Appropriate candidates

Promising policy options

Competitive salaries and benefits

The main deterrent that prevents qualified candidates from entering the teaching profession is the lack of adequate salary and remuneration. Teaching salaries are often well below those of other available jobs requiring a comparable level of skills and training. Increasing teacher salaries is key to improving the status of the teaching profession, attracting qualified candidates and ultimately improving the quality of teaching and children’s learning outcomes. 

*For more information see Policy page Teacher Benefits.

Beyond salary increase, other benefits and compensations, both monetary and non-monetary, can be offered, including:

  • provision of housing/ housing allowance;
  • providing transport assistance;
  • scholarships for teacher training;
  • promotion opportunities;
  • family benefits;
  • continuous professional development; and
  • leave provisions.
References
The World Bank. 2009e. Teacher motivation, incentives and working conditions. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/468341468306561093/pdf/705540BRI0P1060ion0300December02009.pdf

The World Bank. 2012. What matters most in teacher policies: A framework for building a more effective teaching profession. System approach for better education results. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from:  https://olc.worldbank.org/sites/default/files/SABER-Teachers-What_matters_most_in_teacher_policies-Framework_paper_0.pdf

UNESCO. 2015e. Teacher policy development guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002352/235272e.pdf

Improving the attractiveness of the teaching profession

Apart from aspects of salary and benefits, the overall attractiveness of the teaching profession is also affected by working conditions, career mobility opportunities, and the conceived social status of teaching. By improving teacher working conditions and providing ongoing professional development and support, more qualified candidates will be drawn to teaching as a lifelong profession.

A number of strategies for improving working conditions exist, such as:

  • Allocating time to plan lessons;
  • improving school infrastructure- hygiene, sanitation conditions; 
  • increasing teachers’ level of autonomy and responsibility;
  • reducing paperwork;
  • adding support staff;
  • sufficient supply of teaching materials; and
  • building connections between schools and communities to increase the social status of teaching.

Strategies for the provision of ongoing professional development and support include:

  • increased support at the beginning of teacher’s careers, such as facilitating close relationships with schools during training and induction and strengthening teacher induction programmes;
  • ongoing in-service training, where experienced, qualified teachers act as mentors, and are compensated for this;
  • an established system for feedback, appraisal, and evaluation from colleagues and superiors; and
  • opportunities for career advancement through horizontal career paths, by adding roles such as developing curriculum or training other teachers or through vertical career paths, by allowing opportunities to positions outside of teaching, such as headteacher, or administrative roles.
References
Burns, M.; Lawrie J. 2015. Where it’s needed most: Quality professional development for all teachers. New York: INEE (Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies). Retrieved from:  https://app.mhpss.net/?get=57/where_its_needed_most_-_teacher_professional_development__2015_lowres.pdf

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2005b. Teachers matter: Attracting, developing and retaining qualified teachers. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/education/school/34990905.pdf

Scheilcher, A. 2012. Preparing teachers and developing school leaders: Lessons from around the world. Paris: OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Retrieved from: https://www.oecd.org/site/eduistp2012/49850576.pdf

UNESCO. 2015e. Teacher policy development guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002352/235272e.pdf

Improving teacher training

Many qualified school leavers often opt for university, rather than teacher training institutions, limiting the overall supply of teacher candidates that can be hired. Improving teacher training programmes as well as providing more flexible study options can increase the overall number of entrants into teacher training institutions. A number of strategies and policies can be implemented to attain this goal, such as:

  • more flexibility and alternative learning models, such as part-time study, distance learning (see below), credits for related qualifications and/or professional experience, and flipped classroom model;
  • clear profiles of the expected skills and knowledge of teachers;
  • a balance between theory and practice: More time in classrooms, with sufficient support;
  • an established connection between initial teacher training, induction period and professional development, to emphasize learning and adapting throughout teaching career; and
  • providing scholarships (see below).

In cases where there is good access to the internet, and where logistical constraints make a face-to-face training program difficult, distance training of teachers is a highly cost-effective option. The development of capacities and the acquisition of knowledge through technological tools is an effective way to train a large number of people while more long-term strategies are put in place. This is particularly important when dealing with teachers in rural areas, who would otherwise not have the same opportunities to receive quality in-service teacher training. The main restriction to this approach, however, is the required existence of ICT infrastructure, since distance training relies heavily on internet and electricity access, which can often be challenging in remote locations.

In addition to this, a performance-based scholarship system can help attract the best students to apply to teacher training institutions. Scholarships can be provided either for State-run teaching schools or for private universities that offer teaching careers.

References
Bruns, B.; Luque, J. 2015. Great teachers: How to raise student learning in Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/20488/9781464801518.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Chang, M. C.; Shaeffer, S.; Al-Samarri, S.; Ragatz, A. B.; de Ree, J.; Stevenson, R. 2013. Teachers as the cornerstone of educational quality. In M. C. Chang, S. Shaeffer, S. Al-Samarri, A. B. Ragatz, J. de Ree, & R. Stevenson, Teacher Reform in Indonesia: The Role of Politics and Evidence in Policy Making (pp. 39 – 58). Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/pdf/10.1596/978-0-8213-9829-6_ch2

Mulkeen, A. 2010d. Teachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in Teacher Supply, Training, and Management. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/13545/52278.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Nordstrum L.E., 2013. Teacher supply, training and cost in the context of rapidly expanding enrolment: Ethiopia, Pakistan and Tanzania. Background Paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2013/14. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002259/225952E.pdf

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2005b. Teachers matter: Attracting, developing and retaining qualified teachers. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/education/school/34990905.pdf

Perraton, H. 2001. Teacher education through distance learning. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001242/124208e.pdf

Scheilcher, A. 2012. Preparing teachers and developing school leaders: Lessons from around the world. Paris: OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Retrieved from: https://www.oecd.org/site/eduistp2012/49850576.pdf

UNESCO. 2010. Methodological guide for the analysis of teacher issues. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://poledakar.iiep.unesco.org/sites/default/files/fields/publication_files/methodological_guide_for_the_analysis_of_teacher_issues_-_2010.pdf

UNESCO. 2016. A review of evaluative evidence on teacher policy. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002443/244373E.pdf

Vargas, E.; Umansky, I. 2005. Improving teaching and learning through effective incentives: What can we learn from education reforms in Latin America? Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/8694/33266.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Improving deployment practices

Improving deployment practices can act as a powerful incentive both for recruiting and retaining teachers. Fear of being placed in undesirable locations or away from other personal interests, with no say in their placement prevents potential candidates from entering the profession. This can particularly be an issue for female teachers or minorities, who may face security threats in certain locations. Likewise, teachers unhappy with their posts are more likely to quit teaching altogether.

