more on this subject, consult Policy page Language of instruction.

References
UNESCO. 2015c. Embracing Diversity: Toolkit for creating inclusive, learning-friendly environments- Specialized booklet 3: Teaching children with disabilities in inclusive settings. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001829/182975e.pdf

Parent and community collaboration

Community advocacy and awareness campaigns can be created to address negative attitudes about children due to their race, social class, ethnicity, religion, gender, and ability. Workshops and programmes for family support, education and empowerment are important to boost collaboration with the school.

Information should be made readily accessible to parents and community members about how to access support for students. Families should be considered partners in providing support for learners, involving them in creating individual education plans for students. Established remedy mechanisms should be made available to address parent or community concerns or complaints.

References
Mariga, L.; McConkey, R.; Myezwa, H. 2014. Inclusive education in low-income countries: A resource book for teacher educators, parent trainers and community development workers. Cape Town: Atlas Alliance and Disability Innovations Africa. Retrieved from: http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Inclusive_Education_in_Low_Income_Countries.pdf

UNESCO. 2009d. Towards inclusive education for children with disabilities: A guideline. Bangkok: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001924/192480e.pdf

UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), DSPD (Division for Social Policy and Development). 2016. Toolkit on disability for Africa: Inclusive education. UNDESA, DSPD. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/documents/disability/Toolkit/Inclusive-Education.pdf

Support to classroom teachers

Support centres and special education centres should support schools, teachers, and families in implementing inclusive education by assisting in identifying and assessing children with disabilities, helping children transition from specialized schools to normal schools, carrying out in-service teacher training, providing in-classroom support to teachers or students and any needed adaptations, and helping obtain assistive devices and other specialized resources.

These must be well-resourced with a qualified staff, with particular expertise on inclusive education and disabilities, be family-centred, child-centred, and holistic, promote awareness in the community about the right of all children to obtain an education and de-stigmatize disabilities, and should not be used to keep children with special needs away from other students.

Resources and support from teachers can mean programs where specialized teachers are assigned to specific schools (e.g. specialist itinerant teachers), or work from support centres serving a group of schools in the area, that they can assist classroom teachers in carrying out inclusive education approaches, and provide individualized assistance to children or small groups with special needs.

References
Grant Lewis, S. 2019. ‘Opinion: The urgent need to plan for disability-inclusive education’. Devex. 6 February 2019. Accessed 4 November 2019: https://www.devex.com/news/opinion-the-urgent-need-to-plan-for-disability-inclusive-education-94059

Grimes, P.; Stevens M.; Kumar, K. 2015. Paper commissioned for the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2015, Education for All 2000-2015: achievements and challenges. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002324/232454E.pdf

Howgego, C.; Miles, S.; Myers, J. 2014. Inclusive Learning: Children with disabilities and difficulties in learning. Oxford: HEART (Health & Education Advice & Resource Team). Retrieved from: http://www.heart-resources.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Inclusive-Learning-Topic-Guide.pdf?9d29f8=.  

Sæbønes, A.-M.; Berman Bieler, R.; Baboo, N.; Banham, L.; Singal, N.; Howgego, C.; Vuyiswa McClain-Nhlapo, C.; Riis-Hansen, T. C.; Dansie, G. A. 2015. ‘Towards a disability inclusive education’. Background paper for the Oslo Summit on Education for Development, 6-7 July 2015. Retrieved from: https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1865/Oslo_Ed_Summit_DisabilityInclusive_Ed.pdf

UNESCO. 2009d. Towards inclusive education for children with disabilities: A guideline. Bangkok: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001924/192480e.pdf

UNESCO. 2017a. A guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002482/248254e.pdf

Technology and assistive devices

Schools can be provided with technology and assistive devices to support student’s learning, and make education more accessible for all students, especially learners with disabilities. This may include computers, smartphones, gaming systems, assistive technologies (hearing aids, adaptive keyboard, screen readers, etc.) accessible media and formats (DAISY- Digital Accessible Information System), learning software, and e-books.

Support/special education centres can help in organizing assistive devices for special needs learners. ICT should be included in School Development Plans, including them in school budgeting, implementing lesson planning and curriculum development, with teacher training on technology use a priority.

