Teacher deployment, Teacher retention

The surge in primary school enrolment and the push for improved quality has resulted in a shortage of teachers; it is estimated that 24.4 million teachers will be needed to achieve universal primary education by 2030 (UIS-UNESCO, 2016). The situation is exacerbated by high teacher attrition rates, which in some countries are surpassing recruitment rates (UIS-UNESCO, 2016). Education policies need to ensure that there is an environment created for teachers that motivates them to continue in the teaching profession, so an adequate supply of teachers can be maintained. 

Teacher deployment systems determine where and how teachers are placed, and the conditions for changing teaching posts. Improving deployment practices can have important implications for teacher retention as teachers unhappy with their placements, or whose changing circumstances are not taken into account, are more likely to quit the profession. Inefficient deployment systems can also inequitably distribute teachers across schools leading to overcrowded classes, likewise increasing teacher attrition.

Teacher retention and deployment practices have significant effects on issues of equity and quality. Communities serving concentrations of low-income and disadvantaged students are disproportionately affected by teacher attrition, and also often have less qualified teacher candidates deployed to their schools to begin with.

In order to mitigate teacher attrition and improve teacher retention it is important to understand the causes for the difficulties to deploy and retain teachers. Some of the causes include:

  • other professions with better pay and work environment;
    • inadequate deployment systems and policies;
    • involuntary transfers to other schools;
    • inadequate teaching materials and excessive paperwork; and,
    • issues related to job satisfaction, such as lack of leadership support or low prospects for growth.

The primary goal is to motivate teachers to perform and commit to the teaching profession which can be achieved by: improving teacher salaries and incentives, improving working conditions, providing opportunities for career development, improving deployment practices, rewarding teachers, and providing a responsive evaluation system.

References
Brownell, M; Smith, S. 1992. ‘Attrition/retention of special education teachers: Critique of current research and recommendations for retention efforts.’ In: Teacher Education and Special Education. Vol. 15, (4), 229-248. Retrieved from: http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/088840649201500402

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2005b. Teachers matter: Attracting, developing and retaining qualified teachers. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/education/school/34990905.pdf

The World Bank. n.d. Teachers overview. Retrieved from: http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/teachers#2

UIS-UNESCO (UNESCO Institute for Statistics). 2016. UIS fact sheet: The world needs almost 69 million new teachers to reach the 2030 education goals. Paris: UIS-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002461/246124e.pdf

Promising policy options

Competitive salary and benefits

The main factor that causes qualified candidates to leave the teaching profession is the lack of adequate salary and remuneration. Teaching salaries are often well below those of other available jobs requiring a comparable level of skills and training, which means increasing teacher salaries is key to improving the status of the teaching profession, and retaining qualified candidates.

*For more information, consult Policy page Teacher benefits.

Beyond salary increase other benefits and compensations, both monetary and non-monetary, can be offered, including:

  • provision of housing/ housing allowance;
  • providing transport assistance;
  • scholarships for teacher training;
  • promotion opportunities;
  • family benefits;
  • continuous professional development; and
  • leave provisions.
References
The World Bank. 2009e. Teacher motivation, incentives and working conditions. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/468341468306561093/pdf/705540BRI0P1060ion0300December02009.pdf

The World Bank. 2012. What matters most in teacher policies: A framework for building a more effective teaching profession. System approach for better education results. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from:  http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/Resources/278200-1290520949227/SABER-Teachers-Framework-Updated_June14.2012.pdf

UNESCO. 2015. Teacher policy development guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002352/235272e.pdf

UNESCO; International Task Force on Teachers for Education 2030. 2019. Teacher Policy Development Guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000370966

Improving deployment systems

Carefully plan and track deployments can foster the equitable distribution of teachers according to schools’ needs. Having up to date information on the school’s requirements and characteristics, with clear, transparent rules, and free from political motivation is also fundamental to make informed decisions that benefit the system. Make sure to take teacher’s preferences into account, include provisions for transfer of teachers when circumstances change.

Take into account specific needs of:

  • teacher’s family responsibilities;
  • teacher’s disabilities;
  • teachers living with HIV/AIDs and their required health needs; and
  • teachers from ethnic minorities.

Provide targeted incentives for hard to staff locations. While deployment systems should take teacher’s preferences into account there is a definite need to place teachers in less desirable locations, and these areas are often where teacher shortages occur. In this way deployment policies have a particular effect on equity issues, as the less desirable locations with disadvantaged students often end up with the least qualified teachers who are newest to the profession, or with the fewest teachers. Offering targeted incentives for hard-to-staff locations to the most qualified teacher candidates can help overcome this imbalance, placing more effective teachers where they are most needed and where they are willing to serve. Another strategy is to place teachers in remote locations for limited durations, such as a few years, and then allow them location preference in their next deployment.

