Moonlighting refers to teachers, especially in low-income situations, who ‘take second jobs in order to subsidise their expenses. The practice of schooling with double shifts lends itself to teachers taking a second job where they are only responsible for one shift’ (ADEA and WGEMPS, n.d.: 5). Those second jobs can include private after-school tutoring, working in other schools, taxi driving, among many others (UNESCO-IICBA, 2017). Moonlighting impacts significantly teachers’ focus on their teaching functions and, as a result, teaching quality (UNESCO-IICBA, 2017).

ADEA (Association for Development of Education in Africa) WGEMPS (Working Group on Education Management and Policy Support). n.d. Policy Brief, Reducing Teacher Absenteeism: Solutions for Africa. Harare: ADEA WGEMPS. Retrieved from:

UNESCO-IICBA (UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa). 2017. Teacher support and motivation framework for Africa: emerging patterns. Addis Ababa: UNESCO-IICBA. Retrieved from

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