References
UNESCO. 2011a. Consultative expert meeting report: Accessible ICTs and personalized learning for students with disabilities: A Dialogue among educators, industry, government and civil society. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002198/219827e.pdf

UNESCO. 2015f. The right to education for persons with disabilities: Overview of the measures supporting the right to education for persons with disabilities reported on by member states. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002325/232592e.pdf

UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), DSPD (Division for Social Policy and Development). 2016. Toolkit on disability for Africa: Inclusive education. UNDESA, DSPD. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/documents/disability/Toolkit/Inclusive-Education.pdf

Policy options for improving Equity and Inclusion

Gender-responsive policies

Since all the recommended policy options were analysed from an equity and inclusion perspective, all of them apply for this section.

Mainstream gender so as to ensure that the specific concerns and needs of girls, boys, and LGBTIQ students are an integral dimension throughout the design and implementation of all of the chosen policies and thus benefit all of them equally.

Policies for children with disabilities

Since all the recommended policy options were analysed from an equity and inclusion perspective, all of them apply for this section.

Policies for displaced populations

Promising policy options

Include displaced populations in national education systems

National legal and policy frameworks must be geared towards respecting, protecting, and fulfilling the right to education of all, regardless of nationality or legal status (UNCHR, UNICEF and IOM, 2019). As expressed by the Incheon Declaration (paragraph 11) and Education 2030 Framework for Action (paragraph 57), SDG4 will not be achieved unless the needs of displaced populations –and other marginalised populations– are met (GEM Report Team and UNHCR, 2016; UNESCO, 2016). National education policy plans and legal frameworks should ensure that displaced populations are included in the national education system, instead of pursuing parallel systems –which have already proven to be an unsustainable solution (UNESCO, 2018).

Various countries have made progress in the inclusion of displaced populations in mainstream settings. For instance, Turkey has made significant efforts in ensuring all refugee students are included in the national education system while capping parallel temporary education centres (TECs) (Cerna, 2019). Kenya has also taken steps by drafting a policy for the inclusion of refugees and asylum seekers into the national education and training system (IIEP-UNESCO, 2020) and Rwanda has put in place legal and policy frameworks to ensure access to free, public education to refugee children (Global Education Monitoring Report Team and UNHCR, 2016).

To meet the needs of displaced populations and provide them quality education opportunities in mainstream settings, national authorities, with the support of international partners, must ‘adopt appropriate curriculum and language of instruction, and prepare refugee students and communities for the transition to host country education.’ (Global Education Monitoring Report Team and UNHCR, 2016: 9). This can be done by fostering pertinent learning experiences for all displaced populations, creating catch-up programmes and developing programmes for host community language acquisition, as well as ensuring individualised educational needs assessments and plans, strategies that will be explored below.

References
Cerna, L. 2019. Refugee Education: Integration Models and Practices in OECD Countries. OECD Education Working Paper No. 203. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved from: https://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=EDU/WKP(2019)11&docLanguage=En

Global Education Monitoring Report Team; UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). 2016. Policy Paper 26: No more excuses: provide education to all forcibly displaced people. Paris: UNSECO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000244847

IIEP-UNESCO. 2020. Learning together: Inclusive education for refugees in Kenya. Accessed 9 February 2022: http://www.iiep.unesco.org/en/learning-together-inclusive-education-refugees-kenya-13451

UNCHR (United Nations High Commission for Refugees); UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund); IOM (International Organization for Migration). 2019. Access to Education for Refugee and Migrant Children in Europe. Retrieved from: https://www.iom.int/sites/g/files/tmzbdl486/files/press_release/file/access-to-education-for-refugee-children.pdf

UNESCO. 2016. Education 2030: Incheon Declaration and Framework for Action for the implementation of Sustainable Development Goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all. ED-2016/WS/28. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000245656

UNESCO. 2018. Global Education Monitoring Report 2019: Migration, Displacement and Education – Building Bridges, not Walls. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000265866

Ensure relevant learning experiences to displaced populations

To guarantee displaced populations adequately benefit from educational opportunities, they must first be familiarised with the education system. Concrete and clear messages on relevant languages must be provided to displaced students and families on how the national education system operates (Cerna, 2019). At the school level, the school head, and overall the school community, must ensure that displaced students understand the schools’ culture and values, the relationships with teachers and peers, the code of conduct in place, as well as how to report any school incidence, including violence, discrimination, or prejudice (for more information consult Policy pages School climate, Teacher behaviour, and School violence).