Deployment systems should:

  • take teacher’s preferences into account;
  • have up to date information on the school’s needs and characteristics;
  • be clear and equitable;
  • have transparent rules;
  • be free from political motivation; and
  • include provisions for the transfer of teachers when circumstances change.

However, there is still a definite need to place teachers in less desirable locations, and these areas are often where teacher shortages occur. In this way, deployment policies have a particular effect on equity issues, as the less desirable locations with disadvantaged students often end up with the least qualified teachers, or with the fewest teachers. Offering targeted incentives for hard-to-staff locations to the most qualified teacher candidates can help overcome this imbalance, placing more effective teachers where they are most needed and where they are willing to serve. Another strategy is to place teachers in remote locations for limited durations, such as a few years, and then allow them location preference in their next deployment.

Incentives for hard-to-staff locations can include:

  • increased salary;
  • teacher housing (free or subsidized);
  • hardship allowance;
  • salary bonus/ Award scheme;
  • smaller class sizes;
  • less instructional time;
  • scholarships;
  • forgivable loans;
  • specialized promotion opportunities; and
  • choice of next job posting location.

Incentives need to be large enough in scale to attract teachers to the hard-to-staff locations, carefully targeted, and tied to the specific post. Alternatively, teachers can be recruited locally, rather than deployed through a centralized system.

*See Decentralization of Candidate Selection (below).

References
IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2018a. Brief 1: Recruiting and deploying effective teachers. Accessed 30 November 2018: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/teachers-and-pedagogy/teacher-recruitment-and-deployment

ILO (International Labour Organization). 2012a. ‘Module 1 employment and recruitment’. In: Handbook of Good Human Resource Practices in the Teaching Profession. Geneva: ILO http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—sector/documents/publication/wcms_187793.pdf

Mulkeen, A. 2010d. Teachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in teacher supply, training, and Management. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/Resources/278200-1099079877269/Teachers_Anglophone_Africa.pdf

The World Bank. 2009e. Teacher motivation, incentives and working conditions. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/468341468306561093/pdf/705540BRI0P1060ion0300December02009.pdf

UNESCO. 2015b. Education for all global monitoring report. Policy Paper 19: The challenge of teacher shortage and quality: Have we succeeded in getting enough quality teachers into classrooms? Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002327/232721E.pdf

UNESCO. 2015e. Teacher policy development guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002352/235272e.pdf

Planning on teacher supply and demand

Many countries do not have a developed system that monitors teacher attrition wastage or predicts requirements. Such data can be used to adjust the intake into teacher training programmes, ensuring that there are enough qualified candidates to fill positions, which is particularly important for a balance of subject specializations.

In the Philippines, collected data on teacher dispersion was used to colour-code districts based on pupil-teacher ratios. This accessible and easy to read representation led to teaching positions being focused in rural and shortage areas the following year (ILO, 2012a).

Other methodologies for planning on teacher supply and demand include annual monitoring of student enrolment and projected future enrolment, pupil-teacher ratios, the existing number of teachers delineated by subject specialties, the annual teacher attrition, the annual output of newly trained teachers, and wastage rates per region.

Additionally, it is possible to use information from education sector plans, HR data and EMIS surveys, anticipate requirements, and adjust systems of teaching training to provide the required supply.

References
IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2018a. Brief 1: Recruiting and deploying effective teachers. Accessed 30 November 2018: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/teachers-and-pedagogy/recruiting-and-deploying-effective-teachers

ILO (International Labour Organization). 2012a. ‘Module 1 employment and recruitment’. In: Handbook of Good Human Resource Practices in the Teaching Profession. Geneva: ILO http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—sector/documents/publication/wcms_187793.pdf

Mulkeen, A. 2010d. Teachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in teacher supply, training, and Management. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/Resources/278200-1099079877269/Teachers_Anglophone_Africa.pdf

Invest in quality primary and secondary schooling

In the long-term, one of the most effective measures for increasing the supply of appropriate candidates is to invest in quality primary and secondary schooling. This involves investing in well-trained and motivated teachers, well-developed pedagogical, learning resources and curriculum, safe and accessible school facilities, and having accountability mechanisms in place. The focus should also be put on subjects that have a history of poor outcomes.

In the short term, compensatory measures can also be provided at the secondary school level, such as booster courses, camps, and clubs in particular subject areas where there have been shown to be deficiencies.

References
Mulkeen, A. 2010d. Teachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in teacher supply, training, and Management. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/Resources/278200-1099079877269/Teachers_Anglophone_Africa.pdf

UNESCO. 2005. Global Monitoring Report 2005 summary: Education for all: The quality imperative. special education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001373/137333e.pdf

UNESCO. 2014b. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2013/14 Summary: Teaching and Learning: Achieving Quality for All. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002266/226662e.pdf

Expanding recruitment processes 

In order to expand the pool of appropriate candidates, recruitment processes (both for teacher-training institutions and available teaching positions) can be broadened and improved to target groups that would not normally consider teaching as a profession, to create partnerships with secondary schools, and to develop systems that streamline hiring processes. Strategies to achieve this include:

  • a marketing campaign to promote teaching as a fulfilling profession, targeting groups who would not normally consider teaching;
  • targeting recruitment in local areas where there are teacher shortages;
  • target paraprofessionals and career-switchers with relevant skills;
  • hiring should take place at a convenient and advantageous time, such as in spring before the academic session starts. This can be done through legislative changes, incentive programmes, revising timelines for voluntary transfers or resignations and proper budgeting for hiring processes;
  • refocusing selection to emphasize candidates more likely to stay in the teaching profession using interviews or through the demonstration of lesson plans and skills;
  • partnerships between secondary schools and training colleges to offer internships and early teaching opportunities;
  • closing the information gap between teachers and schools by requiring all teaching vacancies to be posted, creating a centralized website or hub where teaching post information can be found, and by creating a network of agencies to co-ordinate recruitment;
  • giving schools more responsibility in recruitment and employment decisions (see Decentralization of candidate selection process); and
  • focus recruitment strategies based on evidence of projected needs, including for specific subject areas and locations (see Improve planning on teacher supply and demand).
References
Bruns, B.; Luque, J. 2015. Great teachers: How to raise student learning in Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://www.teachersforefa.unesco.org /tmwg/blog2/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Teachers-in-Latin-America.pdf

Cooper J.M., Alvarado A. 2006. Preparation, recruitment and retention of teachers. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001520/152023e.pdf

Podolsky, A.; Kini, T.; Bishop J.; Darling-Hammond, L. 2016. Solving the teacher shortage how to attract and retain excellent educators. Washington D.C.: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from: https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Solving_Teacher_Shortage_Attract_Retain_Educators_REPORT.pdf

Scheilcher A. 2012. Preparing teachers and developing school leaders: Lessons from around the world. Paris: OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Retrieved from: https://www.oecd.org/site/eduistp2012/49850576.pdf

UNESCO. 2015e. Teacher policy development guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002352/235272e.pdf

Other policy options

Decentralization of candidate selection 

Allowing local authorities and school administrators more power in decision-making in the recruitment and hiring and process can increase teachers’ commitments to particular schools and can help ensure a better match between the needs of schools and expectations of teachers. Such practices can also help attract qualified candidates and reduce attrition. This can be particularly effective in rural areas that have more difficulties in attracting candidates to their schools. Schools can focus recruitment efforts on local candidates, who have the background, language and cultural understanding required for the positions.

