Individual learning needs

Promising policy options

Strengthening national frameworks on inclusive education

National education policy emphasizes inclusion and equity. Emphasis on inclusive systems, where teachers are equipped to respond to the range of abilities of students, rather than a separatist school system. Objectives for including children with disabilities and special needs should be included in national education policy. Promote a flexible curriculum, that can respond to the learning needs and styles of diverse students (see below). Adapt teacher pre-service and in-service teacher training (see below).

Provide schools with resources to be fully accessible. Budget allocation for inclusive education should include teaching training, staffing, operational and support costs, as well as resources needed to adapt to school infrastructure, curriculum, and provide assistive devices. It should be based on up-to-date data on the number of children with special needs and/or disabilities and their requirements.

Collaboration and established coordination mechanism with the Ministry of Health and other relevant ministries for a holistic approach to providing services to children with disabilities and special needs. Promote partnerships with parents, community members, Disability People’s Organisations (DPOs), and NGOs working with disadvantaged populations (due to their race, social class, ethnicity, religion, gender, and ability).

References
UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), DSPD (Division for Social Policy and Development). 2016. Toolkit on disability for Africa: Inclusive education. UNDESA, DSPD. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/documents/disability/Toolkit/Inclusive-Education.pdf

UNESCO. 2009d. Towards inclusive education for children with disabilities: A guideline. Bangkok: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001924/192480e.pdf

UNESCO. 2015f. The right to education for persons with disabilities: Overview of the measures supporting the right to education for persons with disabilities reported on by member states. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002325/232592e.pdf

UNESCO. 2017a. A guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002482/248254e.pdf

Teacher training on inclusive education

Teacher training programmes are reformed to focus on inclusive education principles and techniques, by emphasizing positive attitude towards inclusion for all children, and that every child matters equally, through embed inclusive pedagogy (Spratt and Florian, 2013).

In-service training can take place as short-term courses, within the school or by support centres, which must be exciting, motivating, participatory and empowering for teachers. Training must change teacher’s perceptions without being threatening or discounting teacher’s experience, and encourages teacher collaboration, and supporting each other in utilizing new teaching methods and concepts.

Training content should strive to provide an explicit understanding of inclusive education and the right of all children to receive an education, by promoting a positive attitude about inclusive education. Trainings should include methodologies for teaching diverse groups of learners, child-centered participatory pedagogic methods, knowledge about the range of learning issues, disabilities, and special needs, and methods for how to identify and respond to children’s abilities and particular learning barriers. It should also have methodologies for diverse assessment, how to adapt curriculum, how to use assistive devices, and cover classroom and behavior management techniques. Finally, consider that training should be context-specific and based around the local cultural and socio-economic elements.

There are a number of potential strategies for continuous professional development and support:

  • school clusters- networks of 4-6 schools that share resources and encourage professional development;
  • build the capacity of education supervisors, who will follow up with on teachers after training;
  • build the capacity of Head Teachers to support positive change in school and community; and
  • awareness-raising among the student body and school personnel about inclusive education objectives.
References
Ainsow, M. 2004. Special needs in the classroom: A teacher education guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/135116e.pdf

Grimes, P.; Stevens M.; Kumar, K. 2015. Paper commissioned for the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2015, Education for All 2000-2015: achievements and challenges. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002324/232454E.pdf

Mariga, L.; McConkey, R.; Myezwa, H. 2014. Inclusive education in low-income countries: A resource book for teacher educators, parent trainers and community development workers. Cape Town: Atlas Alliance and Disability Innovations Africa. Retrieved from: http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Inclusive_Education_in_Low_Income_Countries.pdf

Spratt, J.; Florian, L. 2013. ‘Applying the principles of inclusive pedagogy in initial teacher education: from university based course to classroom action’. In: Revista de Investigación en Educación, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 133-140.

UNESCO. 2009d. Towards inclusive education for children with disabilities: A guideline. Bangkok: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001924/192480e.pdf

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2009d. Child friendly schools manual. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Child_Friendly_Schools_Manual_EN_040809.pdf

Pedagogical strategies to address individual learning needs

The child-centred teaching approach strives to create accessible learning for all through the use of inclusive pedagogy. Teachers acknowledge the differences between learners, but instead of providing ‘different’ or ‘additional’ teaching and learning experiences for some, they extend the range of options available to all pupils to ensure that all of them participate and learn (this avoids ability-labelling as well as the marginalisation of some children by treating them differently) (Florian, 2015).

