Availability of teaching aids

Content under review

References
Indian Study Channel. 2010. Teaching Aids, Their Needs, Types and Importance of Teaching Aids in Teaching Learning Process. Retrieved from: https://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/120148-Teaching-Aids-Their-Needs-Types-and-Importance-Of-Teaching-Aids-In-Teaching-Learning-Process.aspx

Khairna, C.M. 2015. Advance Pedagogy: Innovative Methods of Teaching and Learning. Retrieved from: http://www.ijiet.org/papers/629-D026.pdf

Livingston, K.; Schweisfurth, M.; Brace, G.; Nash, M. 2017. Why Pedagogy Matters: The role of pedagogy in Education 2030, A policy advice paper. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://www.haiti-now.org/wp-content/uploads/Documents/Education/Why-pedagogy-Matters.pdf

Merriam-Webster. 2019. Teaching aid. Accessed 11 March 2019: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/teaching%20aid

Ministry of Education (Guyana). 2016. Why Are Teaching Aids Important? Retrieved from:  https://education.gov.gy/web/index.php/teachers/tips-for-teaching/item/2143-why-are-teaching-aids-important

Promising policy options

Content under review

In-class training and supervision

Content under review

References
Arkansas Science Teachers Association. 2003. Adequate Arkansas Science Classrooms, Labs, and Equipment To meet STANDARDS. Retrieved from: http://arkscience.org/downloads/Adequate_Science_Classrooms_Labs_Equipment_K12.pdf

Batista Perez, V.M. n.d. The use of teaching aids in the teaching learning process of large classes. Retrieved from: http://uvsfajardo.sld.cu/sites/uvsfajardo.sld.cu/files/the_use_of_teaching_aids_in_the_teaching_learning_process_of_large_classes_0.pdf

IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2021. Brief 3: Learning and Teaching Materials. Accessed 15 May 2021: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/curriculum-and-materials/learning-and-teaching-materials

Indian Study Channel. 2010. Teaching Aids, Their Needs, Types and Importance of Teaching Aids in Teaching Learning Process. Retrieved from: https://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/120148-Teaching-Aids-Their-Needs-Types-and-Importance-Of-Teaching-Aids-In-Teaching-Learning-Process.aspx

Ministry of Education (Guyana). 2016. Why Are Teaching Aids Important? Retrieved from:  https://education.gov.gy/web/index.php/teachers/tips-for-teaching/item/2143-why-are-teaching-aids-important

Mohsen Z.N.; Reza E.; Hamzeh N.S. 2015. The Use of Teaching Aids and Their Positive Impact on Student Learning Elementary School. International Academic Journal for Social Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 11, pp. 22-27. Retrieved from: http://iaiest.com/dl/journals/3-%20IAJ%20of%20Social%20Sciences/v2-i11-nov2015/paper3.pdf

Shodhganga. n.d. Chapter 4: Teaching Aids in Geography. Retrieved from: http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/142170/11/11_chapter%204.pdf

Family Insights. 2018. How Can Social Media Be Used In Education? Accessed 11 March 2019: https://knowledge-centre.familyinsights.net/knowledge-base/how-can-social-media-be-used-in-education/

Project and problem-based learning

Content under review

Using e-learning and technology

Content under review

Multi-sensory learning

Content under review

References
TeachThought. 2018. 10 Innovative Learning Strategies For Modern Pedagogy. Accessed 11 March 2019:  https://www.teachthought.com/the-future-of-learning/10-innovative-learning-strategies-for-modern-pedagogy/

Other policy options

Focusing on multiple intelligences

Content under review

Online learning resources

Content under review

References
ACER UK. n.d. Effective Pedagogical Practices. London: ACER UK. Retrieved from: https://www.acer.org/files/NSIT_8th_domain.pdf

Donald, H.C.; Sonnile, P.; Nkosha, D.C.; Geoff, T. 2001. UNESCO Basic Education Capacity Building Project: Teaching and learning materials analysis and development in basic education (Zambia); training kits for local NGOs, theme 3. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000132019

