Motivation

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Definition
Motivation is the desire or willingness to do or have something (IIEP-UNESCO, n.d.; Crehan, 2016). Regarding teachers, there are various ‘motivator factors’ including achievement, recognition, responsibility, growth, and advancement (Crehan, 2016).

Based on Herzberg’s (1968) dual-factor theory, there are actions which can lead to less dissatisfaction (such as improving teachers’ working conditions) whereas there are others which lead to extra motivation (such as recognition, opportunities for growth and responsibility) (Crehan, 2016).

Another motivation theory is Deci and Ryan’s (1985) cognitive evaluation theory (CET) which distinguishes intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. ‘Intrinsic  motivation  refers  to  doing  something  because  it  is  inherently  interesting  or  enjoyable,  whereas  extrinsic  motivation  refers  to  doing  something  because  it  leads  to  a  separable outcome, such as a reward’ (Crehan, 2016: 36). Ryan and Deci (2000) proposed various types of extrinsic motivation, including integration, identification, introjection, and external regulation (Crehan, 2016).

References
Crehan, L. 2016. Exploring the impact of career models on teacher motivation. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000246252_eng

IIEP-UNESCO. n.d. Teacher career glossary. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Accessed 14 February 2019: http://www.iiep.unesco.org/sites/default/files/teacher_career_glossary.pdf

To explore further
Chimier, C.; Tournier, B. 2019. Why reform teacher careers and what models are emerging? Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000372127

Crehan, L. 2016. Exploring the impact of career models on teacher motivation. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000246252_eng

IIEP-UNESCO. 2010. ‘Chapter 3.2: Teacher motivation, compensation and working conditions’. In: Guidebook for planning education in emergencies and reconstruction (pp.25-47). Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.iiep.unesco.org/sites/default/files/Guidebook%20Chapters/GB_2009_3.2_final.pdf

IIEP-UNESCO. 2018. Could new career opportunities lead to greater teacher motivation? Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Accessed 25 August 2021: http://www.iiep.unesco.org/en/could-new-career-opportunities-lead-greater-teacher-motivation-4454

Tournier, B.; Chimier, C.; Childress, D.; Raudonyte, I. 2019. Teacher career reforms: Learning from experience. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.iiep.unesco.org/en/publication/teacher-career-reforms-learning-experience

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