To achieve this, it is possible to utilise a range of teaching techniques, such as the use of aids, which can be visual- diagrams, drawings, maps, posters, films, etc., auditory- story-telling, questions, problem solving, music, etc., and kinaesthetic- movement, artistic activities, plays, etc.

Another way of doing this is by modelling- showing learners what they have to do, like breaking learning activity up in small steps, giving annual guidance, gestural prompts, verbal prompts, and rewards, and by using multi-sensory approaches.

Inclusive educational assessments are a way of implementing continuous formative assessments and provide immediate and constructive feedback to students (for more information consult Policy page Student learning assessments).

A number of strategies to provide individual assistance within the classroom exist. The concept of individual assistance or support should be made available for all of the students (with and without disabilities) (Florian, 2016), by identifying the need for additional support, and by analysing if the need for additional support by the students is met, and if the support provided is adequate.

The following strategies should be carefully planned, so as not to segregate certain children, but rather help them to fully and actively participate along with the rest of their peers:

  • the teacher can spend time with individual students needing extra assistance while the rest of the class is working in groups;
  • peer-tutoring;
  • older students assisting;
  • combining classes with other teachers;
  • volunteers who assist students;
  • resource or specialist teachers;
  • teacher’s assistants; and
  • parents go over lessons at home.

Some ways of addressing common learning difficulties are:

  • slow learning pace-accepting that students may learn a little at a time;
  • poor memory- continuous repetition;
  • poor concentration- shorter teaching segments, with breaks in-between; and
  • speech issues- try different methods of communication, be patient, teach in the native language (for more information consult Policy page Language of instruction).

Strategies for encouraging inclusion within the classroom can include:

  • extend the range of teaching and learning options available to all pupils;
  • foster a sense of inclusion within the class (students must understand and embrace diversity);
  • foster a sense of community, encouraging students to support each other in their learning;
  • encourage diverse grouping within the classroom;
  • encourage students to be friendly with everyone; and
  • group class activities where everyone is included.

Finally, in order to improve lesson planning, it is possible to:

  • consider the outcome teachers want for the entire class, and then for individual students;
  • consider how students best learn, take into account diverse learning styles;
  • actively involving children in lessons and maintaining engagement;
  • adjusting the pace of the lesson as needed;
  • group work that involves all students; and
  • consider modifications that are necessary to include all students.

*For specific information concerning inclusive pedagogy consults the section Children with disabilities within the Policy page Classroom practices.

References
Ainsow, M. 2004. Special needs in the classroom: A teacher education guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/135116e.pdf

Florian, L. 2015. ‘Inclusive Pedagogy: A transformative approach to individual differences but can it help reduce educational inequalities?’. In: Scottish Educational Review, Vol. 47, No.1, pp. 5-14.

Florian, L. 2016. ‘Inclusive Pedagogy in Scotland: from theory to practice’. Presented at the Conférence de Comparaisons Internationales – Ecole inclusive pour les élèves en situation de handicap, 28-29 January 2019. Retrieved from: http://www.cnesco.fr/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/10_Florian.pdf

IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). 2017c. Training Tools for Curriculum Development: Personalized Learning. Geneva: IBE-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0025/002500/250057e.pdf

Mariga, L.; McConkey, R.; Myezwa, H. 2014. Inclusive education in low-income countries: A resource book for teacher educators, parent trainers and community development workers. Cape Town: Atlas Alliance and Disability Innovations Africa. Retrieved from: http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Inclusive_Education_in_Low_Income_Countries.pdf

Rieser, R. 2012. Implementing inclusive education: A commonwealth guide to implementing article 24 of the UN Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. London: Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved from: http://www.globaldisabilityrightsnow.org/sites/default/files/related-files/346/Implementing_Inclusive_Education_Article_24_in_CRPD.pdf

Spratt, J.; Florian, L. 2013. ‘Applying the principles of inclusive pedagogy in initial teacher education: from university based course to classroom action’. In: Revista de Investigación en Educación, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 133-140.

UNESCO. 2005c. Guidelines for inclusion: Ensuring access to education for all. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001402/140224e.pdf

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2014. Teachers, Inclusive, Child-Centred Teaching and Pedagogy: Webinar 12 – Companion Technical Booklet. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/eca/education

Individual Education Plans

Guarantee that Individual Education Plans (IEP) are being used to ensure that all children get the necessary support they need to effectively participate and learn in mainstream settings, without leading to the exclusion or isolation of certain children (UNESCO, 2001). The following considerations should be kept in mind for that purpose:

  • ‘Are Individual Education Plans about providing access to, and supporting participation within, a common curriculum?
  • Do Individual Education Plans for some students improve the teaching and learning arrangements for all students?’ (Booth and Ainscow, 2002: 64).

