Appropriate teacher candidates

The surge in primary school enrolment and the push for improved quality have resulted in an acute shortage of teachers. It is estimated that by 2030, countries will have to recruit 24.4 million primary school teachers: 21 million to replace those leaving the profession, while the other 3.4 million are additional teachers required to meet increased access and improved quality needs (UIS-UNESCO, 2016).

In many contexts, there is simply a lack of appropriate teaching candidates to recruit from. There is often a limited number of “school leavers” finishing secondary school, and then among the pool of qualified school leavers, many choose places in universities and pursue other professions rather than teaching (Mulkeen, 2010). This choice is not surprising as the social status of teaching has diminished, while concurrently more and more demands and expectations are placed on teachers. Moreover, teacher salaries are often not competitive enough, vis-a-vis comparable professions. There are also often shortages in particular locations, notably rural or disadvantaged areas, as well as within particular subjects, such as math and science. The overall supply of teacher candidates, therefore, depends on factors including salaries, working conditions, entry requirements, deployment practices, and how they compare with other jobs in the labour market. 

There is a direct connection between teacher quantity and teaching quality issues, and measures to increase teacher supply need to carefully consider the overall effects on quality and learning outcomes. Many countries respond to the lack of teachers by lowering requirements, both for teacher training and teaching entry, assigning teachers subjects or posts for which they are not suitably qualified, and increasing class size and teacher’s workloads (OECD, 2005). This can result in a vicious cycle, in which the poor quality of teaching within schools further limits the future pool of suitable teaching candidates; this pattern has particularly been observed within math and science subjects.

The supply of appropriate teaching candidates can be increased by improving salary and benefits; improving the attractiveness of the teaching profession including work environment, professional development, and support; adjusting the requirements and easing the process of entering the profession; improving teacher training; expanding recruitment efforts and community partnerships; improving deployment policies; investing in primary and secondary education; creating systems to monitor teacher supply and demand; and offering targeted incentives for particular shortage areas, among others.

References
Mulkeen, A. 2010dTeachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in teacher supply, training, and management. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/13545?locale-attribute=es

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2005b. Teachers matter: Attracting, developing and retaining qualified teachers. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/education/school/34990905.pdf

UIS-UNESCO (UNESCO Institute for Statistics). 2016. UIS fact sheet: The world needs almost 69 million new teachers to reach the 2030 education goals. Paris: UIS-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002461/246124e.pdf

Vegas, E. 2007. ‘Teacher labor markets in developing countries.’ In:  The Future of Children. 17(1), 219-232. Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ795880.pdf

Promising policy options

Competitive salaries and benefits

The main deterrent that prevents qualified candidates from entering the teaching profession is the lack of adequate salary and remuneration. Teaching salaries are often well below those of other available jobs requiring a comparable level of skills and training. Increasing teacher salaries is key to improving the status of the teaching profession, attracting qualified candidates, and ultimately improving the quality of teaching and children’s learning outcomes. 

*For more information see Policy page Teacher incentives

Beyond salary increase, other benefits and compensations, both monetary and non-monetary, can be offered, including:

  • provision of housing/ housing allowance;
  • providing transport assistance;
  • scholarships for teacher training;
  • promotion opportunities;
  • family benefits;
  • continuous professional development; and
  • leave provisions.
References
The World Bank. 2009e. Teacher motivation, incentives and working conditions. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/468341468306561093/pdf/705540BRI0P1060ion0300December02009.pdf

The World Bank. 2012. What matters most in teacher policies: A framework for building a more effective teaching profession. System approach for better education results. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from:  https://olc.worldbank.org/sites/default/files/SABER-Teachers-What_matters_most_in_teacher_policies-Framework_paper_0.pdf

UNESCO. 2015e. Teacher policy development guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002352/235272e.pdf

Improving the attractiveness of the teaching profession

Apart from aspects of salary and benefits, the overall attractiveness of the teaching profession is also affected by working conditions, career mobility opportunities, and the conceived social status of teaching. By improving teacher working conditions and providing ongoing professional development and support, more qualified candidates will be drawn to teaching as a lifelong profession.

