Availability of teaching aids

Teaching aid is ‘an object (such as a book, picture, or map) or device (such as a DVD or computer) used by a teacher to enhance or enliven classroom instruction’ (Merriam-Webster, 2019). There are three broad categories of teaching aids, which are:

  • Audio Aids: the aids that involve the sense of hearing are called Audio aids. For example, radio, tape recorder, disc player, among others.
  • Visual Aids: the aids which use sense of vision are called Visual aids. For example, actual objects, models, pictures, charts, maps, flash cards, flannel board, bulletin board, chalkboard, overhead projector, slides etc. Out of these black board and chalk are the commonest ones.
  • Audio-Visual Aids: the aids which involve the sense of vision as well as hearing are called Audio- Visual aids. For example, television, film projector, film strips, among others.

Teaching aids are an integral component in any classroom. The many benefits of teaching aids include helping learners improve reading comprehension skills, illustrating or reinforcing a skill or concept, differentiating instruction, and relieving anxiety or boredom by presenting information in a new and exciting way. Teaching aids also engage students’ other senses since there are no limits in what aids can be utilized when supplementing a lesson (MoE Guyana, 2016).

The best course for increasing learning outcome of the students is for teachers to offer a diverse set of learning experiences in order to ensure that students with different learning capabilities can grasp the information taught in the best way possible. Innovative teaching aids also provide an opportunity for all the student to develop their own strategies for learning in multiple ways.

References
Indian Study Channel. 2010. Teaching Aids, Their Needs, Types and Importance of Teaching Aids in Teaching Learning Process. Retrieved from: https://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/120148-Teaching-Aids-Their-Needs-Types-and-Importance-Of-Teaching-Aids-In-Teaching-Learning-Process.aspx

Khairna, C.M. 2015. Advance Pedagogy: Innovative Methods of Teaching and Learning. Retrieved from: http://www.ijiet.org/papers/629-D026.pdf

Livingston, K.; Schweisfurth, M.; Brace, G.; Nash, M. 2017. Why Pedagogy Matters: The role of pedagogy in Education 2030, A policy advice paper. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://www.haiti-now.org/wp-content/uploads/Documents/Education/Why-pedagogy-Matters.pdf

Merriam-Webster. 2019. Teaching aid. Accessed 11 March 2019: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/teaching%20aid

Ministry of Education (Guyana). 2016. Why Are Teaching Aids Important? Retrieved from:  https://education.gov.gy/web/index.php/teachers/tips-for-teaching/item/2143-why-are-teaching-aids-important

Promising policy options

Increasing participation

Teachers are encouraged to frequently engage in classroom discussions, as this builds on peer interaction and allows students to learn from each other. Teachers can also formatively assess how well students are grasping new content and concepts.

Teachers should engage in regular and timely individual feedback and group feedback, which is mostly dependent on classroom discussions. This should be based on how well students connect new materials to past learning and establishing a coherent link between the two.

School leaders should engage in encouraging the students to provide feedback and evaluation for the teachers in their classroom practices.

Teachers could make use of social media for increasing student and teacher collaboration for better learning. Social media could be better suited to help in making students more connected with the students in the outside world.

Schools should also have compulsory field trips, story-telling sessions, Physical Training (PT) and Role Playing for making school days more interesting for the students, which helps with building on student motivation to attend school, along with making learning more interactive.

In-class training and supervision

Incorporating Teaching Aids in classrooms. As students are reading less and less on their own, teachers are finding reading comprehension skills very low among today’s students (MoE Guyana, 2016). Teaching aids are helping teachers to close the gap and hone the reading comprehension skills of their students. Using magazine and newspaper articles, print ads and even comic books are viable teaching aids that assist in helping students comprehend text.

Teaching aids prove to be a formidable supplement for teachers when the reinforcement of a skill or concept is necessary. Not only do they allow students more time to practice, but they also present the information in a way that offers students a different way to engage with the material (MoE Guyana, 2016).