Additional policies include:

  • increased salary;
  • teacher housing (free or subsidized);
  • hardship allowance;
  • salary bonus/award scheme;
  • choice of next job posting location;
  • smaller class size;
  • less instructional time;
  • scholarships;
  • forgivable loans;
  • specialized promotion opportunities; and
  • priority access to training and career development programmes.

Incentives need to be large enough in scale to attract teachers to the hard-to-staff locations, carefully targeted, and tied to the specific post.

Rather than a centralized deployment system determining teacher placement, some countries have systems in which the schools are in charge of recruiting and hiring teachers, and candidates apply directly to their choice of school. This can help increase teacher’s commitments to particular schools and help ensure a better match between the needs of schools and expectations of teachers, preventing teacher attrition in the future. Such a system can be particularly effective in rural areas that have needs for candidates with specific relevant backgrounds, where schools can focus their hiring efforts on local candidates who have the background, language and cultural understanding required for the positions and are happy to serve in those areas.

However, measures need to be in place to still ensure the equitable distribution of qualified teachers among all schools, nationwide. Systems need to be in place to ensure accountability and equity, and in-service training needs to be available for local teachers when needed.

Central and regional authorities still need to regulate the equitable distribution of teachers, which requires strong school leadership and management. Provide sufficient support to teachers in rural schools, including equitable access to professional development opportunities, and efficient salary payments. 

References
IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2018a. Brief 1: Recruiting and deploying effective teachers. Accessed 30 November 2018: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/teachers-and-pedagogy/recruiting-and-deploying-effective-teachers

ILO (International Labour Organization). 2012a. ‘Module 1 employment and recruitment’. In:  Handbook of Good Human Resource Practices in the Teaching Profession. Geneva: ILO http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—sector/documents/publication/wcms_187793.pdf

ILO (International Labour Organization) Centre for International Teacher Education. 2016. Rural teachers in Africa: A report for ILO. Geneva: ILO. Retrieved from: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—sector/documents/publication/wcms_543617.pdf

Mulkeen A.; Chen D. 2008. Teachers for rural schools: Experiences in Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, and Uganda. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/6423/439700PUB0Box310only109780821374795.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Mulkeen, A. 2010d. Teachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in teacher supply, training, and Management. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/Resources/278200-1099079877269/Teachers_Anglophone_Africa.pdf

The World Bank. 2009e. Teacher motivation, incentives and working conditions. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/468341468306561093/pdf/705540BRI0P1060ion0300December02009.pdf

UIS-UNESCO (UNESCO Institute for Statistics). 2006. Teachers and Educational Quality: Monitoring Global Needs for 2015. Montreal: UIS-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://uis.unesco.org/sites/default/files/documents/ teachers-and-educational-quality-monitoring-global-needs-for-2015-en_0.pdf

UNESCO. 2015. Education for all global monitoring report. Policy Paper 19: The challenge of teacher shortage and quality: Have we succeeded in getting enough quality teachers into classrooms? Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002327/232721E.pdf

UNESCO. 2015. Teacher policy development guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002352/235272e.pdf

UNESCO; International Task Force on Teachers for Education 2030. 2019. Teacher Policy Development Guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000370966

Improving working conditions

Provide teachers with a sufficient supply of resources and teaching materials, reduce paperwork, add support staff, and involve teachers in decision-making processes.

Improve teacher collaboration, initiate induction and mentoring programmes to ensure that new teachers get a supportive and motivating start; this can be done by setting up supportive supervision structures, and incentives provided to improve teacher motivation for disadvantaged schools or schools in rural areas/isolated areas (see above).

Develop systems for tracking teacher turnover, such as holding exit interviews, to better target programmes to increase teacher retention, policies for empowering teachers with disabilities and special needs and ensuring that there is an inclusive work environment, and assess the quality of the teaching and learning environment, such as through teacher surveys, to help guide school improvement (IIEP-UNESCO, 2018).

Finally, investment in the development of high-quality principals; this can be done by establishing a strong preparation standard for administrators. States and the federal government can also support efforts to recruit promising candidates into leadership positions and pay for their training through competitive service scholarship programmes (IIEP-UNESCO, 2018.