European Commission. n.d. Teachers Corner: Recommended material- school year 2017/2018. Accessed 11 March 2019: https://europa.eu/teachers-corner/age-ranks/best_en

IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2018c. Brief 3: Effective and appropriate pedagogy. Accessed 1 April 2018: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/teachers-and-pedagogy/effective-and-appropriate-pedagogy

INTO (Irish National Teachers’ Organisation). 2007. Approaches to Teaching & Learning. Dublin: INTO (Irish National Teachers’ Organisation). Retrieved from: http://dl.icdst.org/pdfs/files1/7c3e455085b3920873fb7a5c2e58218f.pdf?

LSIS (Learning and Skills Improvement Service). 2009. Teaching and Learning. Ten pedagogy approaches – equality and diversity quick start guide. Retrieved from: https://rsc-archive.jisc.ac.uk/file.php/102/qs_equality_diversity.pdf

Rahman, S. 2016. Investigating Pedagogical Techniques in Classroom Interactions at a CELTA Training Programme. Belfast: School of Education, Queen’s University Belfast. Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1107146.pdf

Scott, C.L. 2015. The Futures of Learning 3: What kind of Pedagogies for the 21st Century? Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002431/243126e.pdf

Skutil, M.; Havlíčková, K.; Matějíčková, R. 2016. Teaching methods in primary education from the teacher’s point of view. Hradec Králové: Institute of Primary and Preprimary Education, Faculty of Education, University of Hradec Králové. Retrieved from: https://www.shs-conferences.org/articles/shsconf/pdf/2016/04/shsconf_erpa2016_01001.pdf

TeachThought. 2018. 10 Innovative Learning Strategies For Modern Pedagogy. Accessed 11 March 2019:  https://www.teachthought.com/the-future-of-learning/10-innovative-learning-strategies-for-modern-pedagogy/

Policy options for improving Equity and Inclusion

Gender-responsive policies

All of the strategies mentioned in the general part of the present Policy page apply for this section. Yet, it is of utmost importance to ensure that teaching aids’ content is gender-responsive. This can be done by providing an equitable portray and reference of women and men, as well as gender-neutral and inclusive language (FAWE, 2006).

References
FAWE (Forum for African Women Educationalists). 2006. Gender Responsive Pedagogy. Working Document Draft for the Biennale on Education in Africa. Libreville: ADEA (Association for the Development of Education in Africa). Retrieved from: https://biennale.adeanet.org/2006/doc/document/B5_2_fawe_en.pdf

UNESCO Bangkok. 2017a. Gender-Responsive Classrooms Need Gender-Sensitive Teachers. Accessed 1 May 2019: https://bangkok.unesco.org/content/gender-responsive-classrooms-need-gender-sensitive-teachers

Policies for children with disabilities

Promising policy options

Through the use and implementation of learning aids within classrooms, teachers will be able to apply the key principles of Universal Design for Learning (UNICEF, 2014). Teachers could represent the information through multiple ways and make sure that it responds to the different needs of the children, help them express their knowledge through various means and keep them engaged throughout the process (CAST, 2018).  

For children with disabilities, learning aids are recognized as a category of assistive devices (Georgia Department of Education, 2019). Many types of assistive devices exist, from low- to high-tech. Low-tech assistive devices include (Bulat et al., 2017):

  • visual aids, such as pictures that support learning instruction;
  • audiobooks (they can be recorded by teachers if they are not available at a national level);
  • tape recorders through which teachers can record directions, lessons, stories and other content for children having difficulties with reading;
  • resources in sign language;
  • magnifying glasses;
  • slate, also known as a stylus, is a cost-effective tool that helps create the raised dots used for Braille;
  • learning materials in an easy-reading version; and
  • large print, among many others.

High-tech assistive devices include (Bulat et al., 2017):

  • braille typewriter;
  • computer with text-to-voice software;
  • hearing aid; and
  • alternative communication devices, among many others.