However, measures need to be in place to still ensure the equitable distribution of qualified teachers among all schools, nationwide. Systems need to be in place to ensure accountability, and equity, central and regional authorities still need to regulate the equitable distribution of teachers. This requires strong school leadership and management.

References
Scheilcher A. 2012. Preparing teachers and developing school leaders: Lessons from around the world. Paris: OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Retrieved from: https://www.oecd.org/site/eduistp2012/49850576.pdf

UNESCO. 2015e. Teacher policy development guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002352/235272e.pdf

“Grow your own teachers” partnerships  

Some hard-to-staff districts in the United States have responded to teacher shortages through “grow your own teacher” partnerships, which “build teacher pipelines” from within communities (Podolosky et al., 2016). This can consist of providing scholarships and support to community members wishing to enter the teaching profession, such as paraprofessionals already involved in schools. These programmes also partner with colleges and teacher-training institutions so that they specifically recruit candidates within their communities. Additionally, teaching pathways and mentorship programmes can be established directly in secondary and high schools. “Grow your own teacher” partnerships have been found to be particularly effective in addressing issues of teacher supply and diversity.

References
Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. 2016. Grow your own: A resource guide to creating your own teacher pipeline. Jefferson City: MoDESE. Retrieved from: https://dese.mo.gov/sites/default/files/Grow-Your-Own-Resource-Guide.pdf

Podolsky, A.; Kini, T.; Bishop J.; Darling-Hammond, L. 2016. Solving the teacher shortage how to attract and retain excellent educators. Washington D.C.: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from: https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Solving_Teacher_Shortage_Attract_Retain_Educators_REPORT

Texas Comprehensive Center. 2018. Grow your own teachers initiatives resources. Austin: Texas Comprehensive Center at American Institutes for Research. Retrieved from: https://tea.texas.gov/sites/default/files/Additional%20Resource%20-%20Grow%20Your%20Own%20Teachers%20Initiatives%20Resources.pdf

Broader criteria for teacher training entry

Requirements to enter teacher training institutions need to be low enough to allow there to a be sufficient number of diverse candidates to fill the available positions, but high enough to attract candidates with recognized ability and skills, develop the social status of the teaching profession and maintain quality.

 A limited supply of sufficiently qualified school leavers may require lowered criteria for entering teaching training colleges and programmes. However, there should be caution in not lowering entrance criteria to the extent that teaching quality will be significantly impaired. To overcome this challenge, the quality of teacher training and induction programmes can be improved, and additional support can be provided to less qualified entrants, such as booster courses that are required before entering teacher training. This can be particularly relevant for math and science subjects, where there is often a particular shortage of qualified candidates. Training institutions can also take into account other desirable qualities of teaching candidates beyond just academic criteria, such as social and emotional competencies.

References
Mulkeen, A. 2010d. Teachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in teacher supply, training, and Management. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/Resources/278200-1099079877269/Teachers_Anglophone_Africa.pdf

Scheilcher A. 2012. Preparing teachers and developing school leaders: Lessons from around the world. Paris: OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Retrieved from: https://www.oecd.org/site/eduistp2012/49850576.pdf

UNESCO. 2015e. Teacher policy development guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002352/235272e.pdf

UNESCO. 2016. A review of evaluative evidence on teacher policy. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002443/244373E.pdf

Contract teachers 

Some countries have responded to teacher shortages by appointing contract teachers, who are hired on a temporary basis. Contract teachers can include para-professionals, community members and volunteers that often have fewer qualifications and training and receive lower salaries than permanently hired teachers, with no access to benefits such as pensions or social security. This raises clear quality issues, as well as a concern that a dual system will be created, further harming the overall esteem of the teaching profession. However, it does offer a short-term solution and allows flexibility and local connection. Professional development and training should be provided to contract teachers with opportunities for them to become fully qualified.

References
Duthilleul, Y. 2005. Lessons learnt in the use of ‘contract’ teachers. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001444/144412e.pdf

Fyfe, A. 2007. The use of contract teachers in developing countries: Trends and impact. Geneva: ILO. Retrieved from:  http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—sector/documents/publication/wcms_160813.pdf

IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2018a. Brief 1: Recruiting and deploying effective teachers. Accessed 30 November 2018: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/teachers-and-pedagogy/recruiting-and-deploying-effective-teachers

UNESCO. 2015b. Education for all global monitoring report. Policy Paper 19: The challenge of teacher shortage and quality: Have we succeeded in getting enough quality teachers into classrooms? Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002327/232721E.pdf

Recruit unqualified teachers and provide in-service training

In situations of acute teacher shortages, unqualified teachers can be hired, and then provided with in-service training on the job to bring them to qualified teaching status (receiving full-time teaching positions, unlike contract teachers described above). This provides an immediate response to shortages and can help recruit teachers from rural communities where the shortages exist. Building local capacity can be considered more effective than providing incentives to send teachers from other locations to these less desirable locations.

This strategy is more effective when “unqualified” teachers have already been educated, but just lack teaching certification, such as educated school leavers who are repeating secondary exams or are seeking to improve the chance of entry into university. Such a policy can clearly have negative impacts on teaching quality and should be employed with extreme caution, ensuring that in-service training is of sufficient quality and rigor.

References
Mulkeen, A. 2010d. Teachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in teacher supply, training, and Management. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/Resources/278200-1099079877269/Teachers_Anglophone_Africa.pdf

Policy options for improving Equity and Inclusion

Gender-responsive policies

Note: Although all of the policies and strategies recommended in the general section of the present Policy page apply for this category, the following ones should be taken into consideration as well to ensure an equitable and representative teaching workforce.

Promising policy options

Challenge gender roles, stereotypes and entrenched discriminatory gender norms

‘Deep gender divisions in the teaching profession go against the democratic and egalitarian values schools are expected to promote. As long as this disparity continues, new generations of children daily learn a form of sexist gender relations’ (Johnson, 2008: 3).