References
House of Commons Education Committee. 2017. Recruitment and retention of teachers: Fifth Report. 2016-2017. London: House of Commons Education Committee. Retrieved from: https://publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm201617/cmselect/cmeduc/199/199.pdf

IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2018a. Brief 1: Recruiting and deploying effective teachers. Accessed 30 November 2018: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/teachers-and-pedagogy/recruiting-and-deploying-effective-teachers

Johnson, S. M.; Berg, J. H.; Donaldson, M. L. 2005. Who stays in teaching and why: A review of the literature on teacher retention. Cambridge: Harvard Graduate School of Education. Retrieved from: https://assets.aarp.org/www.aarp.org_/articles/NRTA/Harvard_report.pdf

Loeb, S.; Darling-Hammond, L.; Luczak, J. 2005. ‘How teaching conditions predict teacher turnover in California schools.’ In: Peabody Journal of Education. Vol. 80 (3), 44-70. Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1207/s15327930pje8003_4

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2005b. Teachers matter: Attracting, developing and retaining qualified teachers. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/education/school/34990905.pdf

Podolosky, A.; Kini, T.; Bishop, J.; Darling-Hammond, L. 2016. Solving the teacher shortage: How to attract and retain excellent educators. Washington D.C.: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from: https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Solving_Teacher_Shortage_Attract_Retain_Educators_REPORT.pdf

Continuous professional development and support programmes

Continuous Professional Development (CPD) includes sustained opportunities for teachers to grow as professionals and constantly improve the quality of their work.

Increase support at the beginning of teachers’ careers through induction programs, with specific training workshops organized for selecting and training expert mentors, and by providing adequate release time to allow mentors and beginning teachers to engage in a full range of instructional support activities, such as classroom observations, coaching, shared lesson planning, and reflection.

On-going in-service training and support programmes can be provided in the form of workshops, regular meetings, distance learning, mentoring programmes and professional learning communities. These programmes should be participatory in nature and should be aligned with teachers’ needs, which should be identified through teach appraisal systems or through teachers’ self-reflection on the areas for which they need professional development.

Opportunities for career advancement, which can be through:

  • Horizontal career paths: by adding new professional roles such as developing curriculum or training other teachers.
  • Vertical career paths: by allowing opportunities to positions outside of teaching.

*For more on this subject, consult Policy page Teaching skills.

References
Burns, M.; Lawrie J. 2015. Where it’s needed most: Quality professional development for all teachers. New York: INEE (Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies). Retrieved from:  http://toolkit.ineesite.org/toolkit/INEEcms/uploads/1162/Teacher_Professional_Development_v1.0_LowRes.pdf

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2005b. Teachers matter: Attracting, developing and retaining qualified teachers. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/education/school/34990905.pdf

Scheilcher, A. 2012. Preparing teachers and developing school leaders: Lessons from around the world. Paris: OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Retrieved from: https://www.oecd.org/site/eduistp2012/49850576.pdf

UNESCO. 2015. Teacher policy development guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002352/235272e.pdf

UNESCO; International Task Force on Teachers for Education 2030. 2019. Teacher Policy Development Guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000370966

Teacher evaluation

Teacher evaluations can be used to enhance classroom practice, recognize teachers’ work and help both teachers and schools to identify professional development opportunities, with teacher’s self-evaluation, informal peer evaluation, classroom observation and feedback from the principal all being included in teacher evaluation systems. 

Ensure that teacher appraisal occurs within a framework of profession-wide agreed statements of teachers’ responsibilities and standards of professional performance. Teacher evaluation can be used to reward teachers for exemplary performance, through career progression, opportunities for teacher training, school-based research, etc.

References
IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2018g. Brief 5: Supporting in-service teachers. Accessed 15 December 2018. Retrieved from: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/teachers-and-pedagogy/supporting-in-service-teachers

Mulkeen, A; Chapman, D. W; DeJaeghere, J. G; Leu, E. 2007. Recruiting, Retaining, and Retraining Secondary School Teachers and Principals in Sub-Saharan African. Paper no. 99. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTAFRREGTOPSEIA/Resources/No.4Teachers.pdf

Mulkeen, A. 2010d. Teachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in teacher supply, training, and Management. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/Resources/278200-1099079877269/Teachers_Anglophone_Africa.pdf

The World Bank. n.d. Teachers overview. Retrieved from: http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/teachers#2

Policy options for improving Equity and Inclusion

Gender-responsive policies

Note: Context-based gender analysis previous to policy implementation is needed to identify if female teachers’ deployment and retention is an issue within the country. Additionally, if difficulties in deployment and retention are due to a lack of male teachers, implement the policy recommendations found in the Policy page Appropriate candidates so as to incentivize men to join the teaching profession, particularly to become primary school teachers.