To meet displaced students’ individual needs, classroom practices must be adapted to the specific circumstances accompanying a large influx of displaced populations, including multi-grade, multi-cultural, and large classrooms (INEE, 2010). By implementing inclusive pedagogies, trained teachers can ensure displaced students feel welcome and provide ‘good and equal learning opportunities to all learners, regardless of their diverse needs’ (Cerna, 2019: 54) (consult the general section of the present Policy page for more information on inclusive pedagogies).

Moreover, to boost displaced populations’ learning experience, adequate psychosocial support and socio-emotional programmes should be in place (Cerna, 2019) (for more information consult Policy page School climate). It is also key to foster healthy, supportive, inclusive communication between displaced populations and teachers so that their needs are adequately comprehended and taken into consideration throughout their learning process (Cerna, 2019). 

References
Cerna, L. 2019. Refugee Education: Integration Models and Practices in OECD Countries. OECD Education Working Paper No. 203. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved from: https://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=EDU/WKP(2019)11&docLanguage=En

INEE (Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2010. Guidance notes on teaching and learning. New York: INEE. Retrieved from: http://toolkit.ineesite.org/toolkit/INEEcms/uploads/1004/Guidance_Notes_on_Teaching_and_Learning_EN.pdf

Catch-up programmes

Displacement is usually accompanied by education interruptions and, in many cases, reduced schooling (Cerna, 2019). Ministries of Education, with the support of international partners, should ensure standardised, adequate, flexible, culturally-sensitive, and intensive catch-up programmes to address displaced students’ individual needs (Cerna, 2019; UNESCO, 2018; Global Education Monitoring Report Team and UNHCR, 2016; INEE, 2010). Those programmes should be included in education sector plans –or any other relevant educational planning document– to secure adequate resources and materials, and, more importantly, ensure that students entering mainstream settings are adequately prepared to do so (UNESCO, 2018).

These programmes, also known as accelerated education, introductory or welcome classes, aim to respond to the specific educational needs of displaced children, by teaching them the host country’s language, literacy skills, unknown or unfamiliar concepts, as well as addressing particular learning gaps (Cerna, 2019; Moumné and Sakai, 2017) (for specific information concerning language acquisition programmes, read below). They usually target 10 to 18 years old individuals, who have missed more than a year of schooling. They concentrate curricula into a shorter period and provide certification to ensure students can access mainstream education (UNESCO, 2018). For example, the Norwegian Refugee Council supported an accelerated learning programme in Dadaab, Kenya, which ‘condenses Kenya’s eight-year curriculum into four years. the programme is responsive to student needs, with multiple entry and exit points. At the end of each cycle, students can re-enter the formal system at a grade-appropriate level using an assessment framework agreed to by the Ministry of Education and alternative education partners’ (UNESCO, 2018: 68).

Ministries of Education and international partners supporting the development of catch-up programmes must ensure the consultation of displaced communities throughout the process to guarantee the resulting programme adequately meets displaced students’ needs (UNESCO, 2018). For example, in Scotland, 700 refugees and asylum-seekers were consulted throughout the development of literacy and language courses and as a result ‘additional attention was paid to those in the very early stages of learning English and with little or no literacy’ (Scottish Government, 2018 as cited in UNESCO, 2018: 189). It is also essential to guarantee displaced children are adequately assessed so that their educational level, language skills, as well as specific needs are identified and targeted throughout the catch-up programme (Cerna, 2019).

References
Cerna, L. 2019. Refugee Education: Integration Models and Practices in OECD Countries. OECD Education Working Paper No. 203. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved from: https://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=EDU/WKP(2019)11&docLanguage=En

Global Education Monitoring Report Team; UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). 2016. Policy Paper 26: No more excuses: provide education to all forcibly displaced people. Paris: UNSECO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000244847

INEE (Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2010. Guidance notes on teaching and learning. New York: INEE. Retrieved from: http://toolkit.ineesite.org/toolkit/INEEcms/uploads/1004/Guidance_Notes_on_Teaching_and_Learning_EN.pdf

Moumné, R.; Sakai, L. 2017. Protecting the right to education for refugees. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000251076?posInSet=12&queryId=76e4218e-0c4a-4802-958c-3e974285cd38

UNESCO. 2018. Global Education Monitoring Report 2019: Migration, Displacement and Education – Building Bridges, not Walls. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000265866

Language of teaching

Although research shows that mother-tongue instruction is key in guaranteeing the quality of educational opportunities and students’ success, helping displaced populations’ acquire the host community language must be a top priority so that they can properly integrate into the new society (Moumné and Sakai, 2017). This can be done through accelerated second language learning programmes and support throughout their educational experience. Yet, when resources allow it, these strategies should be supplemented by students’ mother tongue development (Cerna, 2019).