Female, male and LGBTIQ teachers, can act as positive role models and address deep gender divisions which can ultimately affect the teaching profession by:

  • tackling down sexist and homophobic beliefs and practices in school;
  • confronting traditional masculine and feminine constructs (Mills, Martino and Lingard, 2004); and
  • taking responsibility in the education, caring and nurturing of children (this strategy concerns particularly male teachers, who can challenge these gender roles commonly attributed to women in many societies).
References
Jha, J.; Pouezevara, S. 2016. Measurement and Research Support to Education Strategy Goal 1: Boys’ Underachievement in Education: A Review of the Literature with a Focus on Reading in the Early Years. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: RTI International. Retrieved from: http://www.ungei.org/Boys_Underachievement.pdf

Johnson, S.P. 2008. ‘The Status of Male Teachers in Public Education Today’. In: Education Policy Briefs, Center for Evaluation & Education Policy, Vol. 6, No. 4. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/87d9/2f30d94482ee06b6fd1aa791d183633e63d9.pdf

Mills, M.; Martino, W.; Lingard, B. 2004. ‘Attracting, Recruiting and Retaining Male Teachers: Policy Issues in the Male Teacher Debate’. In:  British Journal of Sociology of Education, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 355-369.

Ensure gender-sensitive recruitment and selection processes

A number of strategies exist to ensure that recruitment and selection processes of teaching and non-teaching staff are done with a gender-sensitive perspective. Some of these include:

  • ensure that recruiting committees are gender-balanced and have knowledge of gender issues;
  • implement quota systems if necessary, to ensure a gender-balanced workforce across levels and subjects (Pro-Femes Twese Hamwe and VSO Rwanda, 2013);
  • ensure women’s access to leadership roles and positions (UNESCO Bangkok, 2006);
  • analyse if there are certain practices and policies which inhibit women, men, and LGBTIQ members from entering the teaching profession, and provide appropriate responses. For instance, in some countries, men who wish to work with children have to go through tight police background check procedures (e.g. Scotland). This might impede or make it very difficult for men to enter teacher education courses, as they generally require previous experience in working with children (Riddell et al., 2005); and
  • discrimination laws and policies must forbid discrimination against teachers on the grounds of sexuality, gender identity or relationship status (The Conversation France, 2018). Legal recourse to contest the violation of their rights within schools should be ensured (AFT, n.d.).
References
AFT (American Federation of Teachers). 2013. Creating a Positive Work Environment for LGBT Faculty: What Higher Education Unions Can Do. Accessed 18 September 2019: https://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/wysiwyg/genderdiversity_lgbt0413.pdf

Haugen, C.S.; Klees, S. J.; Stromquist, N. P.; Lin, J.; Choti, T.; Corneilse, C. 2011. Increasing Female Primary School Teachers in African Countries: Barriers and Policies. Nairobi: University of Maryland – Forum for African Women Educationalists. Retrieved from: https://www.macfound.org/media/files/FAWE_Literature_Review.docx.

INEE (Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2010. Gender Equality in and through Education: INEE Pocket Guide to Gender. Geneva: INEE. Retrieved from: https://toolkit.ineesite.org/resources/ineecms/uploads/1009/INEE_Pocket_Guide_to_Gender_EN.pdf

Pro-Femmes Twese Hamwe; VSO Rwanda. 2013. Gender Equality in Teaching and Education Management. Kigali: VSO Rwanda. Retrieved from: https://www.vsointernational.org/sites/default/files/vso-rwanda-gender-equality-in-teaching-education-report_tcm76-40787.pdf

Riddell, S.; Tett, L.; Burns, C.; Ducklin, A.; Ferrie, J.; Stafford, A.; Winterton, M. 2005. Gender Balance of the Teaching Workforce in Publicly Funded Schools. Edinburgh: The Moray House School of Education, University of Edinburgh. Retrieved from: http://library.umac.mo/ebooks/b13621658a.pdf

The Conversation France. 2018. Why legislation should ban schools from discriminating against LGBTIQ+ students and teachers. Accessed 18 September 2019: http://theconversation.com/why-legislation-should-ban-schools-from-discriminating-against-lgbtiq-students-and-teachers-104940

UNESCO Bangkok. 2006. The Impact of women teachers on girls’ education: Advocacy Brief. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000145990?posInSet=1&queryId=f01d0286-e671-41ec-958b-c4eff8692137

Monitor the teaching workforce

Ministries of Education, local authorities and inspection bodies should monitor the teaching force:

  • analysing and track schools’ teaching workforce diversity and stress out gender imbalances. For example, in Scotland school inspections include questions concerning teachers’ workforce, with reports produced afterward highlighting any gender and social imbalances encountered (Riddell et al., 2005); and
  • by using monitoring data and results to target policies accordingly. Gender imbalances vary significantly across regions, among countries and within countries. In 2018 female teachers represented 66.18% of primary teachers’ workforce worldwide. Yet, statics ranged from 86.75% in Europe to 45.49% in Sub Saharan Africa (UIS-UNESCO, 2019). Additionally, many countries still face significant gender imbalances concerning the teaching workforce. In 2018, female teachers represented only 16.5% and 25% of the teaching force in Togo and Benin respectively (UIS-UNESCO, 2019). Within countries, this can be particularly due to a rural and urban divide. In Malawi, 82% of urban teachers are female, while they only represent 31% of rural teachers (ILO Centre for International Teacher Education, 2016).

(For information about deployment policies consult Policy page Teachers deployment and retention).

References
Bramwell, D.; Anderson, S.; Mundy, K. 2014. Teachers and teacher development: A rapid review of the literature. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Retrieved from: https://www.oise.utoronto.ca/cidec/UserFiles/File/Website/Rapid_Review-teacher_development_June_30_final_2.pdf

ILO (International Labour Organization) Centre for International Teacher Education. 2016. Rural teachers in Africa: A report for ILO. Geneva: ILO. Retrieved from: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—sector/documents/publication/wcms_543617.pdf

Riddell, S.; Tett, L.; Burns, C.; Ducklin, A.; Ferrie, J.; Stafford, A.; Winterton, M. 2005. Gender Balance of the Teaching Workforce in Publicly Funded Schools. Edinburgh: The Moray House School of Education, University of Edinburgh. Retrieved from: http://library.umac.mo/ebooks/b13621658a.pdf

UIS-UNESCO (UNESCO Institute for Statistics). 2019. Teachers statistics. Accessed 2 October 2019: http://data.uis.unesco.org/

One possible approach is to develop media campaigns to highlight the importance of involving women and men in education (INEE, 2010), and tackle down the gendered job stereotyping concerning the teaching profession –particularly when it comes to early childhood and primary education– which inhibits many potential candidates to enter the profession (Riddell et al., 2005; Johnson, 2008). If women are under-represented in the teaching profession, target them specifically (UNESCO Bangkok, 2006), while inscribing these campaigns within a general marketing strategy to promote the teaching career.