Each subject taught in school comes with a different set of teaching aids to supplement the learning. The educational value of teaching aids is dependent on their direct relation to an inclusive curriculum, motivating students and teachers to incorporate them into the learning process, and ensuring that multiple perspectives are represented. Minimum lists of the aids needed by students and teachers to achieve desired learning outcomes should be determined for each subject and grade level (IIEP-UNESCO, 2018h). These aids can include, for example, reference books, games, work cards, activity books, teachers’ didactic aids (flashcards, vocabulary cards, etc.), maps, wall charts posters, poster cards, marker pens, and paper (IIEP-UNESCO, 2018h).

For language learning, teaching aids would include relevant and interesting books, leveled readers, newspapers, informational pamphlets, and other materials printed in mother-tongue and instructional languages reflecting local customs and concerns (some of the aids and activities can be found in Batista Perez, V.M. n.d).

For mathematics, the effective aids which impact learning outcomes and engage in higher-level mathematical thinking would include number charts, abacus, base ten blocks, counters, Unifix cubes, geo-shapes, square tiles, and Cuisenaire rods. Adding weekly laboratory time for mathematics, which could include crafting shapes with origami, geometry experiments, building blocks using simple addition and subtraction would help make the subject more enjoyable, in return improving learning outcomes (IIEP-UNESCO, 2018h).

For science, teaching aids should be divided by grade or course and include safety equipment, non-consumable materials and equipment, consumable materials, kits, miscellaneous materials, and technology (for better understanding of what the aids should include, refer to Arkansas Science Teachers Association, 2003).

For Social Studies, teaching aids include audio/video recorders, projectors, pictures, globes, primary sources, maps, and charts. For instance, geography is better explained using aids such as atlases, globes, and maps (more aids that assist the teaching and learning of geography can be found in Shodhganga, n.d.).

References
Arkansas Science Teachers Association. 2003. Adequate Arkansas Science Classrooms, Labs, and Equipment To meet STANDARDS. Retrieved from: http://arkscience.org/downloads/Adequate_Science_Classrooms_Labs_Equipment_K12.pdf

Batista Perez, V.M. n.d. The use of teaching aids in the teaching learning process of large classes. Retrieved from: http://uvsfajardo.sld.cu/sites/uvsfajardo.sld.cu/files/the_use_of_teaching_aids_in_the_teaching_learning_process_of_large_classes_0.pdf

IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2021. Brief 3: Learning and Teaching Materials. Accessed 15 May 2021: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/curriculum-and-materials/learning-and-teaching-materials

Indian Study Channel. 2010. Teaching Aids, Their Needs, Types and Importance of Teaching Aids in Teaching Learning Process. Retrieved from: https://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/120148-Teaching-Aids-Their-Needs-Types-and-Importance-Of-Teaching-Aids-In-Teaching-Learning-Process.aspx

Ministry of Education (Guyana). 2016. Why Are Teaching Aids Important? Retrieved from:  https://education.gov.gy/web/index.php/teachers/tips-for-teaching/item/2143-why-are-teaching-aids-important

Mohsen Z.N.; Reza E.; Hamzeh N.S. 2015. The Use of Teaching Aids and Their Positive Impact on Student Learning Elementary School. International Academic Journal for Social Sciences. Vol. 2, No. 11, pp. 22-27. Retrieved from: http://iaiest.com/dl/journals/3-%20IAJ%20of%20Social%20Sciences/v2-i11-nov2015/paper3.pdf

Shodhganga. n.d. Chapter 4: Teaching Aids in Geography. Retrieved from: http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/142170/11/11_chapter%204.pdf

Family Insights. 2018. How Can Social Media Be Used In Education? Accessed 11 March 2019: https://knowledge-centre.familyinsights.net/knowledge-base/how-can-social-media-be-used-in-education/

Project and problem-based learning

‘Project and problem-based learning are ideal instructional models for meeting the objectives of twenty-first-century education because they employ the 4Cs Principle – critical thinking, communication, collaboration, and creativity – alongside ‘teaching for transfer’ and learning structured in real-world contexts.’ (Scott, C.L. 2015).