Several strategies for improving working conditions exist, such as:

  • Allocating time to plan lessons;
  • improving school infrastructure- hygiene, sanitation conditions; 
  • increasing teachers’ level of autonomy and responsibility;
  • reducing paperwork;
  • adding support staff;
  • providing sufficient supply of teaching materials; and
  • building connections between schools and communities to increase the social status of teaching.

Strategies for the provision of ongoing professional development and support include:

  • increased support at the beginning of teacher’s careers, such as facilitating close relationships with schools during training and induction, and strengthening teacher induction programmes;
  • ongoing in-service training, where experienced, qualified teachers act as mentors, and are compensated for this;
  • an established system for feedback, appraisal, and evaluation from colleagues and superiors; and
  • opportunities for career advancement through horizontal career paths, by adding roles such as developing curriculum or training other teachers, or through vertical career paths, by allowing opportunities to positions outside of teaching, such as headteacher or administrative roles.
References
Burns, M.; Lawrie J. 2015. Where it’s needed most: Quality professional development for all teachers. New York: INEE (Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies). Retrieved from: https://app.mhpss.net/?get=57/where_its_needed_most_-_teacher_professional_development__2015_lowres.pdf

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2005b. Teachers matter: Attracting, developing and retaining qualified teachers. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/education/school/34990905.pdf

Schleicher, A. 2012. Preparing teachers and developing school leaders for the 21st century: Lessons from around the world. Paris: OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Retrieved from: https://www.oecd.org/site/eduistp2012/49850576.pdf

UNESCO. 2015e. Teacher policy development guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002352/235272e.pdf

Improving teacher training

Many qualified school leavers often opt for university, rather than teacher training institutions, limiting the overall supply of teacher candidates that can be hired. Improving teacher training programmes as well as providing more flexible study options can increase the overall number of entrants into teacher training institutions. Several strategies and policies can be implemented to attain this goal, such as:

  • more flexibility and alternative learning models, such as part-time study, distance learning (see below), credits for related qualifications and/or professional experience, and flipped classroom model;
  • clear profiles of the expected skills and knowledge of teachers;
  • a balance between theory and practice, including more time in classrooms, with sufficient support;
  • an established connection between initial teacher training, induction period, and professional development, to emphasize learning and adapting throughout teaching career; and
  • providing scholarships (see below).

In cases where there is good access to the internet, and where logistical constraints make a face-to-face training program difficult, distance training of teachers is a highly cost-effective option. The development of capacities and the acquisition of knowledge through technological tools is an effective way to train a large number of people while more long-term strategies are put in place. This is particularly important when dealing with teachers in rural areas, who would otherwise not have the same opportunities to receive quality in-service teacher training. The main restriction to this approach, however, is the required existence of ICT infrastructure, since distance training relies heavily on internet and electricity access, which can often be challenging in remote locations.

In addition to this, a performance-based scholarship system can help attract the best students to apply to teacher training institutions. Scholarships can be provided either for State-run teaching schools or for private universities that offer teaching careers.

References
Bruns, B.; Luque, J. 2015. Great teachers: How to raise student learning in Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/20488

Chang, M. C.; Shaeffer, S.; Al-Samarri, S.; Ragatz, A. B.; de Ree, J.; Stevenson, R. 2013. Teachers as the cornerstone of educational quality. In M. C. Chang, S. Shaeffer, S. Al-Samarri, A. B. Ragatz, J. de Ree, & R. Stevenson, Teacher Reform in Indonesia: The Role of Politics and Evidence in Policy Making (pp. 39 – 58). Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://elibrary.worldbank.org/doi/pdf/10.1596/978-0-8213-9829-6_ch2

Mulkeen, A. 2010dTeachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in teacher supply, training, and management. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/13545?locale-attribute=es

Nordstrum L.E., 2013. Teacher supply, training and cost in the context of rapidly expanding enrolment: Ethiopia, Pakistan and Tanzania. Background Paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2013/14. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002259/225952E.pdf

OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2005b. Teachers matter: Attracting, developing and retaining qualified teachers. Paris: OECD. Retrieved from: http://www.oecd.org/education/school/34990905.pdf

Perraton, H. 2001. Teacher education through distance learning. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001242/124208e.pdf

Schleicher, A. 2012. Preparing teachers and developing school leaders for the 21st century: Lessons from around the world. Paris: OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Retrieved from: https://www.oecd.org/site/eduistp2012/49850576.pdf