Promising policy options

Target female teachers’ deployment and retention

Develop ‘family-friendly’ deployment systems (Mulkeen et al., 2007) by including childcare schemes and/or provide free boarding education for teachers’ children (Bista, 2006). Implement affirmative actions to either ensure those female teachers are deployed in places where their partner resides or coordinate with relevant stakeholders to ensure the partners’ transfer (Mulugeta, 2012; UNESCO Bangkok, 2006.).  For example, in Malawi, female teachers’ requests to relocation due to the husband’s relocation cannot be denied (World Bank, 2010a, cited by UNESCO, 2013a).

Ensure local recruitment (general policy option, see above for more details) to address the teacher gender gap in rural areas (Mulkeen, 2010d). In cases where this is not possible, and when deployed far away from their families, teachers should be given travel allowances to visit them (Bista, 2006). For instance, Lesotho’s local hiring system has raised the proportion of female teachers in rural areas (Haugen et al., 2011). BRAC programme in Bangladesh has successfully hired local women. Through intensive training and specialized supervision, they have acquired the necessary knowledge to teach (UNESCO Bangkok, 2006).

Particular attention should be paid to no having practices that imply recruiting local women solely as volunteers, instead of providing them real job opportunities. This should be countered by offering specific allowances to incentivise female teachers to work in difficult and/or rural areas, such as providing safe, adequate, free housing near the school (UNESCO Learning Portal, 2018). For example, EMIS data in Malawi revealed a strong association between housing availability and the presence of female teachers in schools (UNESCO, 2013a), while in Uganda, housing provision is one of the key factors to ensure teacher retention, particularly in rural areas (ILO Centre for International Teacher Education, 2016).

One potential strategy is to deploy female teachers in pairs to rural locations (UNESCO, 2016a) as is the case in Ghana deploys female teachers by pairs who work and live together, which, in turn, allows them to build a sense of companionship and support (UNESCO Bangkok, 2006).

Ensure gender-responsive infrastructure and facilities. Providing gender-responsive WASH facilities is of the utmost importance to ensure the retention of female teachers in schools (ILO Centre for International Teacher Education, 2016). Guarantee also that toilets or latrines are adequate, safe, well-functioning, clean, and that separate facilities exist to manage menstruation. (For more details consult Policy page Buildings are not ready).  

Respect the principle of equal remuneration by tackling down gender pay gaps. Take into account entrenched gender issues in salary progression and promotion (For more details consult Policy page Teacher benefits), and promote the participation of female in administration positions and leadership roles (UNESCO, 2013a).

Providing a safe and welcoming environment should be a major concern when it comes to increasing the number of female teachers (Haugen et al., 2011):

  • school climate’s policy must be gender-responsive (for more details consult Policy page School climate);
  • ensure the development and implementation of policies to tackle down school-related gender-based violence (for specific strategies consult Policy page School-related violence);
  • promote support and welcoming networks for female teachers (Mulkeen et al., 2007; UNESCO Bangkok, 2006); and
  • ensure female teachers’ participation in peer networks. Promote specific mentoring programmes for new female teachers with the support of experienced teachers (Mulkeen et al., 2007).
references
Bista, M.B. 2006. Status of Female teachers in Nepal. Kathmandu: UNESCO office in Kathmandu. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000146116

Haugen, C.S.; Klees, S. J.; Stromquist, N. P.; Lin, J.; Choti, T.; Corneilse, C. 2011. Increasing Female Primary School Teachers in African Countries: Barriers and Policies. Nairobi: University of Maryland – Forum for African Women Educationalists. Retrieved from: https://www.macfound.org/media/files/FAWE_Literature_Review.docx.

IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2018. Brief 2: Teacher motivation and incentives. Accessed 23 September 2019: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/teachers-and-pedagogy/teacher-motivation-and-incentives

ILO (International Labour Organization) Centre for International Teacher Education. 2016. Rural teachers in Africa: A report for ILO. Geneva: ILO. Retrieved from: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—sector/documents/publication/wcms_543617.pdf

Mulkeen, A; Chapman, D. W; DeJaeghere, J. G; Leu, E. 2007. Recruiting, Retaining, and Retraining Secondary School Teachers and Principals in Sub-Saharan African. Paper no. 99. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTAFRREGTOPSEIA/Resources/No.4Teachers.pdf

Mulkeen, A. 2010d. Teachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in teacher supply, training, and Management. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/Resources/278200-1099079877269/Teachers_Anglophone_Africa.pdf

Mulugeta, E. 2012. Teacher Education Policies from Gender Perspective: The Case of Ghana, Nigeria and Senegal. Addis Ababa: UNESCO-IICBA (UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa). Retrieved from: http://www.ungei.org/resources/files/221709e(1).pdf

UNESCO Bangkok. 2006. The Impact of women teachers on girls’ education: Advocacy Brief. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000145990?posInSet=1&queryId=f01d0286-e671-41ec-958b-c4eff8692137