Assistive technology devices are defined by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of the United States 2004, as ‘any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability. The term does not include a medical device that is surgically implanted, or the replacement of such device’ (IDEA, 2017).

Assistive devices are of utmost importance for children with disabilities, since they improve their access, participation and learning achievement in school, and also helps them flourish throughout their education process and as society members overall (WHO and UNICEF, 2015). ‘For many children, assistive technology represents the difference between enjoying their rights or being deprived of them’ (WHO and UNICEF, 2015: 7).

References
Bulat, B.; Hayes, A. M.; Macon, W.; Tichá, R.; Abery, B. H. 2017. School and Classroom Disabilities Inclusion Guide for Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press. Retrieved from: https://www.rti.org/rti-press-publication/school-classroom-inclusion

CAST. 2018. Universal Design for Learning Guidelines version 2.2. Accessed 5 July 2019: http://udlguidelines.cast.org

Georgia Department of Education. 2019. Assistive Technology. Accessed 13 July 2019: http://www.gpat.org/Georgia-Project-for-Assistive-Technology/Pages/Assistive-Technology-Definition.aspx

IDEA. 2017. Sec. 300.5 Assistive technology device. Accessed 14 July 2019: https://sites.ed.gov/idea/regs/b/a/300.5

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2014. Teachers, Inclusive, Child-Centred Teaching and Pedagogy: Webinar 12 – Companion Technical Booklet. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/eca/education

WHO (World Health Organization), UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2015. Assistive Technology for Children with Disabilities: Creating Opportunities for Education, Inclusion and Participation. A discussion paper. Geneva: WHO. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/disabilities/files/Assistive-Tech-Web.pdf

Provision of adequate teaching aids for children with disabilities

In order to provide quality education for all children with disabilities, and help them to fully participate and learn in school, it is necessary to provide them with adequate assistive devices they may require. A number of strategies are recommended for such purpose.

Adopt national legislation, policies and plans concerning assistive devices and set-up a provisioning system. ‘The absence of a national perspective is likely to result in fragmented and inequitable services, uncoordinated and parallel service delivery systems, and inefficient use of available resources’ (WHO and UNICEF, 2015: 28). (e.g. In some countries, such as Thailand, it is the schools that are in charge of ensuring that all of the students with disabilities are provided with the necessary assistive technology (WHO and UNICEF, 2015).). To establish a good provision system, it is necessary to previously estimate the needs of assistive devices throughout the education system. Study the possibility of including the question through the EMIS. Take into consideration the principles of the provision of assistive technology known as the 5A&Q (WHO and UNICEF, 2015).

Assistive technology devices must be available ‘in sufficient quantity as of close as possible to children’s communities’ (WHO and UNICEF, 2015: 22). The sound procurement process should be installed to provide easy and timely access to the required assistive devices (E.g. Kenya’s 2009 National Special Needs Education Policy Framework includes this strategy (Kenya, 2009).). An essential strategy to make teaching aids available is to establish partnerships involving students with disabilities, families, communities, and teachers to encourage them to support the provision of locally-made and innovative learning aids (Sarton and Smith, 2018; UNICEF, 2014). (E.g. Rwanda’s 2018 Revised Special Needs and Inclusive Education Policy encourages the community to participate in the provision of locally-made teaching and learning aids. For instance, in Kimonyi district, both parents and teachers meet on a regular basis in the primary school’s resource rooms to conceive and produce teaching aids for children with disabilities (Rwanda, 2018). Ghana’s 2015 Inclusive Education Policy states the importance of developing partnerships with the community to provide technical and financial support in the development and provision of teaching and learning aids (Ghana, 2015).). Partnerships with Disability People’s organizations (DPOs), NGOs and IOGs are also beneficial as they can support the national strategy regarding the provision of teaching aids and avoid duplication of efforts (WHO and UNICEF, 2015).

Assistive technology devices –learning and teaching aids– must be accessible for all the children who require them. The government must guarantee an equitable provision, without regarding the type of impairment, gender, socio-economic group or geographical location. 