UNESCO. 2010. Methodological guide for the analysis of teacher issues. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://poledakar.iiep.unesco.org/sites/default/files/fields/publication_files/methodological_guide_for_the_analysis_of_teacher_issues_-_2010.pdf

UNESCO. 2016. A review of evaluative evidence on teacher policy. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002443/244373E.pdf

Vargas, E.; Umansky, I. 2005. Improving teaching and learning through effective incentives: What can we learn from education reforms in Latin America? Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/8694/33266.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

Improving deployment practices

Improving deployment practices can act as a powerful incentive both for recruiting and retaining teachers. Fear of being placed in undesirable locations or away from other personal interests, with no say in their placement prevents potential candidates from entering the profession. This can particularly be an issue for female teachers or minorities, who may face security threats in certain locations. Likewise, teachers unhappy with their posts are more likely to quit teaching altogether.

Deployment systems should:

  • take teacher’s preferences into account;
  • have up to date information on the school’s needs and characteristics;
  • be clear and equitable;
  • have transparent rules;
  • be free from political motivation; and
  • include provisions for the transfer of teachers when circumstances change.

However, there is still a definite need to place teachers in less desirable locations, and these areas are often where teacher shortages occur. In this way, deployment policies have a particular effect on equity issues, as the less desirable locations with disadvantaged students often end up with the least qualified teachers, or with the fewest teachers. Offering targeted incentives for hard-to-staff locations to the most qualified teacher candidates can help overcome this imbalance, placing more effective teachers where they are most needed and where they are willing to serve. Another strategy is to place teachers in remote locations for limited durations, such as a few years, and then allow them location preference in their next deployment.

Incentives for hard-to-staff locations can include:

  • increased salary;
  • teacher housing (free or subsidized);
  • hardship allowance;
  • salary bonus/ Award scheme;
  • smaller class sizes;
  • less instructional time;
  • scholarships;
  • forgivable loans;
  • specialized promotion opportunities; and
  • choice of next job posting location.

Incentives need to be large enough in scale to attract teachers to the hard-to-staff locations, carefully targeted, and tied to the specific post. Alternatively, teachers can be recruited locally, rather than deployed through a centralized system.

*See Decentralization of Candidate Selection (below).

References
IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2021. Teacher recruitment and deployment. Accessed 29 September 2021: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/teacher-recruitment-and-deployment

ILO (International Labour Organization). 2012a. ‘Module 1 employment and recruitment’. In: Handbook of Good Human Resource Practices in the Teaching Profession. Geneva: ILO http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—sector/documents/publication/wcms_187793.pdf

Mulkeen, A. 2010dTeachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in teacher supply, training, and management. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/13545?locale-attribute=es

The World Bank. 2009e. Teacher motivation, incentives and working conditions. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/468341468306561093/pdf/705540BRI0P1060ion0300December02009.pdf

UNESCO. 2015b. Education for all global monitoring report. Policy Paper 19: The challenge of teacher shortage and quality: Have we succeeded in getting enough quality teachers into classrooms? Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002327/232721E.pdf

UNESCO. 2015e. Teacher policy development guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002352/235272e.pdf

Planning on teacher supply and demand

Many countries do not have a developed system that monitors teacher attrition wastage or predicts requirements. Such data can be used to adjust the intake into teacher training programmes, ensuring that there are enough qualified candidates to fill positions, which is particularly important for a balance of subject specializations.

In the Philippines, collected data on teacher dispersion was used to colour-code districts based on pupil-teacher ratios. This accessible and easy-to-read representation led to teaching positions being focused in rural and shortage areas the following year (ILO, 2012a).

Other methodologies for planning on teacher supply and demand include annual monitoring of student enrolment and projected future enrolment, pupil-teacher ratios, the existing number of teachers delineated by subject specialities, the annual teacher attrition, the annual output of newly trained teachers, and wastage rates per region.

Additionally, it is possible to use information from education sector plans, HR data and EMIS surveys. It is also key to anticipate requirements and adjust systems of teaching training to provide the required supply.