UNESCO. 2013. Education for All 2013-2014: Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002256/225660e.pdf

UNESCO. 2016. A review of Evaluative Evidence on Teacher Policy. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002443/244373E.pdf

Policies for teachers with disabilities

Promising policy options

Deployment and retention of teachers with disabilities

Note: There is a consistent lack of research on specific policy measures that have successfully enhanced the deployment and retention of teachers with disabilities within education systems. In general, the documents which cite this issue remain very general and solely urge the need of recruiting persons with disabilities as teachers (e.g.  Lesotho’s Education Sector Plan 2016-2026, includes under its main strategies to develop clear deployment policy for teachers with disabilities (Lesotho, 2016).).

Nonetheless, a number of potential recommendations exist, such as developing transparent, non-discriminatory deployment and transfer policies (ILO, 2012) and giving priority in deployment and transfer to teachers with disabilities. For example, in France, requests from teachers with disabilities to be deployed or transferred to other schools are prioritized (ILO, 2012).

Take into consideration the individual needs of teachers with disabilities. Ensure schools are accessible and perform all of the necessary reasonable accommodations and ensure accessible housing for teachers with disabilities near to the school (ILO, 2012).

Provide free, accessible and secure transportation methods to school. Ensure the participation of teachers with disabilities in peer networks and provide specific support systems. For example, in the United Kingdom, support is given by the local Placement Assessment and Counselling Team in order to retain teachers with disabilities (NUT, n.d.).

Provide incentives to ensure teachers with disabilities remain in the profession. For instance, government schemes, additional monetary benefits, and scholarships (for specific details consult Policy page Appropriate candidates), and foster a safe and welcoming environment for teachers with disabilities. (For more information consult Policy page School climate and School-related violence).

Track information related to the deployment and retention of teachers with disabilities:

  • In which areas are they deployed the most?
  • What is the attrition rate of teachers with disabilities?
References
ILO (International Labour Organization). 2012. Handbook of good human resources practices in the teaching profession. Geneva: ILO. Retrieved from: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—sector/documents/publication/wcms_187793.pdf

Lesotho. 2016. Ministry of Education and Training. Education Sector Plan 2016-2026. Maseru:  Ministry of Education and Training. Retrieved from: https://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/sites/planipolis/files/ressources/lesotho_education_sector_plan_2016-2026.pdf

NUT (National Union of Teachers). n.d. ‘Our Right to Stay in Work!’ Making reasonable adjustments for disabled teachers. London: NUT. Retrieved from: https://www.inclusivechoice.com/Making%20reasonable%20adjustments%20for%20disabled%20teachers%20(NUT).pdf

Other policy options

Deployment and retention of special educators

In some countries, special educators support mainstream teachers in welcoming diversity within the classrooms and learning how to teach to all children (Bulat et al., 2017). The presence of specialist teachers within mainstream settings highly depends on the country’s understanding of diversity and inclusion (European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education, 2015; Cheshire, 2019). Yet, careful attention should be paid in these situations. The presence of special educators should by no means release mainstream teachers of their responsibility to teach all children or result in the segregation of children with disabilities within mainstream schools.

In places where there are not enough special educators, it is possible to employ specialist itinerant teachers (Howgego, Miles and Myers, 2014, IIEP-UNESCO, 2019; UNESCO-Global Education Monitoring Report, 2018). This strategy has been implemented in countries such as Togo, Kenya, Uganda, Malawi, and Tanzania. Specialist itinerant teachers aim to support mainstream teachers in inclusive settings and ensure the learning process of children with disabilities. For instance, they strengthen inclusive classroom learning and practice by providing regular guidance to mainstream teachers on inclusion issues and challenges (e.g. the adaptation of teaching and learning materials; classroom set-up, etc.).

Analyse deployment policies of itinerant specialists to ensure full coverage of schools. In some cases, long distances prevent itinerant teachers from visiting all of the schools they have been assigned to (Howgego, Miles and Myers, 2014). Support itinerant specialists to work full-time by balancing mainstream teaching responsibilities with the high demands of being itinerant teachers can pose serious difficulties (Howgego, Miles and Myers, 2014).