National plans must ensure that assistive technology devices are affordable for the family of the child who requires them. When this is not the case, it is necessary to subsidize them and, when possible, provide them for free (e.g. the Government of India adopted a scheme, known as the Scheme of Assistance to Disabled Persons for Purchase/Fitting of Aids/Appliances, which subsidies assistive devices or provides them for free, depending on the family’s income (India, 2014).).

Assistive devices must be adapted to fit particular needs, requirements and individual factors such as body function, body structure, capacity, and age. Through the Individual Education Plan, specialists, teachers, parents and the students themselves can evaluate the needs and select the appropriate teaching and learning aids. In cases where medical evaluations are provided at the school level, they can help evaluate the student’s particular needs for assistive devices (e.g. in Cameroun, with the help of Sight Savers, systematic medical evaluations are done in 7 inclusive schools at the beginning of the year). The provisioning service must include the design, adaptation, customization, retention, reparation, and replacement of assistive technology devices (Georgia Department of Education, 2019). It is very important to ensure that the personnel involved in the provision service have the necessary knowledge to prevent any harm associated with incorrect assessment and fitting (WHO and UNICEF, 2015). 

Children with disabilities and their families should be involved throughout the provisioning process so that the assistive devices administered take into account their preferences, expectations and are thus acceptable to them. Assistive devices should also respect the different standards such as capacity, strength, durability, safety, and comfort (WHO and UNICEF, 2015).

Create awareness-raising campaigns to inform children with disabilities and their families of the existence of assistive devices, their benefits and the way in which they can acquire them (provision service).

Provide funding and establish partnerships. As expressed in the affordability section, in some cases, it is necessary to subsidize or provide assistive devices for free. Yet, in many countries, this still poses a major constraint, which is why it is essential to supplement the efforts by building partnerships with other assistive service providers, such as civil society organizations, DPOs, ONGs, OIGs, and the private sector.

Finally, all major stakeholders involved in the production, use, and maintenance of assistive devices must be trained. These include professionals, teachers, children with disabilities themselves and their families (Georgia Department of Education, 2019; Rwanda, 2018). Certain organizations such as the World Health Organization, have developed guidelines and training materials on the provision of multiple types of assistive devices. Countries can build upon that knowledge to train the relevant stakeholders, as well as develop further accredited training programmes (WHO and UNICEF, 2015).

References
Georgia Department of Education. 2019. Assistive Technology. Accessed 13 July 2019: http://www.gpat.org/Georgia-Project-for-Assistive-Technology/Pages/Assistive-Technology-Definition.aspx

Ghana. 2015. Ministry of Education. Inclusive Education Policy. Accra: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: http://www.unesco.org/education/edurights/media/docs/8944e598003c27611db065f18c5f90d4681b190a.pdf

India. 2014. Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment. Scheme of assistance of assistance to disabled persons for purchase/fitting of aids/appliances (ADIP Scheme). New Delhi: Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment. Retrieved from: http://disabilityaffairs.gov.in/upload/uploadfiles/files/Adip%20scheme%20English%20version.pdf

Kenya. 2009. Ministry of Education. The National Special Needs Education Policy Framework. Nairobi: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: https://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/es/node/6490

Rwanda. 2018. Ministry of Education. Revised Special Needs and Inclusive Education Policy. Kigali: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: https://www.mineduc.gov.rw/fileadmin/user_upload/Mineduc/Publications/POLICIES/Special_Needs_Strategic_Plan.pdf

Sarton, E.; Smith, M. 2018. The challenge of inclusion for children with disabilities – experiences of implementation in Eastern and Southern Africa. New York: UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/esa/sites/unicef.org.esa/files/2019-04/EducationThinkPieces_7_DisabilityInclusion.pdf

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2014. Teachers, Inclusive, Child-Centred Teaching and Pedagogy: Webinar 12 – Companion Technical Booklet. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/eca/education

WHO (World Health Organization), UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2015. Assistive Technology for Children with Disabilities: Creating Opportunities for Education, Inclusion and Participation. A discussion paper. Geneva: WHO. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/disabilities/files/Assistive-Tech-Web.pdf

Policies for displaced populations

Promising policy options

Perform an analysis to design contextualised teaching aids

Teaching aids must be designed having in mind the specific needs of displaced populations, the educational setting in which they will be used, as well as the types of teaching aids required and available (IIEP-UNESCO. 2010; Technical Support Section Division of Operational Services UNHCR, 2007; Bengtsson and Dyer, n.d.).