Another strategy is to work with secondary school girls and boys to raise their interest in becoming teachers. For instance, Afghanistan’s Ministry of Education developed multiple strategies to increase the number of female primary and secondary teachers by 50%. One of the measures was the recruitment and training of 22,500 grade 12 female graduates (UNESCO and UNGEI, 2015).

References
INEE (Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2010. Gender Equality in and through Education: INEE Pocket Guide to Gender. Geneva: INEE. Retrieved from: https://toolkit.ineesite.org/resources/ineecms/uploads/1009/INEE_Pocket_Guide_to_Gender_EN.pdf

Johnson, S.P. 2008. ‘The Status of Male Teachers in Public Education Today’. In: Education Policy Briefs, Center for Evaluation & Education Policy, Vol. 6, No. 4. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/87d9/2f30d94482ee06b6fd1aa791d183633e63d9.pdf

Riddell, S.; Tett, L.; Burns, C.; Ducklin, A.; Ferrie, J.; Stafford, A.; Winterton, M. 2005. Gender Balance of the Teaching Workforce in Publicly Funded Schools. Edinburgh: The Moray House School of Education, University of Edinburgh. Retrieved from: http://library.umac.mo/ebooks/b13621658a.pdf

UNESCO Bangkok. 2006. The Impact of women teachers on girls’ education: Advocacy Brief. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000145990?posInSet=1&queryId=f01d0286-e671-41ec-958b-c4eff8692137

UNESCO, UNGEI (United Nations Girls’ Education Initiative). 2015. Gender and EFA 2000-2015, Achievements and Challenges: Gender Summary. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://www.womenforwater.org/uploads/7/7/5/1/77516286/efa_global_montoring_report_gender_and_efa_2000-2015.pdf

Teacher Education Providers

It is important to ensure that Teacher Education Providers explicitly address gender issues throughout teacher education by developing gender-responsive programmes and that they promote trainers as well as trainees’ gender balance. Affirmative action may be needed, like in Mozambique, where the Ministry of Education encouraged teacher training colleges to raise the recruitment of female trainees, with the number of places allocated to them raised. Since then the proportion of female teachers has not dropped below 50% (Beutel et al., 2011 cited by UNESCO, 2013a).

Review the recruitment and assessment processes and tackle down indirect discrimination practices, by developing flexible teacher education programmes (UNESCO Bangkok, 2006). For instance, ensure they are family-friendly and expand the criteria for teacher training entry (see above, general policy option). For instance, since 2008 Afghanistan revised its qualification requirements to enable more women to enter teacher training (Wirak and Lexow, 2008 cited by UNESCO, 2013a). 

References
Haugen, C.S.; Klees, S. J.; Stromquist, N. P.; Lin, J.; Choti, T.; Corneilse, C. 2011. Increasing Female Primary School Teachers in African Countries: Barriers and Policies. Nairobi: University of Maryland – Forum for African Women Educationalists. Retrieved from: https://www.macfound.org/media/files/FAWE_Literature_Review.docx.

Johnson, S.P. 2008. ‘The Status of Male Teachers in Public Education Today’. In: Education Policy Briefs, Center for Evaluation & Education Policy, Vol. 6, No. 4. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/87d9/2f30d94482ee06b6fd1aa791d183633e63d9.pdf

UNESCO Bangkok. 2006. The Impact of women teachers on girls’ education: Advocacy Brief. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000145990?posInSet=1&queryId=f01d0286-e671-41ec-958b-c4eff8692137

UNESCO. 2013a. Education for All 2013-2014: Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002256/225660e.pdf

Other policy options

Provide high-quality alternative teacher training programmes

This strategy may be needed in some instances, yet it should always remain as a short-term policy, as these trainings cannot substitute comprehensive pre-service training.

For example, in Bangladesh, Mobile Teacher Training Programmes (MTTP) raised the number of female teachers by allowing women to enter the teaching profession immediately while providing them in-service support. After entering the profession, they had to be qualified to government standards (Rugh, 2000 cited by Haugen et al., 2011).

Criticism against this type of training has been produced in multiple countries, such as Lesotho and Tanzania, as it left ‘teachers feeling ill-equipped to be teachers’ (Sinyolo, 2007 cited by Haugen et al., 2011: 31). This is why it is essential to carefully design them to ensure they prepare high quality, well-paid teachers in the short-term.

References
Haugen, C.S.; Klees, S. J.; Stromquist, N. P.; Lin, J.; Choti, T.; Corneilse, C. 2011. Increasing Female Primary School Teachers in African Countries: Barriers and Policies. Nairobi: University of Maryland – Forum for African Women Educationalists. Retrieved from: https://www.macfound.org/media/files/FAWE_Literature_Review.docx.

Policies for teachers with disabilities

Promising policy options

Legislation, policies, and regulations to enhance the recruitment of teacher with disabilities

Pass employment discrimination laws that protect the rights of individuals with disabilities who wish to work in general, and in the education sector in particular (ILO, 2012; UNESCO, 2009d). Cover areas such as retention, selection, promotion, and training, among others. Involve multiple stakeholders in the process, such as Disability People’s Organizations DPOs.

For instance, the national DPO in Nepal performed various lobbying efforts since 1989 which culminated in supporting persons with disabilities to work as teachers in mainstream schools (Howgego, Miles and Myers, 2014). 

It is important to work with teacher education institutions, local authorities and schools to ensure they understand the implications of the discrimination law.

Review existent employment regulations, policies and procedures to ensure no barriers are impeding persons with disabilities to become teachers (Lewis and Bagree, 2013). Some aspects to consider are:

  • Medical eligibility criteria (ILO, 2012; UNICEF, 2014);
  • job advertisements;
  • the application process;
  • the selection criteria used;
  • the interview procedure; and
  • the terms of employment offered (NUT, n.d.: 4).

Ensure they ‘actively encourage and support people with disabilities to train and work as teachers at all levels across the education system’ (Lewis and Bagree, 2013: 22). A quota-based system might be necessary. For example, Nepal’s Ministry of Education introduced a quota-based system to guarantee the allocation of a certain number of teaching jobs to people with visual impairments. In 2012, 350 teachers with visual impairments worked at mainstream schools around the country (Howgego, Miles and Myers, 2014).

Some particular strategies include shortlisting candidates with disabilities, such as the experience in East Sussex, United Kingdom, where candidates with disabilities –who meet the required criteria– are automatically short-listed to pass their interviews (ILO, 2012), or developing special recruitment policies. For example, in France, persons with disabilities who have the required qualifications to become teachers can be hired in a one-year contract instead of passing the ‘concours’ (exam which must be passed to become a teacher). After that term –and if their performance is satisfactory– they are formally hired as civil servants (ILO, 2012).