References
Bulat, B.; Hayes, A. M.; Macon, W.; Tichá, R.; Abery, B. H. 2017. School and Classroom Disabilities Inclusion Guide for Low- and Middle-Income Countries. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI Press. Retrieved from: https://www.rti.org/sites/default/files/resources/school_and_classroom_disabilities_inclusion_guide.pdf

Cheshire, L. 2019. Inclusive education for persons with disabilities – Are we making progress? Background paper prepared for the International Forum on inclusion and equity in Education – Every learner matters, Cali, Colombia, 11-13 September 2019. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000370386?posInSet=11&queryId=8251b10e-fda6-4bf5-a11e-a077d7076fa4

Ethiopia. Ministry of Education. 2015. Guideline for establishing and managing inclusive education resource/support centers (RCs). Addis Ababa: Federal Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: https://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/sites/planipolis/files/ressources/ethiopia_guideline_for_establishing_and_managing_inclusive_education_resource-support_centers.pdf

European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education. 2015. Empowering Teachers to Promote inclusive Education: A case study of approaches to training and support for inclusive teacher practice. Odense: European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education. Retrieved from: https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/Empowering%20Teachers%20to%20Promote%20Inclusive%20Education.%20A%20case%20study.pdf

Grant Lewis, S. 2019. ‘Opinion: The urgent need to plan for disability-inclusive education’. Devex. 6 February 2019. Accessed 4 November 2019: https://www.devex.com/news/opinion-the-urgent-need-to-plan-for-disability-inclusive-education-94059

Howgego, C.; Miles, S.; Myers, J. 2014. Inclusive Learning: Children with disabilities and difficulties in learning. Oxford: HEART (Health & Education Advice & Resource Team). Retrieved from: http://www.heart-resources.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Inclusive-Learning-Topic-Guide.pdf?9d29f8=.  

IIEP-UNESCO. 2019. Technical Round Table: Inclusion of children with disabilities in education sector planning in French-speaking Africa. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. [Unpublished document]. 

Sæbønes, A.-M.; Berman Bieler, R.; Baboo, N.; Banham, L.; Singal, N.; Howgego, C.; Vuyiswa McClain-Nhlapo, C.; Riis-Hansen, T. C.; Dansie, G. A. 2015. ‘Towards a disability inclusive education’. Background paper for the Oslo Summit on Education for Development, 6-7 July 2015. Retrieved from: https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1865/Oslo_Ed_Summit_DisabilityInclusive_Ed.pdf

UNESCO-Global Education Monitoring Report. 2018. GEM Report summary on disabilities and education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000265353?posInSet=1&queryId=b37d52b5-2c31-46a0-b420-5aef417a0e72

Policies for displaced populations and host communities

*All the policies mentioned in the general section apply to this category as well.

Promising policy options

For retaining teachers from the displaced population, they have to undergo continuous training, professional development, and work towards attaining job satisfaction. Some promising recommendations are:

Innovative Initiatives for Teacher collaboration

A series of joint initiatives and innovative pedagogical approaches to support the preparedness and well-being of teachers working with refugees should be implemented. For instance, the Teachers in Crisis Contexts Training Pack (TICC) is an inter-agency initiative that synthesizes existing resources into a single comprehensive resource to encourage harmonized programming between partners in emergency settings. The resulting open-source teacher-training pack covers five areas – the teacher’s role and well-being; child protection, well-being and inclusion; pedagogy; curriculum and planning; and subject knowledge. Each domain focuses on building the skills required for unqualified or under-qualified teachers.

While the TICC was an important step towards establishing minimum skills and classroom content needed, its development also underlined the ineffectiveness of stand-alone training. This awareness led to the launching of innovative initiatives like the Teachers for Teachers and the Borderless Higher Education for Refugees (BHER) programmes.

Global Mentoring and Mobile Mentoring

Mobile mentoring is the most innovative aspect of the programme, providing teachers with a “global mentor” available to them via WhatsApp and a private Facebook group. These exchanges help teachers feel they are part of a wider community of practitioners with whom they can share their experiences and obtain teaching advice. For instance, Teachers for Teachers is a joint initiative of Teachers College, Columbia University (United States) and Finn Church Aid, a Finnish non-governmental organization (NGO), in partnership with UNHCR and the Lutheran World Federation. It provides teachers with continuous professional development, using an approach that integrates training classes, peer coaching and mobile mentoring.

The training is based on the TICC, with teachers following two concurrent tracks – a short-term session of four days, and long-term training spread over several months. In addition, teachers are placed into small groups and assigned a peer coach who facilitates the learning circles and conducts classroom visits to aid each teacher.