To develop pertinent teaching aids, Ministries of Education, development partners, school administrators, and other relevant stakeholders working in the education of displaced populations, must start by performing a systematic analysis of the different characteristics and needs of displaced populations. Teaching aids must be designed for specific age cohorts as well as in relevant languages (Bengtsson and Dyer, n.d.; Wa-Mbaleka, 2014; IIEP-UNESCO, 2010). Cultural specificities must also be acknowledged, so that teaching aids are ‘pertinent to the local context and respect the traditional knowledge of families and the community’ (Technical Support Section Division of Operational Services UNHCR, 2007: 5).

An analysis of the setting where the teaching aids will be used is key. Overall, teaching aids must be resistant and designed to ‘withstand rough handling, poor storage and being inadvertently spoiled by children having to work on the ground’ (Bengtsson and Dyer, n.d.: 65).

Finally, before creating or buying new teaching aids, an in-depth analysis of what is available and can be used to support the displaced population’s learning process is essential. This analysis should be done through a collaborative process, involving displaced students, school staff, local and national educational authorities, humanitarian and development partners, among others. In particular, teachers working with refugees, asylum seekers, and internally displaced children must be involved to help decision-makers understand which teaching aids are essential (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010).

This analysis should help educational stakeholders identify (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010):

  • The number of teaching aids available for displaced populations.
  • The number of teaching aids needed.
  • The most beneficial teaching aids.
  • The types of teaching aids that can be created at the school level and those that must be procured locally or internationally.
  • The types of teaching aids that must be substituted or re-provisioned.
References
Bengtsson, S.; Dyer, C. n.d. Ensuring High Quality Primary Education for Children from Mobile Populations. A Desk Study. Retrieved from: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/library/ensuring-high-quality-primary-education-for-children-from-mobile-populations-a-desk-study

IIEP-UNESCO. 2010. ‘Ch. 4.8: Textbooks, educational materials and teaching aids’. In: Guidebook for planning education in emergencies and reconstruction (pp.179-199). Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved http://www.iiep.unesco.org/sites/default/files/Guidebook%20Chapters/GB_2009_4.8_final.pdf

Technical Support Section Division of Operational Services UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). 2007. Safe Schools and Learning Environment. How to Prevent and Respond to Violence in Refugee Schools. A Guide. Geneva: UNHCR. Retrieved from: https://www.refworld.org/docid/469200e82.html  

Wa-Mbaleka, S. 2014. ‘An Instructional Design Model for Better Refugee and IDP Education’. In: International Journal of Academic Research in Progressive Education and Development, vol. 3, no. 3. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.6007/IJARPED/v3-i3/947

Budget the provision of teaching aids and ensure an equitable distribution

The above-mentioned analysis must be complemented by an analysis of ‘the budget implications of producing or purchasing the required’ teaching aids (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010: 189). National funds must be mobilised for this purpose (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010). When they are not sufficient, international assistance can be sought. Development and humanitarian partners can be targeted independently or within Education Clusters and it is key to specify if the assistance will be a ‘one-time distribution’ or ‘over a specified period of time’ (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010: 189). Keep in mind that the type of procurement process of teaching aids will have an impact on the budget (consult below for more information).

The provision strategy must also address any factors affecting an equitable distribution. In this regard, socio-economic considerations, geographic location, and linguistic aspects must be considered. To ensure transparency, the community can be involved in ‘designing and implementing a distribution system for materials’ (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010: 192). It is also possible to develop communication campaigns directed at families and students, to ensure they are all aware that teaching aids will be distributed (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010). Monitoring systems can also be used to track the distribution of teaching aids. 