References
IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2021. Teacher recruitment and deployment. Accessed 29 September 2021: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/teacher-recruitment-and-deployment

ILO (International Labour Organization). 2012a. ‘Module 1 employment and recruitment’. In: Handbook of Good Human Resource Practices in the Teaching Profession. Geneva: ILO http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—sector/documents/publication/wcms_187793.pdf

Mulkeen, A. 2010dTeachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in teacher supply, training, and management. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/13545?locale-attribute=es

Invest in quality primary and secondary schooling

In the long term, one of the most effective measures for to increase the supply of appropriate candidates is to invest in quality primary and secondary schooling. This involves investing in well-trained and motivated teachers; well-developed pedagogical, learning resources and curriculum; safe and accessible school facilities; and having accountability mechanisms in place. The focus should also be put on subjects that have a history of poor outcomes.

In the short term, compensatory measures can also be provided at the secondary school level, such as booster courses, camps, and clubs in particular subject areas where there are deficiencies.

References
Mulkeen, A. 2010dTeachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in teacher supply, training, and management. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/13545?locale-attribute=es

UNESCO. 2005. Global Monitoring Report 2005 summary: Education for all: The quality imperative. special education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001373/137333e.pdf

UNESCO. 2014b. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2013/14 Summary: Teaching and Learning: Achieving Quality for All. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002266/226662e.pdf

Expanding recruitment processes 

To expand the pool of appropriate candidates, recruitment processes (both for teacher-training institutions and available teaching positions) can be broadened and improved to target groups that would not normally consider teaching as a profession, to create partnerships with secondary schools, and to develop systems that streamline hiring processes. Strategies to achieve this include:

  • a marketing campaign to promote teaching as a fulfilling profession, targeting groups who would not normally consider teaching;
  • targeting recruitment in local areas where there are teacher shortages;
  • target paraprofessionals and career-switchers with relevant skills;
  • hiring should take place at a convenient and advantageous time, such as the season before the academic session starts. This can be done through legislative changes, incentive programmes, revising timelines for voluntary transfers or resignations, and proper budgeting for hiring processes;
  • refocusing selection to emphasize candidates more likely to stay in the teaching profession using interviews or through the demonstration of lesson plans and skills;
  • partnerships between secondary schools and training colleges to offer internships and early teaching opportunities;
  • closing the information gap between teachers and schools by requiring all teaching vacancies to be posted, creating a centralized website or hub where teaching post information can be found, and by creating a network of agencies to co-ordinate recruitment;
  • giving schools more responsibility in recruitment and employment decisions (see Decentralization of candidate selection process); and
  • focus recruitment strategies based on evidence of projected needs, including for specific subject areas and locations (see Improve planning on teacher supply and demand).
References
Bruns, B.; Luque, J. 2015. Great teachers: How to raise student learning in Latin America and the Caribbean. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/20488

Cooper J.M., Alvarado A. 2006. Preparation, recruitment and retention of teachers. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0015/001520/152023e.pdf

Podolsky, A.; Kini, T.; Bishop J.; Darling-Hammond, L. 2016. Solving the teacher shortage how to attract and retain excellent educators. Washington D.C.: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from: https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Solving_Teacher_Shortage_Attract_Retain_Educators_REPORT.pdf

Schleicher, A. 2012. Preparing teachers and developing school leaders for the 21st century: Lessons from around the world. Paris: OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Retrieved from: https://www.oecd.org/site/eduistp2012/49850576.pdf

UNESCO. 2015e. Teacher policy development guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002352/235272e.pdf

Other policy options

Decentralization of candidate selection 

Allowing local authorities and school administrators more power in decision-making in the recruitment hiring and processes can increase teachers’ commitments to particular schools and can help ensure a better match between the needs of schools and the expectations of teachers. Such practices can also help attract qualified candidates and reduce attrition. This can be particularly effective in rural areas that have more difficulties in attracting candidates to their schools. Schools can focus recruitment efforts on local candidates, who have the background, language, and cultural understanding required for the positions.

However, measures need to be in place to still ensure the equitable distribution of qualified teachers among all schools, nationwide. Systems need to be in place to ensure accountability and equity. Particularly, central and regional authorities still need to regulate the equitable distribution of teachers. This also requires strong school leadership and management.