References
INEE (Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2016. Teachers in Crisis Contexts Training for Primary School Teachers. Retrieved from: https://inee.org/resources/teachers-crisis-contexts-training-primary-school-teachers

Teachers College. Columbia University. A Graduate School of Education, Health & Psychology. Urban Refugee Team. Retrieved from :  https://www.tc.columbia.edu/refugeeeducation/urban-refugee-education/

European Union. 2019. The contributions of youth work in the context of migration and refugee matters. A practical toolbox for youth workers and recommendations for policymakers. Retrieved from: https://publications.europa.eu/en/publication-detail/-/publication/1bcaf566-6a29-11e9-9f05-01aa75ed71a1/language-en/format-PDF/source-search

Recruiting refugee teachers

As of now, there is no comprehensive or formal system for recruiting refugee teachers in emergency settings. However, the informal recruitment and selection processes are context-based. This limitation can be narrowed down to the national laws which are restrictive in terms of the right to work for refugees in the host communities, which also hampers their integration into the national system and education management information systems. However, some country governments stipulate the recruitment percentage of the national and refugee teachers into their education system. (Rcihardson et al, 2018). For example, in Dadaab, Kenya, a number of qualified and experienced Kenyans are hired to serve as teachers and mentors to support refugee teachers. In 2012, about 10% of teachers were qualified Kenyan nationals; the remaining 90% were refugee teachers drawn from the camps.

In Sweden, older refugees are being trained as teaching assistants to expedite integration. In Greece, well-educated refugees participate in educational activities, like providing Arabic and English lessons even though they are not qualified teachers. In some countries where refugee teachers are not permitted to teach in government schools, they can become assistants or work in a non-formal/private institution.

Provide formal and non-formal training to refugee teachers

INEE recommends that teacher training be designed to fulfil national requirements and to qualify teachers of refugees so they can eventually join the regular teaching force. Formal training also mitigates possible problems with MoEs, which may be unfamiliar with non-formal teacher training programmes or disapprove of such programmes’ methods.

Distance education is an option. While distance education programmes leading to qualifications through correspondence may take longer, this option allows teachers to continue teaching and receive compensation throughout training

The Kenyan government has sought to reduce classroom pupil-teacher ratios by sending untrained or ‘incentive’ refugee teachers to attain P1 Diploma and Early Childhood Development Certificates. These newly certified teachers are then integrated into host community institutions.

Non-formal in-service professional development is especially important in emergency settings in which ‘education systems, curricular content and education policy are rapidly evolving to meet changing needs. Hence, a lack of teaching capacity can amplify inequitable access, corruption, and fragmented community structures. For example, in Turkey, professional development programmes for teachers have trained 7,000 Syrian volunteer teachers on methodologies, psychosocial support and classroom management. Additionally, UNICEF has offered one-day trainings for Syrian teachers, with plans to expand the programme to include host community teachers.

References
INEE (Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2009. Guidance notes on teacher compensation in fragile states, situations of displacement and post-crisis recovery. New York: INEE. Retrieved from: http://www.ineesite.org/en/teacher-compensation-initiative

INEE (Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2010. Guidance notes on teaching and learning. New York: INEE. Retrieved from: http://toolkit.ineesite.org/toolkit/INEEcms/uploads/1004/Guidance_Notes_on_Teaching_and_Learning_EN.pdf

Jordan. 2014. Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation. National resilience Plan 2014-2016. Retrieved from: http://www.jordanembassyus.org/sites/default/files/NRP_FinalDraft_08.29.2014_MOPIC.pdf.

INEE (Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2014. Mapping the education response to the Syrian crisis. Retrieved from: www.ineesite.org/en/blog/mapping-theeducation-response-to-the-syrian-crisis1

Incorporate refugee teachers in policy dialogues and build their motivation

Involving the opinions of refugee teachers on issues such as the portability of certification and adequate pay are important management factors for both refugee and national teachers. However, there isn’t enough studies which critically analyse their perspective and opinions. An investment into involving their voice would add to the inclusivity in the national policies and management programmes, in a sustainable manner. (Rcihardson et al, 2018)

Additionally, for improving teacher motivation, it is imperative to:

  • Improve working conditions: Efforts to improve working conditions should be part of broader education sector plans and should include the provision of teacher supplies each term, the provision of teachers guides and texts, the use of teaching assistants, and the use of two-schools-in-one to relieve congestion.
  • Engage and involve teachers: Engaging teachers’ participation in education programme planning and implementation brings them in as problem-solving partners rather than viewing them as part of a problem (UNHCR n.d.). Invite teacher representatives to coordination and planning meetings and consult them on a regular basis for feedback and planning purposes.

Finally, widen access to teacher qualifications through negotiation with MoE and/or related institutions, in order to:

  • increase the numbers of scholarships to teacher training institutions;
  • open teacher training facilities on-site, through distance learning or mobile units; and
  • allow for stackable credit for on-site, short term training or courses which can lead to a qualification.
References
Richardson, E.; MacEwen, L.; Naylor, R. 2018. Teachers of Refugees: A review of the Literature. Education Development Trust. IIEP-UNESCO (International Institute for Education Planning). Retrieved from: https://www.educationdevelopmenttrust.com/EducationDevelopmentTrust/files/8e/8ebcf77f-4fff-4bba-9635-f40123598f22.pdf

Bennell, P. 2004. Teacher motivation and incentives in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Brighton: Knowledge and Skills for Development.