References
IIEP-UNESCO. 2010. ‘Ch. 4.8: Textbooks, educational materials and teaching aids’. In: Guidebook for planning education in emergencies and reconstruction (pp.179-199). Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved http://www.iiep.unesco.org/sites/default/files/Guidebook%20Chapters/GB_2009_4.8_final.pdf

Choose between local and/or international procurement of teaching aids

Teaching aids can be procured by local or international providers (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010). IIEP-UNESCO (2010) recommends the local procurement of teaching aids. Local procurement refers to that which is done within the country itself or in the ‘immediate region concerned’ (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010: 184). This procurement is recommended when the circumstances allow it, particularly when efficient NGOs are leading the process (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010). The benefits of local procurement include (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010):

  • Lower costs (particularly due to lower transport costs);
  • easier logistics;
  • positive impact on the local economy.

In certain circumstances, however, international procurement may be necessary (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010). This is particularly the case when ‘speedy local procurement by efficient NGOs is not practicable, and especially when procurement would otherwise be through a national government that lacks the capacity to work fast and cannot prevent diversion of resources’ (INEE, 2001, cited by IIEP-UNESCO, 2010: 184). When choosing international educational kits, various factors must be considered, including (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010):

  • The cost (including transportation costs);
  • the number of students ‘since classroom kits have supplies for a fixed number of students’ (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010: 191);
  • the cultural and local relevance;
  • their suitability concerning local standards and curriculum.

There are various examples of education kits provided internationally, such as UNICEF’s ‘school-in-a-box’ kit (UNICEF, n.d.; Moumné and Sakai 2017). This kit, which focus ‘on gender, universal design, cultural acceptability, and utility’, provides supplies for a teacher and 40 students (UNICEF, n.d.:1). Although its primary purpose is ‘to help re-establish learning as the first step towards the restoration of normal schooling following an emergency’ it can also be used by countries facing a large influx of students (UNICEF, n.d.: 2) (For more details on what this kit contains, consult UNICEF, n.d.).

*If you are interested in learning more about all the advantages and disadvantages of education kits consult IIEP-UNESCO, 2010: 196-197.

References
IIEP-UNESCO. 2010. ‘Ch. 4.8: Textbooks, educational materials and teaching aids’. In: Guidebook for planning education in emergencies and reconstruction (pp.179-199). Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved http://www.iiep.unesco.org/sites/default/files/Guidebook%20Chapters/GB_2009_4.8_final.pdf

Moumné, R.; Sakai, L. 2017. Protecting the right to education for refugees. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000251076

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). n.d. Revised School-in-a-Box 2016, 40 students & 1 teacher (S9935097) Guidelines for Use. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/supply/media/626/file/School-in-a-Box-guidelines-for-use.pdf

Other policy options

Develop teaching aids at the school-level

When local and international procurement of teaching aids is not enough or in case of extremely scarce resources, teaching aids can be developed at the school level by teachers, with the help of students, school staff and community members. Recycled materials or natural resources can be used to create teaching aids (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010).

Some of the teaching aids which can be developed by the school community include (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010):

  • Country, regional and world maps;
  • posters for the alphabet;
  • multiplication tables posters;
  • reading materials developed from newspapers articles and ‘information pamphlets especially about HIV/AIDS, sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV), peace, tolerance, etc.’ (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010: 187); as well as,
  • poems, songs, and stories.
References
IIEP-UNESCO. 2010. ‘Ch. 4.8: Textbooks, educational materials and teaching aids’. In: Guidebook for planning education in emergencies and reconstruction (pp.179-199). Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved http://www.iiep.unesco.org/sites/default/files/Guidebook%20Chapters/GB_2009_4.8_final.pdf

Online learning resources

Open educational resources can be used as teaching aids. As explained in the general section of the present Policy page, online platforms where there are supplementary quizzes, games, worksheets, reading materials for both teachers and students can help in making classwork and homework easier and enjoyable.