IEPs should:

  • take into account diversity and the specific needs of each student;
  • be provided to all students (instead of solely to children with disabilities to avoid ability labelling);
  • track the students’ progress in relation to their individualized learning goals;
  • be made in collaboration with the classrooms teacher, the student, the student’s family and if possible and when required, with support or specialized education centres;
  • be shared among all of the teachers to cater to all students’ needs; and
  • be reviewed by Head Teachers.
References
Booth, T.; Ainscow, M. 2002. Index for Inclusion: developing learning and participation in schools. Bristol: CSIE (Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education). Retrieved from: https://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Index%20English.pdf   

Florian, L. 2015. ‘Inclusive Pedagogy: A transformative approach to individual differences but can it help reduce educational inequalities?’. In: Scottish Educational Review, Vol. 47, No.1, pp. 5-14

Loreman, T. 2017. Pedagogy for Inclusive Education. Oxford Research Enclyclopedias. Retrieved from: https://oxfordre.com/education/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.001.0001/acrefore-9780190264093-e-148

Mariga, L.; McConkey, R.; Myezwa, H. 2014. Inclusive education in low-income countries: A resource book for teacher educators, parent trainers and community development workers. Cape Town: Atlas Alliance and Disability Innovations Africa. Retrieved from: http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Inclusive_Education_in_Low_Income_Countries.pdf

Meijer, C.J.W. 2001. Inclusive Education and Effective Classroom Practices. Odense: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. Retrieved from: https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/inclusive-education-and-effective-classroom-practice_IECP-Literature-Review.pdf

Norwich, B. 2016. ‘Conceptualizing Special Educational Needs Using a Biopsychosocial Model in England: The Prospects and Challenges of Using the International Classification of Functioning Framework’. In: Frontiers in Education. 1:5. Retrieved from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/feduc.2016.00005/full

Rieser, R. 2012. Implementing inclusive education: A commonwealth guide to implementing article 24 of the UN Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. London: Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved from: http://www.globaldisabilityrightsnow.org/sites/default/files/related-files/346/Implementing_Inclusive_Education_Article_24_in_CRPD.pdf.

Rotter, K. 2014. ‘IEP Use by General and Special Education Teachers’. In: Sage Open. Retrieved from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2158244014530410#articleCitationDownloadContainer

Save the Children. 2016. Inclusive Education: What, Why, and How – A Handbook for Program Implementers.  London: Save the Children. Retrieved from: https://www.savethechildren.it/sites/default/files/files/uploads/pubblicazioni/inclusive-education-what-why-and-how.pdf

Spratt, J.; Florian, L. 2013. ‘Applying the principles of inclusive pedagogy in initial teacher education: from university based course to classroom action’. In: Revista de Investigación en Educación, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 133-140.

UNESCO. 2001. Open File on Inclusive Education: Support Materials for Managers and Administrators. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000125237

Early intervention and identification of learning and/or developmental issues

Encourage families to send their children, including children with disabilities, to pre-school and promote the importance of early learning. Collaborate with different Ministries (such as the Ministry of Social Affairs and the Ministry of Health), NGOs, DPOs, and other relevant stakeholders to develop a system for early identification of learning issues and disabilities, and early intervention services. Services should be available both as home visits or in health and education centres, be in constant coordination with community-based services, and design awareness campaigns and capacity building at the community level.

Collaboration between early intervention services and pre-schools is important, as well as the fact that pre-school teachers be trained in the different types of learning issues and disabilities, and specific strategies for identification and intervention (use of screening tools). Early childhood education curriculum should promote inclusive learning by recognizing that children learn at different paces in the early years.

* For more on this subject, consult Policy page School readiness.