To learn more about this subject, consult the Policy page Language of instruction

References
Cerna, L. 2019. Refugee Education: Integration Models and Practices in OECD Countries. OECD Education Working Paper No. 203. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved from: https://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=EDU/WKP(2019)11&docLanguage=En

Moumné, R.; Sakai, L. 2017. Protecting the right to education for refugees. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000251076?posInSet=12&queryId=76e4218e-0c4a-4802-958c-3e974285cd38

Individual Education Plans

As expressed in the general section of the present Policy page, Individual Education Plans must be used to ensure all students, including displaced communities, receive the necessary support they need to effectively participate and learn in mainstream settings, without leading to their exclusion or isolation. Individual Education Plans (IEP) should be the result of an enabling initial assessment (Cerna, 2019). It is recommended to ensure the assessment is done in the student’s mother tongue ‘to best assess previous knowledge without language barriers’ (Berglund, 2017 as cited in Cerna, 2019: 37). This assessment allows teachers and headteachers to comprehend students’ knowledge of the host community’s language, education level, and well-being so as to define their learning process accordingly and provide any required additional support (Cerna, 2019). Those assessments should be complemented by regular evaluations to track students’ learning process and adapt their IEP accordingly (Cerna, 2019).

In countries such as Sweden establishing an individual learning plan is mandatory for all students starting at grade 7. The displaced students’ educational trajectory as well as additional support is defined by principals and headteachers based on the assessments (Cerna, 2019). In Finland, displaced students accessing mainstream education are also provided with an individual curriculum tailored to their specific needs and previous knowledge (Cerna, 2019). Their learning plan is defined through a collaborative process involving the teacher, the student and the family (Cerna, 2019).

References
Cerna, L. 2019. Refugee Education: Integration Models and Practices in OECD Countries. OECD Education Working Paper No. 203. Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Retrieved from: https://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/publicdisplaydocumentpdf/?cote=EDU/WKP(2019)11&docLanguage=En

Policies for minority populations

Promising policy options

Support vulnerable minority students

Minorities, particularly indigenous children, are one of the most vulnerable students. They usually come from low socioeconomic families, attend disadvantaged schools, and live in remote or poorly resourced areas (OREALC-UNESCO and LLECE, 2020). Therefore, it is key to gear policies towards supporting them. As explained by OREALC-UNESCO and LLECE (2020), those strategies should focus on:

  • Creating funding mechanisms that target the most vulnerable schools and children.
  • Improving school management in the most vulnerable areas.
  • Attracting and retaining the necessary teaching workforce to provide more and better learning opportunities to the most vulnerable schools and children.
  • Monitoring and evaluating education programmes that aim to support students’ individual learning needs in the most vulnerable schools.
  • Establishing early-childhood programmes to cater to the needs of the most vulnerable populations, as early as possible.
References
OREALC-UNESCO Santiago (UNESCO Office Santiago and Regional Bureau for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean; LLECE (Latin American Laboratory for the Assessment of Quality in Education). 2020. Inequality in learning achievement among indigenous students in Latin America. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000375139_eng?posInSet=2&queryId=edcf60a1-7865-4a91-bd59-5ae9ac15213f

Establish and implement inclusive education systems to cater for the needs of all minority students

Aligned with Sustainable Development Goal 4, States should put in place inclusive education systems which cater for the needs of all, in particular minority populations (United Nations Division for Sustainable Development Goals, 2015). Inclusive education is not about how to integrate some students into the mainstream education system. Instead, it is about creating an education system in which all learners are welcome, and their individual learning needs are addressed (UNESCO, 2005).

Decision-makers and planners must acknowledge the needs of all minority populations and in particular indigenous children. According to the United Nations Human Rights Council (2009), States are obliged to safeguard the education rights of indigenous peoples, which involves creating an inclusive education system, in which learning is adaptable to the student’s specific needs, culture, and language. This should be done with the support of the community (Nakashima, 2010). Particularly, minority communities should be encouraged to get involved in educational decision-making processes, in creating learning materials as well as designing lesson plans, among others (United Nations Human Rights Council, 2009).