BHER (Borderless Higher Education for Refugees). 2017. Borderless Higher Education for Refugees website. Retrieved from: http://www.bher.org/

Dryden-Petersen, S. and Adelman, E. 2016. Inside Syrian refugee schools: teachers struggle to create conditions for learning. Retrieved from: www.brookings.edu/blogs/education-plusdevelopment/posts/2016/02/09-syrian-refugee-schoolsdryden-peterson-adelman

INEE (Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2009. Guidance notes on teacher compensation in fragile states, situations of displacement and post-crisis recovery. New York: INEE. Retrieved from: http://www.ineesite.org/en/teacher-compensation-initiative

INEE (Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2010. Guidance notes on teaching and learning. New York: INEE. Retrieved from: http://toolkit.ineesite.org/toolkit/INEEcms/uploads/1004/Guidance_Notes_on_Teaching_and_Learning_EN.pdf

Jordan. 2014. Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation. National resilience Plan 2014-2016. Retrieved from: http://www.jordanembassyus.org/sites/default/files/NRP_FinalDraft_08.29.2014_MOPIC.pdf.

INEE (Inter-agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2014. Mapping the education response to the Syrian crisis. Retrieved from: www.ineesite.org/en/blog/mapping-theeducation-response-to-the-syrian-crisis1

Ring, A. and West, H. 2015. Teacher retention in refugee and emergency settings: the state of the literature. International Education Journal: Comparative Perspectives 14 (3), 106–121.

Ring, A. and West, H. 2015b. Under-resourced, undervalued, and underutilized: making the case for teachers in refugee and emergency contexts. The International Education Journal: Comparative Perspectives, 14 (3), 150–164.

World Bank. 2016. Uganda’s progressive approach to refugee management. Retrieved from: www.worldbank.org/en/topic/fragilityconflictviolence/brief/ugandas-progressiveapproach-refugee-management

UNHCR (United Nations High Commission for Refugees). n.d. Refugee Teachers: A Quick Guide. Retrieved from: https://cms.emergency.unhcr.org/documents/11982/53527/UNHCR%2C+Refugee+Teacher+Management+-+Quick+Guide/f5844403-39c9-4093-997b-2466f7a0c04f

Policies for minority populations

*Note: All the policies recommended in the general category apply to this section.

Due to “cultural synchronicity” minority students tend to benefit more from being taught by minority teachers as they tend to have insider knowledge due to similar life experiences and cultural backgrounds, hence understanding the students better. The assumption is that synchronicity is a valuable resource in teaching and learning, with proponents of this view citing a growing number of empirical studies showing that minority teachers have a positive impact on various outcomes for minority students. Therefore, favourable policies to deploy and retain minority teachers may have a positive impact on various outcomes for minority students.

Minority teachers not only are likely to be well suited to teach minority students but they are also likely to be motivated by a “humanistic commitment” to making a difference in the lives of disadvantaged students. In turn, minority teachers are more likely than nonminority candidates to seek employment in schools serving predominantly minority student populations, often in low-income urban school districts (Liu E, et al. 2008, as cited by Ingersoll et al, 2017). Research has shown that these same kinds of schools—urban, poor public schools serving minority students—disproportionately suffer from general teacher shortages. Hence, the diversification of the teaching force in this view is a solution to the more general problem of teacher shortages in disadvantaged schools. (Ingersoll et al, 2017)

Therefore, a lack of minority teacher role models has led to insufficient cultural synchronicity between minority teachers and students. This, along with a low number of qualified teachers in disadvantaged schools, has resulted in unequal and poor-quality teaching in poor urban public schools servicing minority students, which in turn has been one of the primary causes of the stratification of educational opportunities and unequal occupational outcomes for disadvantaged students.

References
Ingersoll, R. M., May, H., & Collins, G. 2017. Minority Teacher Recruitment, Employment, and Retention: 1987 to 2013. Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from :  https://repository.upenn.edu/gse_pubs/496

Liu, E., Rosenstein, J., Swann, A., & Khalil, D. 2008. When districts encounter teacher shortages: The challenges of recruiting and retaining math teachers in urban districts. Leadership and Policy in Schools. Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15700760701822140?scroll=top&needAccess=true&journalCode=nlps20

Quiocho, A. & Rios, F. 2000. The power of their presence: Minority group teachers and schooling. Review of Educational Research. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543070004485

Updated on 2021-08-09

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