References
UNESCO. 2015c. Embracing Diversity: Toolkit for creating inclusive, learning-friendly environments- Specialized booklet 3: Teaching children with disabilities in inclusive settings. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001829/182975e.pdf

Accessible and flexible curriculum

There are certain criteria that need to be respected in order to have an accessible and flexible curriculum. For a curriculum to be considered accessible and flexible:

  • it should be gender-responsive and inclusive;
  • it recognizes different learning capabilities, and a range of learning styles;
  • it is structured but also flexible for different levels of achievement among students: Flexible time-frame for students to accomplish skills at different periods;
  • the curriculum is student-centred and interactive;
  • teachers can adjust curriculum to fit the needs of individual students;
  • not only emphasis on academics, but also life skills, social development, and practical skills;
  • takes into account backgrounds and diversity of the students (gender, cultural and ethnic identity, language and ability); and
  • promotes human rights and non-violence.

* For more on this subject, consult Policy page Curriculum.

References
IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). 2017c. Training Tools for Curriculum Development: Personalized Learning. Geneva: IBE-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0025/002500/250057e.pdf

Mariga, L.; McConkey, R.; Myezwa, H. 2014. Inclusive education in low-income countries: A resource book for teacher educators, parent trainers and community development workers. Cape Town: Atlas Alliance and Disability Innovations Africa. Retrieved from: http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Inclusive_Education_in_Low_Income_Countries.pdf

UNESCO. 2015c. Embracing Diversity: Toolkit for creating inclusive, learning-friendly environments- Specialized booklet 3: Teaching children with disabilities in inclusive settings. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001829/182975e.pdf

UNESCO. 2015f. The right to education for persons with disabilities: Overview of the measures supporting the right to education for persons with disabilities reported on by member states. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002325/232592e.pdf

UNESCO. 2009d. Towards inclusive education for children with disabilities: A guideline. Bangkok: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001924/192480e.pdf

Adapting assessments

Adaptative assessments are flexible approaches that focus on individual achievements and diverse learning styles. Assessments are considered a continuous process, that is a responsibility of teachers, and are alternatives to examinations such as portfolios, projects, and peer and self-evaluation.

Concerning children with special needs, it is important to adapt to the format of assessments. Exempt certain assessments as appropriate, and allow the use of technology or assistive devices.

References
IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). 2017c. Training Tools for Curriculum Development: Personalized Learning. Geneva: IBE-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0025/002500/250057e.pdf

Mariga, L.; McConkey, R.; Myezwa, H. 2014. Inclusive education in low-income countries: A resource book for teacher educators, parent trainers and community development workers. Cape Town: Atlas Alliance and Disability Innovations Africa. Retrieved from: http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Inclusive_Education_in_Low_Income_Countries.pdf

Rieser, R. 2012. Implementing inclusive education: A commonwealth guide to implementing article 24 of the UN Convention on the rights of persons with disabilities. London: Commonwealth Secretariat. Retrieved from: http://www.globaldisabilityrightsnow.org/sites/default/files/related-files/346/Implementing_Inclusive_Education_Article_24_in_CRPD.pdf.

UNESCO. 2015f. The right to education for persons with disabilities: Overview of the measures supporting the right to education for persons with disabilities reported on by member states. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002325/232592e.pdf

UNESCO. 2017a. A guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002482/248254e.pdf

Inclusive school environments/infrastructure

School infrastructure must be gender-responsive and accessible for all students. It should provide a positive learning environment.

* For more on this subject, consult Policy page School physical infrastructure.

Language of teaching

The language of teaching may affect a student’s development and learning outcomes. It is important to teach children in their native language in the early years. Adopt a multi-language policy if there are children from different backgrounds, with the language used being gender-responsive.

* For more on this subject, consult Policy page Language of instruction.

References
UNESCO. 2015c. Embracing Diversity: Toolkit for creating inclusive, learning-friendly environments- Specialized booklet 3: Teaching children with disabilities in inclusive settings. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001829/182975e.pdf

Parent and community collaboration

Community advocacy and awareness campaigns can be created to address negative attitudes about children due to their race, social class, ethnicity, religion, gender, and ability. Workshops and programmes for family support, education and empowerment are important to boost collaboration with the school.

Information should be made readily accessible to parents and community members about how to access support for students. Families should be considered partners in providing support for learners, involving them in creating individual education plans for students. Established remedy mechanisms should be made available to address parent or community concerns or complaints.