References
Schleicher, A. 2012. Preparing teachers and developing school leaders for the 21st century: Lessons from around the world. Paris: OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Retrieved from: https://www.oecd.org/site/eduistp2012/49850576.pdf

UNESCO. 2015e. Teacher policy development guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002352/235272e.pdf

“Grow your own teachers” partnerships  

Some hard-to-staff districts in the United States have responded to teacher shortages through “grow your own teacher” partnerships, which “build teacher pipelines” from within communities (Podolosky et al., 2016). This can consist of providing scholarships and support to community members wishing to enter the teaching profession, such as paraprofessionals already involved in schools. These programmes also partner with colleges and teacher-training institutions so that they specifically recruit candidates within their communities. Additionally, teaching pathways and mentorship programmes can be established directly in secondary and high schools. “Grow your own teacher” partnerships have been found to be particularly effective in addressing issues of teacher supply and diversity.

References
Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. 2016. Grow your own: A resource guide to creating your own teacher pipeline. Jefferson City: MoDESE. Retrieved from: https://dese.mo.gov/sites/default/files/Grow-Your-Own-Resource-Guide.pdf

Podolsky, A.; Kini, T.; Bishop J.; Darling-Hammond, L. 2016. Solving the teacher shortage how to attract and retain excellent educators. Washington D.C.: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from: https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Solving_Teacher_Shortage_Attract_Retain_Educators_REPORT.pdf

Texas Comprehensive Center. 2018. Grow your own teachers initiatives resources. Austin: Texas Comprehensive Center at American Institutes for Research. Retrieved from: https://tea.texas.gov/sites/default/files/Additional%20Resource%20-%20Grow%20Your%20Own%20Teachers%20Initiatives%20Resources.pdf

Broader criteria for teacher training entry

Requirements to enter teacher training institutions need to be low enough to allow there to be a sufficient number of diverse candidates to fill the available positions, but high enough to attract candidates with recognized ability and skills, develop the social status of the teaching profession, and maintain quality.

 A limited supply of sufficiently qualified school leavers may require lowered criteria for entering teaching training colleges and programmes. However, there should be caution in not lowering entrance criteria to the extent that teaching quality will be significantly impaired. To overcome this challenge, the quality of teacher training and induction programmes can be improved, and additional support can be provided to less qualified entrants, such as booster courses that are required before entering teacher training. This can be particularly relevant for math and science subjects, where there is often a particular shortage of qualified candidates. Training institutions can also take into account other desirable qualities of teaching candidates beyond just academic criteria, such as social and emotional competencies.

References
Mulkeen, A. 2010dTeachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in teacher supply, training, and management. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/13545?locale-attribute=es

Schleicher, A. 2012. Preparing teachers and developing school leaders for the 21st century: Lessons from around the world. Paris: OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). Retrieved from: https://www.oecd.org/site/eduistp2012/49850576.pdf

UNESCO. 2015e. Teacher policy development guide. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002352/235272e.pdf

UNESCO. 2016. A review of evaluative evidence on teacher policy. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002443/244373E.pdf

Contract teachers 

Some countries have responded to teacher shortages by appointing contract teachers, who are hired temporarily. Contract teachers can include para-professionals, community members, and volunteers that often have fewer qualifications and training and receive lower salaries than permanently hired teachers, with no access to benefits such as pensions or social security. This raises clear quality issues, as well as a concern that a dual system will be created, further harming the overall esteem of the teaching profession. However, it does offer a short-term solution and allows flexibility and local connection. Professional development and training should be provided to contract teachers with opportunities for them to become fully qualified.

References
Duthilleul, Y. 2005. Lessons learnt in the use of ‘contract’ teachers. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001444/144412e.pdf

Fyfe, A. 2007. The use of contract teachers in developing countries: Trends and impact. Geneva: ILO. Retrieved from:  http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—sector/documents/publication/wcms_160813.pdf

IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2021. Teacher recruitment and deployment. Accessed 29 September 2021: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/teacher-recruitment-and-deployment

UNESCO. 2015b. Education for all global monitoring report. Policy Paper 19: The challenge of teacher shortage and quality: Have we succeeded in getting enough quality teachers into classrooms? Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002327/232721E.pdf

Recruit unqualified teachers and provide in-service training

In situations of acute teacher shortages, unqualified teachers can be hired, and then provided with in-service training on the job to bring them to qualified teaching status (receiving full-time teaching positions, unlike contract teachers described above). This provides an immediate response to shortages and can help recruit teachers from rural communities where the shortages exist. Building local capacity can be considered more effective than providing incentives to send teachers from other locations to these less desirable locations.