A final strategy is to track information related to teachers with disabilities, by tracking how many persons with disabilities have applied and accessed Teacher Training Institutions, how many have been employed in mainstream schools, among others, and to include the information in EMIS. For instance, South Sudan’s EMIS includes data about teachers with disabilities (South Sudan, 2017).

References
Howgego, C.; Miles, S.; Myers, J. 2014. Inclusive Learning: Children with disabilities and difficulties in learning. Oxford: HEART (Health & Education Advice & Resource Team). Retrieved from: http://www.heart-resources.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Inclusive-Learning-Topic-Guide.pdf?9d29f8=. 

ILO (International Labour Organization). 2012. Handbook of good human resources practices in the teaching profession. Geneva: ILO. Retrieved from: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—sector/documents/publication/wcms_187793.pdf

Lewis, I; Bagree, S. 2013. Teachers for All: Inclusive Teaching for Children with Disabilities. Brussels: IDDC (International Disability and Development Consortium). Retrieved from: https://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/IDDC_Paper_Teachers_for_all.pdf

South Sudan. 2017. Ministry of General Education and Instruction. The General Education Strategic Plan, 2017-2022. Juba: Ministry of General Education and Instruction. Retrieved from: https://www.globalpartnership.org/sites/default/files/general_education_strategic_plan_south_sudan_2017-2022.pdf

UNESCO. 2009d. Towards inclusive education for children with disabilities: A guideline. Bangkok: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001924/192480e.pdf

Ensure teacher education is inclusive and accessible

Teachers with disabilities must be encouraged and supported to participate in teacher training opportunities by promoting flexible entry policies for teachers with disabilities (e.g. flexible enrolment), ‘catch-up’ courses for candidates with disabilities who do not meet the required qualifications (Lewis and Bagree, 2013), and by promoting an inclusive environment where discrimination is not tolerated, by ensuring staff and students have knowledge on disabilities and inclusive education, and that all staff has knowledge on disability legislation.

Other strategies involve investing in support mechanisms, such as creating a ‘Disability Office’ to support teacher trainees throughout their education (Maynooth University, n.d.), and guaranteeing a smooth and fair disclosure process. It is the right of persons with disabilities to disclose it or not. Yet, by disclosing it they should receive all of the support they are entitled to (Sokal, Woloshyn and Wilson, 2017). It is essential to promote a supportive, equitable and inclusive environment to ensure that no discrimination will follow the disclosure process.

Finally, it is important to ensure that infrastructure and facilities, assessments, teaching and learning materials are accessible and inclusive (Pinnock and Nichalls, 2012; UNICEF, 2014), and to create links with schools to facilitate school placement experience for teacher students with disabilities (Maynooth University, n.d.).

References
Lewis, I; Bagree, S. 2013. Teachers for All: Inclusive Teaching for Children with Disabilities. Brussels: IDDC (International Disability and Development Consortium). Retrieved from: https://iddcconsortium.net/sites/default/files/resources-tools/files/iddc_paper-teachers_for_all-print_version.pdf

Maynooth University. n.d. Guidelines for Student Teachers with Disabilities. Maynooth: Department of Education, Maynooth University. Retrieved from: https://www.maynoothuniversity.ie/sites/default/files/assets/document/Guidelines_for_supporting_SWD_0.pdf

Pinnock, H.; Nichalls, H. 2012. Global teacher training and inclusion survey: Report for UNICEF Rights, Education and Protection Project (REAP). UNICEF. Retrieved from: http://worldofinclusion.com/v3/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Annex-v_Final.pdf

Sokal, L.; Woloshyn, D.; Wilson, A. 2017. ‘Pre-service Teachers with Disabilities: Challenges and Opportunities for Directors of Student Teaching in Western Canada’. In: The Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Vol 8., No. 3. Retrieved from http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cjsotl_rcacea/vol8/iss3/7

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2014. Legislation and Policies for Inclusive Education: Webinar 3 – Companion Technical Booklet. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/northmacedonia/media/3961/file/MK_InclusiveEducationLegislation_Report_ENG.pdf

Ensure schools welcome, encourage and facilitate the participation of teachers with disabilities

A way of ensuring schools welcome, encourage and facilitate the participation of teachers with disabilities is by providing incentives to schools to encourage inclusive hiring practices. This includes ensuring inclusive recruitment procedures (job description, interviews, etc. see above). For instance, if a person with a disability is denied a teaching position in a school, this decision should be justified and taken within a professional panel, including DPOs and/or other teachers with disabilities.

School ethos should be geared towards tackling down discrimination and providing equal opportunities. An ‘Action Plan’ can be developed for this purpose (NUT, n.d.).

Furthermore, reasonable accommodation can be provided. Teachers with disabilities should be legally guaranteed to access their work without being at a substantial disadvantage compared to people without disabilities. Although reasonable accommodations depend on individual needs, the following should be considered (NUT, n.d.; ILO, 2012):

  • School’s physical infrastructure should be accessible (for more information consult Policy page Buildings are not ready). Change the teachers’ place of work if the school’s infrastructure is not accessible (e.g. allow teachers with a physical disability to give a class on the ground floor if no ramps are available);
  • duties should be allocated to other teachers when necessary;
  • employment arrangements, such as altering working hours (e.g. allow teachers with disabilities to teach part-time, adjust their teaching schedule) should be a possibility;
  • adapt teaching materials; and
  • provide assistive devices.
References
ILO (International Labour Organization). 2012. Handbook of good human resources practices in the teaching profession. Geneva: ILO. Retrieved from: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—sector/documents/publication/wcms_187793.pdf

Maynooth University. n.d. Guidelines for Student Teachers with Disabilities. Maynooth: Department of Education, Maynooth University. Retrieved from: https://www.maynoothuniversity.ie/sites/default/files/assets/document/Guidelines_for_supporting_SWD_0.pdf

NUT (National Union of Teachers). n.d. ‘Our Right to Stay in Work!’ Making reasonable adjustments for disabled teachers. London: NUT. Retrieved from: https://www.inclusivechoice.com/Making%20reasonable%20adjustments%20for%20disabled%20teachers%20(NUT).pdf

Provide incentives to persons with disabilities to join the teaching profession

One way of doing this is by providing resources through government schemes, such as general schemes to incentivize persons with disabilities to work (see example below) and to join the teaching profession.  For example, ‘Access to Work’ is a United Kingdom government scheme introduced in 1994. It offers communicators for persons with hearing impairments, a part-time reader or assistance at work for persons with visual impairments, equipment and modifications to existent equipment to meet individual needs, car adaptations and/or as taxi fares for persons who cannot use public transportation, and reasonable accommodations within the workplace, among others.