As will be explored in the sub-sections below, an inclusive education system encompasses a responsive curriculum, which considers tribal, ethnic, and indigenous languages (Nakashima, 2010). This is singularly important as decades of assimilation policies have caused irreparable damage to vulnerable communities, cultures, and ethnicities. Assimilation policies are those in which the education system is seen as the path to absorb indigenous populations into the country’s mainstream culture and language, leading them to lose their lifestyle, worldview, culture and languages (UNESCO, 2019). In contrast to assimilation policies, an inclusive education system respects and welcomes diversity (UNESCO, 2019).

In addition to inclusive public systems which cater for the needs of all, decision-makers and planners must also guarantee the liberty of parents or guardians to choose an educational institution other than a public one, as well as the liberty of non-state actors to establish private educational institutions as long as they conform with minimum standards (The Abidjan Principles, 2019). This right is essential for all, especially for indigenous peoples’ who must be provided ‘the right to establish and control their educational systems and institutions’ (United Nations Human Rights Council, 2009: 9).

References
Nakashima, D. (ed.). 2010. Indigenous Knowledge in Global Policies and Practice for Education, Science and Culture. Paris:UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000265855?posInSet=12&queryId=223fc099-a01e-4e71-90d0-133154efb57f

The Abidjan Principles. 2019. The Abidjan Principles on the human rights obligations of States to provide public education and to regulate private involvement in education. Retrieved from: https://www.abidjanprinciples.org/en/principles/overview

UNESCO. 2005. Guidelines for inclusion: Ensuring access to education for all. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001402/140224e.pdf

UNESCO. 2019. Indigenous peoples’ right to education: overview of the measures supporting the right to education for indigenous peoples reported by Member States in the context of the ninth Consultation on the 1960 Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from:  https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000369698

United Nations Division for Sustainable Development Goals. 2015aSustainable Development Goal 4. Accessed 11 October 2018: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdg4

United Nations Human Rights Council. 2009. Study on lessons learned and challenges to achieve the implementation of the right of indigenous peoples to education. Report of the Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. A/HRC/EMRIP/2009/2. Retrieved from:   https://www.right-to-education.org/sites/right-to-education.org/files/resource-attachments/Expert_Mechanism_on_the_Rights_of_Indigenous_Peoples_2009_en.pdf

Language of teaching

For States to provide quality, inclusive education, the language of teaching must be one that ‘students can speak and understand’ (OREALC-UNESCO and LLECE, 2020: 12). Indeed, research highlights that Mother-Tongue Based (MTB) education boosts cognitive development and facilitates second language acquisition. For instance, experiences in Namibia, Norway and Malaysia showed that teaching children in their own language, especially during early pre-school education, creates a solid foundation for their learning (United Nations Human Rights Council, 2009). Thus, providing basic education on the student’s mother tongue is essential, while teaching a second language should be implemented gradually (King and Schielmann, 2004).

Enacting laws and setting up institutes to guarantee Mother-Tongue Based (MTB) education can go a long way to help indigenous populations receive quality education (United Nations Human Rights Council, 2009). For example, Mexico, Argentina, Venezuela and Brazil have implemented a variety of laws and strategies to safeguard indigenous linguistic rights in education (OREALC-UNESCO and LLECE, 2020).

In addition to Mother Tongue-Based (MTB) education, various countries have implemented Mother Tongue-Based Multilingual education (MTB-MLE) or bilingual education, such as Chile, New Zealand, and Sweden (OREALC-UNESCO and LLECE, 2020). To ensure successful bilingual or multilingual teaching, it is key to ensure the community’s participation in the process as well as ensure multilingual teaching strategies are included in teachers’ pre- and in-service training (Kambel, 2020). Moreover, it is key to provide textbooks, teaching aids, teacher guides and lesson plans in the relevant languages.

For more information about the language of teaching, consult the Policy page Language of instruction. For more information about teaching and learning materials, consult the Policy pages Textbook availability and content, Teacher guides and Lesson plans, as well as Availability of teaching aids).