This strategy is more effective when “unqualified” teachers have already been educated, but just lack teaching certification, such as educated school leavers who are repeating secondary exams or are seeking to improve the chance of entry into university. Such a policy can have negative impacts on teaching quality and should be employed with extreme caution, ensuring that in-service training is of sufficient quality and rigour.

References
Mulkeen, A. 2010dTeachers in Anglophone Africa: Issues in teacher supply, training, and management. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/13545?locale-attribute=es

Policy options for improving Equity and Inclusion

Gender-responsive policies

Note: Although all of the policies and strategies recommended in the general section of the present Policy page apply for this category, the following ones should be taken into consideration as well to ensure an equitable and representative teaching workforce.

Children’s access and retention in schools can be enhanced by providing a gender-balanced teaching workforce (UNESCO, 2016a). For instance, in Bangladesh, higher proportions of female teachers contributed not only to gender-balance the teaching profession but also lead to higher enrolment and lower failure of students in primary schools (UIS, 2010 cited by Haugen et al., 2011).

As an inclusive and equitable education system should represent society’s diversity, efforts should be made to provide a gender-balanced teaching workforce (UNESCO and UNGEI, 2015; Riddell et al., 2005). The following policy options can be implemented for this purpose.

References
Banks, L.M.; Kelly, S.A.; Kyegombe, N.; Kuper, H.; Devries, K. 2017. ‘“If he could speak, he would be able to point out who does those things to him”: Experiences of violence and access to child protection among children with disabilities in Uganda and Malawi’. In: PLoS ONE, 12(9). Retrieved from:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183736

Devries, K. M.; Kyegombe, N.; Zuurmond, M.; Parkes, J.; Child, J.C.; Walakira, E.J.; Naker, D. 2014. ‘Violence against primary school children with disabilities in Uganda: a cross-sectional study’. In: BMC Public Health, No. 14, p. 1017. Retrieved from: https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-14-1017

Kuper, H.; Banks, M.; Kelly, S.; Kyegombe, N.; Devries, K. 2016.
Protect Us! Inclusion of children with disabilities in child protection. Woking: Plan International. Retrieved from: https://plan-international.org/publications/protect-us#download-options

UNESCO. 2019a. Behind the numbers: Ending school violence and bullying. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000366483

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2014. Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation: Webinar 14 – Companion Technical Booklet. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/eca/sites/unicef.org.eca/files/IE_Webinar_Booklet_14.pdf

WHO (World Health Organization). 2011. ‘Chapter 7 Education’. In: World Report on Disability (pp. 203-232). Malta: WHO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/report.pdf

Promising policy options

Challenge gender roles, stereotypes and entrenched discriminatory gender norms

It is key to ensure a gender-balanced teaching workforce. As expressed by Johnson ‘deep gender divisions in the teaching profession go against the democratic and egalitarian values schools are expected to promote. As long as this disparity continues, new generations of children daily learn a form of sexist gender relations’ (Johnson, 2008: 3).

Indeed, teachers, can act as positive role models and address deep gender divisions which can ultimately affect the teaching profession. Teachers can do this by:

  • tackling down sexist and homophobic beliefs and practices in school;
  • confronting traditional masculine and feminine constructs (Mills, Martino, and Lingard, 2004); and
  • taking responsibility in the education, caring, and nurturing of children (this strategy concerns particularly male teachers, who can challenge these gender roles commonly attributed to women in many societies).
References
Jha, J.; Pouezevara, S. 2016. Measurement and Research Support to Education Strategy Goal 1: Boys’ Underachievement in Education: A Review of the Literature with a Focus on Reading in the Early Years. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina: RTI International. Retrieved from: https://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PBAAF451.pdf

Johnson, S.P. 2008. ‘The Status of Male Teachers in Public Education Today’. In: Education Policy Briefs, Center for Evaluation & Education Policy, Vol. 6, No. 4. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/87d9/2f30d94482ee06b6fd1aa791d183633e63d9.pdf

Mills, M.; Martino, W.; Lingard, B. 2004. ‘Attracting, Recruiting and Retaining Male Teachers: Policy Issues in the Male Teacher Debate’. In:  British Journal of Sociology of Education, Vol. 25, No. 3, pp. 355-369.