Another strategy is to provide additional monetary benefits. For instance, the ‘Disability Living Allowance’ in the United Kingdom, is a tax-free benefit given in addition to monthly wages.

A different way is by providing scholarships. For example, in Mozambique, scholarships are given to individuals with disabilities who wish to become teachers (WHO, 2011). Also, South Sudan’s General Education Strategic Plan 2017-2022 calls upon establishing scholarship funds to attract persons with disabilities to pursue a teaching career (South Sudan, 2017).

Finally, provide ‘tools’ to support teachers with disabilities who enter the teaching profession. For instance, the ‘Tool Bag’ produced by United Kingdom’s National Union of Teachers for teachers with disabilities.

In order for all of these strategies to work, it is important to advertise all of these benefits to incentivise people with disabilities to enter the teaching profession. 

References
South Sudan. 2017. Ministry of General Education and Instruction. The General Education Strategic Plan, 2017-2022. Juba: Ministry of General Education and Instruction. Retrieved from: https://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/sites/planipolis/files/ressources/south_sudan_general_education_strategic_plan_2017-2022.pdf

WHO (World Health Organization). 2011. ‘Chapter 7 Education’. In: World Report on Disability (pp. 203-232). Malta: WHO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/report.pdf.

Policies for displaced populations and host communities

*Note: All of the policies and strategies recommended in the general section of the present Policy page apply for this category as well.

Promising policy options

Develop and implement a comprehensive and well-integrated National Teacher Policy

There should be a well-outlined integrated national framework for teacher preparation, selection, utilization, development, career path, and performance evaluation. A lack of an integrated framework usually hinders the ability of Ministries’ to attract high-performing candidates to the teaching profession and to effectively manage teachers to improve classroom practices. For example, the Ministry of Education in Jordan is working towards formalizing and implementing a National Teacher Policy and Strategic Framework (NTPSF). The framework aims to tackle the low status, social prestige, and quality of the professional performance of Jordanian teaching staff, and expand preservice. This will be achieved by integrating all significant policies related to the teaching profession into a consistent and coherent vision that is inclusive of the National Teacher Professional Standards, including a code of conduct; the National Professional Development Framework; a National teacher evaluation and appraisal framework; and a National teacher career path and ranking framework (MOE, Jordan 2017).

References
Jordan. 2017. Ministry of Education. Program- for- results information Document (PID): Appraisal Stage. Jordan Education Reform Porgram. Retrieved from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/584671508502812553/P162407-P4R-Appraisal-Revised-PID-for-disclosure.docx.

South Sudan. 2017. Ministry of General Education and Instruction. The General Education Strategic Plan, 2017-2022. Juba: Ministry of General Education and Instruction. Retrieved from: https://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/sites/planipolis/files/ressources/south_sudan_general_education_strategic_plan_2017-2022.pdf

Other policy options

“Grow your own teachers” partnerships  

Some hard-to-staff districts in the United States have responded to teacher shortages through “grow your own teacher” partnerships, which “build teacher pipelines” from within communities (Podolosky et al., 2016). This can consist of providing scholarships and support to community members wishing to enter the teaching profession, such as paraprofessionals already involved in schools. These programmes also partner with colleges and teacher training institutions so that they specifically recruit candidates within their communities. Additionally, teaching pathways and mentorship programmes can be established directly in secondary and high schools. “Grow your own teacher” partnerships have been found to be particularly effective in addressing issues of teacher supply and diversity.

References
Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. 2016. Grow your own: A resource guide to creating your own teacher pipeline. Jefferson City: MoDESE. Retrieved from: https://dese.mo.gov/sites/default/files/Grow-Your-Own-Resource-Guide.pdf

Podolsky, A.; Kini, T.; Bishop J.; Darling-Hammond, L. 2016. Solving the teacher shortage how to attract and retain excellent educators. Washington D.C.: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from: https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Solving_Teacher_Shortage_Attract_Retain_Educators_REPORT

Pinnock, H.; Nichalls, H. 2012. Global teacher training and inclusion survey: Report for UNICEF Rights, Education and Protection Project (REAP). UNICEF. Retrieved from: http://worldofinclusion.com/v3/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Annex-v_Final.pdf

Texas Comprehensive Center. 2018. Grow your own teachers initiatives resources. Austin: Texas Comprehensive Center at American Institutes for Research. Retrieved from: https://texas-cc.org/sites/default/files/2018-02/GYO-Tchrs-Review-508.pdf

Contract teachers 

Some countries have responded to teacher shortages by appointing contract teachers, who are hired on a temporary basis. Contract teachers can include para-professionals, community members and volunteers and often have fewer qualifications and training and receive lower salaries than permanently hired teachers with no access to benefits such as pensions or social security. This raises clear quality issues, as well as a concern that a dual system will be created, further harming the overall esteem of the teaching profession. However, it does offer a short-term solution and allows flexibility and local connection. Professional development and training should be provided to contract teachers with opportunities for them to become fully qualified.

References
Duthilleul, Y. 2005. Lessons learnt in the use of ‘contract’ teachers. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001444/144412e.pdf

Fyfe, A. 2007. The use of contract teachers in developing countries: Trends and impact. Geneva: ILO. Retrieved from:  http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—sector/documents/publication/wcms_160813.pdf

Pinnock, H.; Nichalls, H. 2012. Global teacher training and inclusion survey: Report for UNICEF Rights, Education and Protection Project (REAP). UNICEF. Retrieved from: http://worldofinclusion.com/v3/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Annex-v_Final.pdf

IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2018a. Brief 1: Recruiting and deploying effective teachers. Accessed 30 November 2018: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/teachers-and-pedagogy/teacher-recruitment-and-deployment

UNESCO. 2015b. Education for all global monitoring report. Policy Paper 19: The challenge of teacher shortage and quality: Have we succeeded in getting enough quality teachers into classrooms? Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002327/232721E.pdf

Recruit unqualified teachers and provide in-service training

In situations of acute teacher shortages, unqualified teachers can be hired, and then provided with in-service training on the job to bring them to qualified teaching status (receiving full-time teaching positions, unlike contract teachers described above). This provides an immediate response to shortages and can help recruit teachers from rural communities where the shortages exist. Building local capacity can be considered more effective than providing incentives to send teachers from other locations to these fewer desirable locations.

This strategy is more effective when “unqualified” teachers have already been educated, but just lack teaching certification, such as educated school leavers who are repeating secondary exams or are seeking to improve the chance of entry into university. Such a policy can clearly have negative impacts on teaching quality and should be employed with extreme caution, ensuring that in-service training is of sufficient quality and rigor.