Barriers impeding access to online resources for displaced populations must be acknowledged and addressed. Various initiatives have been developed to address those barriers such as the IDEAS Box of Libraries without Borders. The IDEAS Box is ‘a mobile “pop up” multimedia center and learning hub that provides educational and cultural resources to communities in need, including refugees and displaced persons in camps around the globe’ (Libraries without Borders, n.d.: 1). It is resistant, energy-independent, and provides access to satellite internet, a digital server, a power generator, 25 tablets and laptops, 6 HD cameras, 1 large HD screen, among others (Libraries without Borders, n.d.). Libraries without Borders has implemented IDEAS Box projects in Lesbos, Athens, Dusseldorf and Paris to support the educational and cultural processes of refugees (Libraries without Borders, n.d.). 

Other initiatives have been developed to support students’ learning process, such as Antura and the Letters and Feed the Monster, ‘smartphone digital learning games’, have shown positive result in helping Syrian refugee children ‘build basic Arabic literacy skills and improve the[ir] psychosocial well-being’ (UNESCO, 2018).

To explore further

To learn more about Antura and the Letters and Feed the Monster initiatives, consult:

References
Comings, J. 2018. Assessing the Impact of Literacy Learning Games for Syrian Refugee Children. An executive overview of Antura and the Letters and Feed the Monster Impact Evaluations. Washington, DC: World Vision and Foundation for Information Technology Education and Development. Retrieved from: https://allchildrenreading.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/EduApp4Syria-IE-Summary-Web-Final-3-1.pdf

Koval-Saifi, N.; Plass, J. 2018. Feed the Monster. Impact and Technical Evaluation. Washington, DC: World Vision and Foundation for Information Technology Education and Development. Retrieved from: https://allchildrenreading.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/07/Feed-the-Monster-Report-Final-Web.pdf
References
Libraries without Borders. n.d. IDEAS BOX. Accessed 19 November 2021: https://www.librarieswithoutborders.org/ideasbox/#1472134509493-d91cf23f-c3e3

UNESCO. 2018. Skills for a connected world. Report of the UNESCO Mobile Learning Week 2018 26-30 March. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000265893?posInSet=30&queryId=81ff5e42-05a9-4239-a12f-2826139a3d71

Teaching aids to teach students about displaced populations

In addition to developing teaching aids for displaced populations, there are various teaching aids available online which teachers can mobilise within their classrooms to ensure their students gain deep knowledge on the different types of displaced populations.

To find specific examples of the types of teaching aids available consult:

In the long term, this type of action are key as they support the establishment of more inclusive, welcoming societies.

Policies for minority populations

Promising policy options

Develop teaching aids that support cultural and linguistic diversity

Teaching aids must be developed or adapted to ensure a multi-cultural, multi-linguistic approach, tailored to students’ needs (Ministry of Education and Research Norway, 2007). The Ministry of Education can seek the support of minority communities and institutions, such as national councils, to develop teaching aids and/or verify their quality, particularly the translations (Council of Europe, 2020). For instance, in Hungary and Serbia, minority language communities constituted through minority self-government structures, are involved in decision-making processes related to education, including teaching aids (Council of Europe, 2020). Overall, teaching aids must reflect the existing multicultural and multilinguistic diversity of the country and encourage students to demonstrate their identity and improve their self-esteem (Ministry of Education and Research Norway, 2007).  

Proper funds must be attributed to the development of quality teaching aids. Ministries of Education with the support of minority communities and institutions can raise the necessary resources to do so. For instance, in Norway, the Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training has developed an Action plan for teaching aids for linguistic minorities as well as a ‘scheme for subsidising teaching aids for native language teaching, teaching in basic Norwegian, bilingual subject teaching, teaching in native language as a second language and teaching Norwegian’ (Ministry of Education and Research Norway, 2007: 38). European governments with the support of the European Union and minority communities and institutions have also funded the development of teaching aids in minority languages.  