Teachers can design and plan activities that match the interests and needs of the students and the curriculum. Project and problem-based learning cannot be incorporated within the regular class period; therefore, alternative scheduling is needed. This would ensure that student can apply their classroom-gathered knowledge to real-world problems and take part in projects that require sustained engagement and collaboration.

Using e-learning and technology

Schools could set up laboratories (labs) for every subject taught in class, such as Mathematics lab, Computer lab, Science lab and/or Social Studies Lab. This ensures that along with theoretical learning, the students are developing their cognitive skills through practical learning as well. Labs help in cultivating creativity and innovation along with relating theory and practice. 

Schools can ensure that students and teachers both utilize e-learning. Multimedia such as cameras, voice recorders, and electronic whiteboards provide alternative methods for sharing and presenting information in a more accessible manner. Using the internet helps in doing valuable research, where learners can access not only information but can connect with people who have similar experiences and difficulties.

Multi-sensory learning

Wherever feasible, schools can develop a curriculum that uses pictures and realia (objects from real life) to compliment the theory that is taught in class, as it helps bring the subject to life.

Teachers would be better aided to provide the classroom with a fresh perspective through presentations. Teachers can also use videos and audio materials during lessons to encourage students to develop their own multimedia resources for project work.

References
TeachThought. 2018. 10 Innovative Learning Strategies For Modern Pedagogy. Accessed 11 March 2019:  https://www.teachthought.com/the-future-of-learning/10-innovative-learning-strategies-for-modern-pedagogy/

Other policy options

Focusing on multiple intelligences

Multiple Intelligences is a psychological and educational theory developed by psychologist Howard Gardner, which suggests that an array of different kinds of intelligence exists in human beings. There are nine types of intelligence identified by Gardner. The aim is to incorporate achieving these nine types into the school curriculum. These types are as follows:

  • Linguistic Intelligence: This enables individuals to communicate and make sense of the world through language. For example, Poets, journalists, orators have heightened linguist intelligence.
  • Logical-Mathematical Intelligence: This enables individuals to understand abstract relations. For example, scientists, mathematicians, and philosophers rely on this intelligence.
  • Spatial Intelligence: This makes it possible for people to perceive visual information and to transform this information to recreate visual images from their memory. For example, engineers, architects, designers or film-makers possess this intelligence.
  • Bodily/Kinesthetic Intelligence: This allows people to use all or part of the body to create products, solve problems and express themselves. For example, dancers, craftspeople, surgeons use this intelligence.
  • Musical Intelligence: This allows people to communicate and create an understanding through sound. For example, singers.
  • Interpersonal Intelligence: This enables individuals to recognize and make distinctions about the feelings and intentions of other people. For example, this is used by psychologists, salespeople or politicians.
  • Intra-personal Intelligence: This helps individuals to distinguish among their own feelings in order to build accurate mental models of themselves and to draw on these models to make accurate decisions about their lives.
  • Naturalistic Intelligence: this allows people to be more sensitive towards the environment. For example, geologists, archaeologists.
  • Existential Intelligence: This is the capacity to raise and reflect on the philosophical questions about life and death and ultimate realities. For example, philosophers.

Online learning resources

An online platform where there are supplementary quizzes, games, worksheets, reading materials for both teachers and students would help in making classwork and homework easier and enjoyable. For example, for a better understanding of the functions of the European Union (EU), there exists a variety of activities in the Education section of the European Commission website. These activities are divided according to different age groups to make it more impactful (this information can be found European Commission, n.d.).

References
ACER UK. n.d. Effective Pedagogical Practices. London: ACER UK. Retrieved from: https://www.acer.org/files/NSIT_8th_domain.pdf

Donald, H.C.; Sonnile, P.; Nkosha, D.C.; Geoff, T. 2001. UNESCO Basic Education Capacity Building Project: Teaching and learning materials analysis and development in basic education (Zambia); training kits for local NGOs, theme 3. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000132019

European Commission. n.d. Teachers Corner: Recommended material- school year 2017/2018. Accessed 11 March 2019: https://europa.eu/teachers-corner/age-ranks/best_en

IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2018c. Brief 3: Effective and appropriate pedagogy. Accessed 1 April 2018: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/teachers-and-pedagogy/effective-and-appropriate-pedagogy

INTO (Irish National Teachers’ Organisation). 2007. Approaches to Teaching & Learning. Dublin: INTO (Irish National Teachers’ Organisation). Retrieved from: http://dl.icdst.org/pdfs/files1/7c3e455085b3920873fb7a5c2e58218f.pdf?