References
Mulkeen, A. 2010d. Teachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in teacher supply, training, and Management. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://siteresources.worldbank.org/EDUCATION/Resources/278200-1099079877269/Teachers_Anglophone_Africa.pdf

Policies for minority populations

*Note: All of the policies and strategies recommended in the general section of the present Policy page apply for this category as well.

Promising policy options

Building academic support strategies for minority candidates in undergraduate programs

It is important to conduct individual, diagnostic student assessments to assist the teacher candidates in choosing appropriate courses as well as in determining the amount and types of support services required to improve their skills. Minority teacher training services would include:

  • Identifying target populations from which to recruit candidates;
  • develop strong marketing and outreach programmes;
  • tutoring services to help candidates understand course content;
  • provide academic advising that is concentrated and personalised;
  • provide study and test-taking skills through a course or through several sessions, with follow-ups; and
  • monitoring the candidate’s progress on a continual basis to ensure a positive outcome.

Universities should provide teaching and training with greater cultural awareness and provide candidates with hands-on, real-world experiences through systems such as internships and volunteer work. Identifying these courses or activities and evaluating their components and outcomes would be important for both minority and majority student populations.

Favourable policies for High School to Teacher College Partnership

Studies reviewed the demographic distribution of minorities at various points along the teacher pipeline and concluded that numerous potential teachers are lost before college preparation even begins. This finding supports the contention that recruitment programs must reach into the middle and high schools to strengthen awareness and promote interest in teaching as a career. To do this, colleges and universities with teacher education programs across the country have created partnerships with school districts. These partnerships should comprise of the following elements (Judith et al, 2004):

  • Forming clubs in school to promote Future Teachers;
  • creating student awareness programmes which focus on teaching as a career;
  • tutoring experiences for after-school programmes;
  • hands-on campus experience for middle and high school students;
  • residential campus experiences during the summer months;
  • providing scholarships and other financial incentives for graduating seniors, with reciprocal agreements built-in;
  • individual counselling and career counselling;
  • providing assistance with critical thinking skills and test-taking skills;
  • organising workshops to promote cultural awareness and cultural inclusivity;
  • various expanded internship placements; and
  • group activities involving searches for funding opportunities to finance teacher recruitment programmes.

Some examples from the USA for such programmes are the South Carolina Minority Access to Teacher Education, the Aide-to-Teacher Project, and the Troops to Teachers.

The South Carolina Minority Access to Teacher Education (MATE) began as a teacher recruitment initiative in 1987 and is designed to motivate rural, minority high school students to attend college and to pursue degrees in education. This programme is a forgivable loan programme available to minority education majors at Benedict College. The staff members give students individual attention to guide them through the programme.

The Aide-to-Teacher Project’s goal is to recruit culturally diverse paraprofessional classroom aides to the teaching workforce. California State University campuses initiated the program in collaboration with seven local school districts. The program provides paraprofessionals with the financial, academic, and personal support they need to continue employment as classroom aides while completing their undergraduate degrees and obtaining their teaching credentials. Additionally, the university offers coursework after school or on weekends so the participants can continue working. Participants have access to tutors when necessary, and student teaching is waived in lieu of supervised teaching.

Finally, Troops to Teachers provides retired and displaced military personal with assistance in pursuing a career in public education; it also helps to fill the teacher shortage gap. Troops to Teachers is primarily a placement agency. Candidates for placement in academic fields must hold an undergraduate degree from an accredited college, while those interested in vocational teaching must prove expertise in their chosen vocation. In addition to job placement assistance, support services include teacher certification programs and a resource link Web site.

Provide support to minority teacher recruitment

It is important to establish minority recruitment programs that provide alternative certification, incorporating the following characteristics:

  • A non-traditional talent pool, consisting of teacher assistants, substitute teachers without certification, provisionally certified teachers, and career changers;
  • non-traditional admission criteria, allowing for a wider recruitment net;
  • candidates motivated to become teachers;
  • a majority of participants over the age of 30, many out of college for more than 10 years;
  • course schedules that accommodate participants who could already have a working life;
  • enriched multicultural curricula and hands-on teaching experiences;
  • modified course offerings with an emphasis on urban education, multicultural education, special education, and science and mathematics;
  • financial incentives such as scholarships, loan forgiveness, teaching assistantships, and stipends as well as creative housing plans in which banks, with the assistance of the school system, offer lower interest rates, longer terms for payment;
  • enhanced social and emotional support services such as individual and group counselling, mentoring, and orientation for families of participants;
  • academic support such as tutoring and special sessions arranged when needed on study skills and test-taking skills; and
  • assistance in preparation for teaching exams.

Mentoring is another area that researchers and students have identified as a key support for minority teacher candidates. However, this is yet another area where minorities are underrepresented, because most institutions of higher education are majority-culture dominated. In addition, many faculties in teacher education programs are not knowledgeable about diverse cultures and often do not know how to apply the foundations of teaching techniques and strategies appropriate to the needs of the increasingly diverse student population in school systems (both urban and rural).

References
Australia. n.d. The Northern Territory Department of Education. Indigenous Education Strategy. Remote Teacher Guide: Living and teaching in remote Northern Territory Communities. Darwin. Retrieved from: https://www.teachintheterritory.nt.gov.au/sites/default/files/guide/file/remote-teacher-guideweb.pdf

Judith, T; Janet, S; Nancy, L. P.; Lydia, C. 2004. Minority teacher Recruitment, Development, and Retention. The Education Alliance. Brown University. Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED484676.pdf

Tournier, B. 2018. Reimagining teacher careers for the 21st century. Accessed 11 September 2019: http://www.iiep.unesco.org/en/reimagining-teacher-careers-21st-century-4786

Ingersoll, R., May, H., & Collins, G. 2017. Minority teacher recruitment, employment, and retention: 1987 to 2013. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from: https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Minority_Teacher_Recruitment_REPORT.pdf

USA. 2014. State Education Resource Centre. Minority teachers in Connecticut: A Durational Shortage Area, Technical Report. Retrieved from: https://ctserc.org/documents/misc/equity-2017-09-20-minority-teachers.pdf

Sri Lanka. 2013. Ministry of Education. Education First: Sri Lanka. Retrieved from: https://moe.gov.lk/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Education_First_SL.pdf

Zeichner, K. M. 2003. The adequacies and inadequacies of three current strategies to recruit, prepare, and retain the best teachers for all students. Teachers College Record. Retrieved from: https://www.academia.edu/25558221/The_Adequacies_and_Inadequacies_of_Three_Current_Strategies_to_Recruit_Prepare_and_Retain_the_Best_Teachers_for_All_Students

UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles). 2015. Cultural Concerns in Addressing Barriers to Learning: Introductory packet.  Centre for Mental Health in Schools. Retrieved from: http://smhp.psych.ucla.edu/pdfdocs/cultural/culture.pdf

Updated on 2021-04-09

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