References
Kambel, E-R. 2020. Rurality and Education in Suriname: Education and Inclusion of Remote Populations in Suriname. Background paper prepared for the 2020 GEM Report Latin America and the Caribbean. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000374773?posInSet=17&queryId=edcf60a1-7865-4a91-bd59-5ae9ac15213f

King, L.; Schielmann, S.2004. The Challenge of Indigenous Education: Practice and Perspectives. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000134773?posInSet=6&queryId=b73e5461-ac34-4a6b-ab6d-a412211452d9

OREALC-UNESCO Santiago (UNESCO Office Santiago and Regional Bureau for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean; LLECE (Latin American Laboratory for the Assessment of Quality in Education). 2020. Inequality in learning achievement among indigenous students in Latin America. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000375139_eng?posInSet=2&queryId=edcf60a1-7865-4a91-bd59-5ae9ac15213f

United Nations Human Rights Council. 2009. Study on lessons learned and challenges to achieve the implementation of the right of indigenous peoples to education. Report of the Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. A/HRC/EMRIP/2009/2. Retrieved from:   https://www.right-to-education.org/sites/right-to-education.org/files/resource-attachments/Expert_Mechanism_on_the_Rights_of_Indigenous_Peoples_2009_en.pdf

Culturally responsive education

Culturally responsive education can be defined as ‘a way of using cultural knowledge and prior experiences of diverse learner populations in making learning more useful and understandable’ (Geneva Gay 2010, as cited in Douglas, 2019). Culturally responsive education is one in which education-related laws, planning, curriculum, classroom practices, and materials acknowledge cultural diversity and address minority’s individual learning needs (Douglas, 2019).

For culturally responsive education to prevail, teachers and schools must recognise the different cultural backgrounds and languages of their minority students (Douglas, 2019). Schools must encourage students to appreciate their own cultural practices, languages and values (Douglas, 2019). Moreover, they must strive to promote values such as cooperation, respect and solidarity amongst students, which allow every member of the community to learn and live in harmony (Lopez, 2009).

Teachers must also be trained to understand and appreciate cultural differences between themselves and their students, because failing to do so can result in a cultural gap that can obstruct learning (Gay, 2010; Ladson-Billings, 2009, as cited in Region X Equity Assistance Center at Education Northwest, 2016). They must address any internal biases to ensure they acknowledge students’ diversity and address the individual learning needs of each student, by taking into consideration their strengths and accomplishments (Region X Equity Assistance Center at Education Northwest, 2016).

To ensure a culturally responsive education, the following classroom practices can be implemented (Region X Equity Assistance Center at Education Northwest, 2016; Nakashima, 2010):

  • Acknowledge a variety of cultural identities in the classroom and within learning materials.
  • Educate students about diversity and tackle cultural stereotypes and biases.
  • Advocate for equity and respect among students. For example, teachers can do this by demonstrating fairness, impartiality and a welcoming attitude towards all students.
  • Use a variety of teaching methods and, with the support of the community, include non-traditional styles that indigenous populations have used for generations to transmit knowledge, such as ‘oral wisdom’ and non-verbal communication.

Finally, culturally responsive education cannot be achieved if it is not outlined in the curriculum. Curricula and learning materials should be reformed to include the history, language, cultural practices and identity of minority populations. A culturally responsive curriculum also recognizes the importance of teaching skills that are specific to indigenous cultures and needs, such as hunting or weaving, and does not neglect the knowledge, attitudes, values, or beliefs that are unique to minority populations (Nakashima, 2010).

References
Douglas, S. 2019. Creating an inclusive school environment. London: British Council. Retrieved from: https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/sites/teacheng/files/J157_Creating%20an%20inclusive%20school%20environment%20report_FINAL_web.pdf

Lopez, L.E. 2009. Reaching the unreached: indigenous intercultural bilingual education in Latin America. Background paper prepared for the 2010 Global Education Monitoring Report. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000186620?posInSet=14&queryId=edcf60a1-7865-4a91-bd59-5ae9ac15213f

Nakashima, D. (ed.). 2010. Indigenous Knowledge in Global Policies and Practice for Education, Science and Culture. Paris:UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000265855?posInSet=12&queryId=223fc099-a01e-4e71-90d0-133154efb57f

Region X Equity Assistance Center at Education Northwest. 2016. Culturally Responsive Teaching: A Guide to Evidence-Based Practices for Teaching All Students Equitably. Portland, Oregon: Region X Equity Assistance Center at Education Northwest. Retrieved from: https://educationnorthwest.org/sites/default/files/resources/culturally-responsive-teaching.pdf

Updated on 2022-03-14

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