LSIS (Learning and Skills Improvement Service). 2009. Teaching and Learning. Ten pedagogy approaches – equality and diversity quick start guide. Retrieved from: https://rsc-archive.jisc.ac.uk/file.php/102/qs_equality_diversity.pdf

Rahman, S. 2016. Investigating Pedagogical Techniques in Classroom Interactions at a CELTA Training Programme. Belfast: School of Education, Queen’s University Belfast. Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1107146.pdf

Scott, C.L. 2015. The Futures of Learning 3: What kind of Pedagogies for the 21st Century? Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002431/243126e.pdf

Skutil, M.; Havlíčková, K.; Matějíčková, R. 2016. Teaching methods in primary education from the teacher’s point of view. Hradec Králové: Institute of Primary and Preprimary Education, Faculty of Education, University of Hradec Králové. Retrieved from: https://www.shs-conferences.org/articles/shsconf/pdf/2016/04/shsconf_erpa2016_01001.pdf

TeachThought. 2018. 10 Innovative Learning Strategies For Modern Pedagogy. Accessed 11 March 2019:  https://www.teachthought.com/the-future-of-learning/10-innovative-learning-strategies-for-modern-pedagogy/

Policy options for improving Equity and Inclusion

Gender-responsive policies

All of the strategies mentioned in the general part of the present Policy page apply for this section. Yet, it is of utmost importance to ensure that teaching aids’ content is gender-responsive. This can be done by providing an equitable portray and reference of women and men, as well as gender-neutral and inclusive language (FAWE, 2006).

References
FAWE (Forum for African Women Educationalists). 2006. Gender Responsive Pedagogy. Working Document Draft for the Biennale on Education in Africa. Libreville: ADEA (Association for the Development of Education in Africa). Retrieved from: https://biennale.adeanet.org/2006/doc/document/B5_2_fawe_en.pdf

UNESCO Bangkok. 2017a. Gender-Responsive Classrooms Need Gender-Sensitive Teachers. Accessed 1 May 2019: https://bangkok.unesco.org/content/gender-responsive-classrooms-need-gender-sensitive-teachers

Policies for children with disabilities

Promising policy options

Through the use and implementation of learning aids within classrooms, teachers will be able to apply the key principles of Universal Design for Learning (UNICEF, 2014). Teachers could represent the information through multiple ways and make sure that it responds to the different needs of the children, help them express their knowledge through various means and keep them engaged throughout the process (CAST, 2018).  

For children with disabilities, learning aids are recognized as a category of assistive devices (Georgia Department of Education, 2019). Many types of assistive devices exist, from low- to high-tech. Low-tech assistive devices include (Bulat et al., 2017):

  • visual aids, such as pictures that support learning instruction;
  • audiobooks (they can be recorded by teachers if they are not available at a national level);
  • tape recorders through which teachers can record directions, lessons, stories and other content for children having difficulties with reading;
  • resources in sign language;
  • magnifying glasses;
  • slate, also known as a stylus, is a cost-effective tool that helps create the raised dots used for Braille;
  • learning materials in an easy-reading version; and
  • large print, among many others.

High-tech assistive devices include (Bulat et al., 2017):

  • braille typewriter;
  • computer with text-to-voice software;
  • hearing aid; and
  • alternative communication devices, among many others.

Assistive technology devices are defined by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act of the United States 2004, as ‘any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of a child with a disability. The term does not include a medical device that is surgically implanted, or the replacement of such device’ (IDEA, 2017).

Assistive devices are of utmost importance for children with disabilities, since they improve their access, participation and learning achievement in school, and also helps them flourish throughout their education process and as society members overall (WHO and UNICEF, 2015). ‘For many children, assistive technology represents the difference between enjoying their rights or being deprived of them’ (WHO and UNICEF, 2015: 7).