Some examples of the types of teaching aids that have been developed in European countries to support linguistic minorities include (Council of Europe, 2020):  

  • Visual aids, digital learning materials, and methodological materials (Hungary);  
  • Digital teaching aids to teach Polish as a native language (Lithuania) 
  • Songs, games, and rhymes in Frisian for pre-school children (Netherlands) 
  • Resource centres with books, videos, magazines, and others, in Basque (France) 
  • School trips to allow students to practice Basque in Basque-speaking places (France) 
References
Council of Europe. 2020. Good Practices of Multilingual and Minority Language Medium Education. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. Retrieved from: https://rm.coe.int/good-practices-of-multilingual-and-minority-language-education-eng/1680a052c3 

Ministry of Education and Research (Norway). 2007. Strategic Plan: Equal Education in Practice. Strategy for better teaching and greater participation of linguistic minorities in kindergartens, schools and education 2007-2009. Retrieved from: https://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/sites/default/files/ressources/norway_equal_education_in_practice.pdf 

Other policy options

Online learning resources

Open educational resources can be used as teaching aids. As explained in the general section of the present Policy page, online platforms where there are supplementary quizzes, games, worksheets, reading materials for both teachers and students can help in making classwork and homework easier and enjoyable.  

Accompanied by proper classroom practices, technology can be a powerful asset (American University, 2018; Darling-Hammond and Zielezinski, 2014). Research done by Darling-Hammond and Zielezinski on the benefits of technology for students at-risk of school failure, particularly minorities, ‘found that using computers as replacements for teachers in traditional drill-and-practice exercises has not produced greater success for such students, but that more interactive, proactive, and teacher-supported uses have helped students make strong strides’ (2014: 14).  

Technology can be used as a tool to provide students access to various forms of learning, through ‘multiple ways of seeing, hearing, and learning’ about concepts, as well as the opportunity for interactive learning processes (Darling-Hammond and Zielezinski, 2014: 15). Yet, educational decision-makers must ensure that the use of technology is done through a blended approach, where students’ interaction with technology is highly supported and led by teachers (Darling-Hammond and Zielezinski, 2014). 

Barriers impeding minority students to access online resources must be acknowledged and addressed. Some of the recommendations include ensuring one device for every student (Darling-Hammond and Zielezinski, 2014). Indeed, ‘achieving digital equity in the classroom –providing every student access to the same technology’ is key so that all ‘students [are] on an equal playing field’ (American University, 2018: 1). Developing required infrastructure to ensure adequate connectivity is of utmost importance as well (Darling-Hammond and Zielezinski, 2014). Moreover, educational decision-makers need ‘rigorous, impartial research and accurate information to guide such investments to ensure that the technology they purchase provides quality learning outcomes (Burns, 2021: 17). To serve minority students, and other marginalised populations, it is key to analyse ‘which technologies, alone or in combination of content formats—audio, video, text, image-based, multimedia, web-based—appear to hold the most promise in terms of reach and learning’ (Burns, 2021: 17). 

*If you wish to learn more about different technologies that teachers can use in the classroom, consult: American University, 2018.  

References
American University. 2018. School of Education online programs: Technologies and Tools to Bridge the Minority Gap in the Classroom. Accessed 23 November 2021: https://soeonline.american.edu/blog/technologies-to-bridge-minority-gap 

Burns, M. 2021. Technology in education. Background paper commissioned for the 2023 Global Education Monitoring Report: Technology and education. Paris: Global Education Monitoring Report.  Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000378951?posInSet=7&queryId=60ab1236-22d0-4e44-a7f0-f890326558a6 
 
Darling-Hammond, L.; Zielezinski, M.B. 2014. Using Technology to Support At-Risk Students’ Learning. Stanford: SCOPE (Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education); Alliance for Excellent Education. Retrieved from: https://edpolicy.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/scope-pub-using-technology-report.pdf 
Updated on 2022-07-01

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