References
Mariga, L.; McConkey, R.; Myezwa, H. 2014. Inclusive education in low-income countries: A resource book for teacher educators, parent trainers and community development workers. Cape Town: Atlas Alliance and Disability Innovations Africa. Retrieved from: http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/Inclusive_Education_in_Low_Income_Countries.pdf

UNESCO. 2009d. Towards inclusive education for children with disabilities: A guideline. Bangkok: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001924/192480e.pdf

UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), DSPD (Division for Social Policy and Development). 2016. Toolkit on disability for Africa: Inclusive education. UNDESA, DSPD. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/documents/disability/Toolkit/Inclusive-Education.pdf

Support to classroom teachers

Support centres and special education centres should support schools, teachers, and families in implementing inclusive education by assisting in identifying and assessing children with disabilities, helping children transition from specialized schools to normal schools, carrying out in-service teacher training, providing in-classroom support to teachers or students and any needed adaptations, and helping obtain assistive devices and other specialized resources.

These must be well-resourced with a qualified staff, with particular expertise on inclusive education and disabilities, be family-centred, child-centred, and holistic, promote awareness in the community about the right of all children to obtain an education and de-stigmatize disabilities, and should not be used to keep children with special needs away from other students.

Resources and support from teachers can mean programs where specialized teachers are assigned to specific schools (e.g. specialist itinerant teachers), or work from support centres serving a group of schools in the area, that they can assist classroom teachers in carrying out inclusive education approaches, and provide individualized assistance to children or small groups with special needs.

References
Grant Lewis, S. 2019. ‘Opinion: The urgent need to plan for disability-inclusive education’. Devex. 6 February 2019. Accessed 4 November 2019: https://www.devex.com/news/opinion-the-urgent-need-to-plan-for-disability-inclusive-education-94059

Grimes, P.; Stevens M.; Kumar, K. 2015. Paper commissioned for the EFA Global Monitoring Report 2015, Education for All 2000-2015: achievements and challenges. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002324/232454E.pdf

Howgego, C.; Miles, S.; Myers, J. 2014. Inclusive Learning: Children with disabilities and difficulties in learning. Oxford: HEART (Health & Education Advice & Resource Team). Retrieved from: http://www.heart-resources.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Inclusive-Learning-Topic-Guide.pdf?9d29f8=.  

Sæbønes, A.-M.; Berman Bieler, R.; Baboo, N.; Banham, L.; Singal, N.; Howgego, C.; Vuyiswa McClain-Nhlapo, C.; Riis-Hansen, T. C.; Dansie, G. A. 2015. ‘Towards a disability inclusive education’. Background paper for the Oslo Summit on Education for Development, 6-7 July 2015. Retrieved from: https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1865/Oslo_Ed_Summit_DisabilityInclusive_Ed.pdf

UNESCO. 2009d. Towards inclusive education for children with disabilities: A guideline. Bangkok: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001924/192480e.pdf

UNESCO. 2017a. A guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002482/248254e.pdf

Technology and assistive devices

Schools can be provided with technology and assistive devices to support student’s learning, and make education more accessible for all students, especially learners with disabilities. This may include computers, smartphones, gaming systems, assistive technologies (hearing aids, adaptive keyboard, screen readers, etc.) accessible media and formats (DAISY- Digital Accessible Information System), learning software, and e-books.

Support/special education centres can help in organizing assistive devices for special needs learners. ICT should be included in School Development Plans, including them in school budgeting, implementing lesson planning and curriculum development, with teacher training on technology use a priority.

References
UNESCO. 2011a. Consultative expert meeting report: Accessible ICTs and personalized learning for students with disabilities: A Dialogue among educators, industry, government and civil society. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002198/219827e.pdf

UNESCO. 2015f. The right to education for persons with disabilities: Overview of the measures supporting the right to education for persons with disabilities reported on by member states. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002325/232592e.pdf

UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), DSPD (Division for Social Policy and Development). 2016. Toolkit on disability for Africa: Inclusive education. UNDESA, DSPD. Retrieved from: http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/documents/disability/Toolkit/Inclusive-Education.pdf

Policy options for improving Equity and Inclusion

Gender-responsive policies

Since all of the recommended policy options were analysed from an equity and inclusion perspective, all of them apply for this section.

Mainstream gender so as to ensure that the specific concerns and needs of girls, boys, and LGBTIQ students are an integral dimension throughout the design and implementation of all of the chosen policies and thus benefit all of them equally.

Policies for children with disabilities

Since all of the recommended policy options were analysed from an equity and inclusion perspective, all of them apply for this section.

Policies for displaced populations and host communities

Since all of the recommended policy options were analysed from an equity and inclusion perspective, all of them apply for this section.

Policies for minority populations

Since all of the recommended policy options were analysed from an equity and inclusion perspective, all of them apply for this section.

Updated on 2020-09-04

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