References
Bulat, B.; Hayes, A. M.; Macon, W.; Tichá, R.; Abery, B. H. 2017. School and Classroom Disabilities Inclusion Guide for Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press. Retrieved from: https://www.rti.org/rti-press-publication/school-classroom-inclusion

CAST. 2018. Universal Design for Learning Guidelines version 2.2. Accessed 5 July 2019: http://udlguidelines.cast.org

Georgia Department of Education. 2019. Assistive Technology. Accessed 13 July 2019: http://www.gpat.org/Georgia-Project-for-Assistive-Technology/Pages/Assistive-Technology-Definition.aspx

IDEA. 2017. Sec. 300.5 Assistive technology device. Accessed 14 July 2019: https://sites.ed.gov/idea/regs/b/a/300.5

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2014. Teachers, Inclusive, Child-Centred Teaching and Pedagogy: Webinar 12 – Companion Technical Booklet. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/eca/education

WHO (World Health Organization), UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2015. Assistive Technology for Children with Disabilities: Creating Opportunities for Education, Inclusion and Participation. A discussion paper. Geneva: WHO. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/disabilities/files/Assistive-Tech-Web.pdf

Provision of adequate teaching aids for children with disabilities

In order to provide quality education for all children with disabilities, and help them to fully participate and learn in school, it is necessary to provide them with adequate assistive devices they may require. A number of strategies are recommended for such purpose.

Adopt national legislation, policies and plans concerning assistive devices and set-up a provisioning system. ‘The absence of a national perspective is likely to result in fragmented and inequitable services, uncoordinated and parallel service delivery systems, and inefficient use of available resources’ (WHO and UNICEF, 2015: 28). (e.g. In some countries, such as Thailand, it is the schools that are in charge of ensuring that all of the students with disabilities are provided with the necessary assistive technology (WHO and UNICEF, 2015).). To establish a good provision system, it is necessary to previously estimate the needs of assistive devices throughout the education system. Study the possibility of including the question through the EMIS. Take into consideration the principles of the provision of assistive technology known as the 5A&Q (WHO and UNICEF, 2015).

Assistive technology devices must be available ‘in sufficient quantity as of close as possible to children’s communities’ (WHO and UNICEF, 2015: 22). The sound procurement process should be installed to provide easy and timely access to the required assistive devices (E.g. Kenya’s 2009 National Special Needs Education Policy Framework includes this strategy (Kenya, 2009).). An essential strategy to make teaching aids available is to establish partnerships involving students with disabilities, families, communities, and teachers to encourage them to support the provision of locally-made and innovative learning aids (Sarton and Smith, 2018; UNICEF, 2014). (E.g. Rwanda’s 2018 Revised Special Needs and Inclusive Education Policy encourages the community to participate in the provision of locally-made teaching and learning aids. For instance, in Kimonyi district, both parents and teachers meet on a regular basis in the primary school’s resource rooms to conceive and produce teaching aids for children with disabilities (Rwanda, 2018). Ghana’s 2015 Inclusive Education Policy states the importance of developing partnerships with the community to provide technical and financial support in the development and provision of teaching and learning aids (Ghana, 2015).). Partnerships with Disability People’s organizations (DPOs), NGOs and IOGs are also beneficial as they can support the national strategy regarding the provision of teaching aids and avoid duplication of efforts (WHO and UNICEF, 2015).

Assistive technology devices –learning and teaching aids– must be accessible for all the children who require them. The government must guarantee an equitable provision, without regarding the type of impairment, gender, socio-economic group or geographical location. 

National plans must ensure that assistive technology devices are affordable for the family of the child who requires them. When this is not the case, it is necessary to subsidize them and, when possible, provide them for free (e.g. the Government of India adopted a scheme, known as the Scheme of Assistance to Disabled Persons for Purchase/Fitting of Aids/Appliances, which subsidies assistive devices or provides them for free, depending on the family’s income (India, 2014).).

Assistive devices must be adapted to fit particular needs, requirements and individual factors such as body function, body structure, capacity, and age. Through the Individual Education Plan, specialists, teachers, parents and the students themselves can evaluate the needs and select the appropriate teaching and learning aids. In cases where medical evaluations are provided at the school level, they can help evaluate the student’s particular needs for assistive devices (e.g. in Cameroun, with the help of Sight Savers, systematic medical evaluations are done in 7 inclusive schools at the beginning of the year). The provisioning service must include the design, adaptation, customization, retention, reparation, and replacement of assistive technology devices (Georgia Department of Education, 2019). It is very important to ensure that the personnel involved in the provision service have the necessary knowledge to prevent any harm associated with incorrect assessment and fitting (WHO and UNICEF, 2015). 

Children with disabilities and their families should be involved throughout the provisioning process so that the assistive devices administered take into account their preferences, expectations and are thus acceptable to them. Assistive devices should also respect the different standards such as capacity, strength, durability, safety, and comfort (WHO and UNICEF, 2015).

Create awareness-raising campaigns to inform children with disabilities and their families of the existence of assistive devices, their benefits and the way in which they can acquire them (provision service).

Provide funding and establish partnerships. As expressed in the affordability section, in some cases, it is necessary to subsidize or provide assistive devices for free. Yet, in many countries, this still poses a major constraint, which is why it is essential to supplement the efforts by building partnerships with other assistive service providers, such as civil society organizations, DPOs, ONGs, OIGs, and the private sector.

Finally, all major stakeholders involved in the production, use, and maintenance of assistive devices must be trained. These include professionals, teachers, children with disabilities themselves and their families (Georgia Department of Education, 2019; Rwanda, 2018). Certain organizations such as the World Health Organization, have developed guidelines and training materials on the provision of multiple types of assistive devices. Countries can build upon that knowledge to train the relevant stakeholders, as well as develop further accredited training programmes (WHO and UNICEF, 2015).

References
Georgia Department of Education. 2019. Assistive Technology. Accessed 13 July 2019: http://www.gpat.org/Georgia-Project-for-Assistive-Technology/Pages/Assistive-Technology-Definition.aspx

Ghana. 2015. Ministry of Education. Inclusive Education Policy. Accra: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: http://www.unesco.org/education/edurights/media/docs/8944e598003c27611db065f18c5f90d4681b190a.pdf

India. 2014. Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment. Scheme of assistance of assistance to disabled persons for purchase/fitting of aids/appliances (ADIP Scheme). New Delhi: Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment. Retrieved from: http://disabilityaffairs.gov.in/upload/uploadfiles/files/Adip%20scheme%20English%20version.pdf

Kenya. 2009. Ministry of Education. The National Special Needs Education Policy Framework. Nairobi: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: https://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/es/node/6490

Rwanda. 2018. Ministry of Education. Revised Special Needs and Inclusive Education Policy. Kigali: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: https://www.mineduc.gov.rw/fileadmin/user_upload/Mineduc/Publications/POLICIES/Special_Needs_Strategic_Plan.pdf

Sarton, E.; Smith, M. 2018. The challenge of inclusion for children with disabilities – experiences of implementation in Eastern and Southern Africa. New York: UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/esa/sites/unicef.org.esa/files/2019-04/EducationThinkPieces_7_DisabilityInclusion.pdf

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2014. Teachers, Inclusive, Child-Centred Teaching and Pedagogy: Webinar 12 – Companion Technical Booklet. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/eca/education

WHO (World Health Organization), UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2015. Assistive Technology for Children with Disabilities: Creating Opportunities for Education, Inclusion and Participation. A discussion paper. Geneva: WHO. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/disabilities/files/Assistive-Tech-Web.pdf

Policies for displaced populations and host communities

All policy options mentioned in the general section of the present Policy page apply to this category. However, analyse these options through the lens of equity perspective and inclusive education for the displaced population.

Policies for minority populations

All policy options mentioned in the general section of the present Policy page apply to this category. However, analyse these options through the lens of equity perspective and inclusive education for minorities.

Updated on 2021-09-24

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