Ensure gender-sensitive recruitment and selection processes

Several strategies exist to ensure that recruitment and selection processes of teaching and non-teaching staff are done with a gender-sensitive perspective. Some of these include:

  • ensure that recruiting committees are gender-balanced and have knowledge of gender issues;
  • implement quota systems if necessary, to ensure a gender-balanced workforce across levels and subjects (Pro-Femes Twese Hamwe and VSO Rwanda, 2013); and
  • ensure women’s access to leadership roles and positions (UNESCO Bangkok, 2006).

It is also key to analyse whether practices and policies in place inhibit certain individuals from entering the teaching profession, and provide appropriate responses. Discrimination laws and policies must forbid discrimination against teachers on the grounds of sexuality, gender identity, or relationship status (The Conversation France, 2018). Moreover, legal recourse to contest the violation of their rights within schools should be ensured (AFT, n.d.).

References
AFT (American Federation of Teachers). 2013. Creating a Positive Work Environment for LGBT Faculty: What Higher Education Unions Can Do. Accessed 18 September 2019: https://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/wysiwyg/genderdiversity_lgbt0413.pdf

Haugen, C.S.; Klees, S. J.; Stromquist, N. P.; Lin, J.; Choti, T.; Corneilse, C. 2011. Increasing Female Primary School Teachers in African Countries: Barriers and Policies. Nairobi: University of Maryland – Forum for African Women Educationalists. Retrieved from: https://www.macfound.org/media/files/FAWE_Literature_Review.docx.

INEE (Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2010. Gender Equality in and through Education: INEE Pocket Guide to Gender. Geneva: INEE. Retrieved from: https://toolkit.ineesite.org/resources/ineecms/uploads/1009/INEE_Pocket_Guide_to_Gender_EN.pdf

Pro-Femmes Twese Hamwe; VSO Rwanda. 2013. Gender Equality in Teaching and Education Management. Kigali: VSO Rwanda. Retrieved from: https://www.vsointernational.org/sites/default/files/vso-rwanda-gender-equality-in-teaching-education-report_tcm76-40787.pdf

Riddell, S.; Tett, L.; Burns, C.; Ducklin, A.; Ferrie, J.; Stafford, A.; Winterton, M. 2005. Gender Balance of the Teaching Workforce in Publicly Funded Schools. Edinburgh: The Moray House School of Education, University of Edinburgh. Retrieved from: http://library.umac.mo/ebooks/b13621658a.pdf

The Conversation France. 2018. Why legislation should ban schools from discriminating against LGBTIQ+ students and teachers. Accessed 18 September 2019: http://theconversation.com/why-legislation-should-ban-schools-from-discriminating-against-lgbtiq-students-and-teachers-104940

UNESCO Bangkok. 2006. The Impact of women teachers on girls’ education: Advocacy Brief. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000145990?posInSet=1&queryId=f01d0286-e671-41ec-958b-c4eff8692137

Monitor the teaching workforce

Ministries of Education, local authorities and inspection bodies should monitor the teaching force. In this regard, it is recommended to analyse and track schools’ teaching workforce diversity and stress out gender imbalances. For example, in Scotland, school inspections include questions concerning teachers’ workforce. Reports produced afterward highlight encountered gender and social imbalances (Riddell et al., 2005). Gender imbalances vary significantly across regions, among countries and within countries. In 2018 female teachers represented 66.18% of the primary teachers’ workforce worldwide. Yet, statics ranged from 86.75% in Europe to 45.49% in Sub-Saharan Africa (UIS-UNESCO, 2019). Many countries still face significant gender imbalances concerning the teaching workforce. In 2018, female teachers represented only 16.5% and 25% of the teaching force in Togo and Benin respectively (UIS-UNESCO, 2019). Within countries, gender imbalances can also be found, highlighting the rural and urban divide. For instance, in Malawi, 82% of urban teachers are female, while they only represent 31% of rural teachers (ILO Centre for International Teacher Education, 2016).

Overall, monitoring gender imbalances and producing quality reports is key to design evidence-based policies. When data availability allows it, it would be pertinent to perform an analysis of the impact of a gender-balanced workforce on students’ retention and learning outcomes.

(For information about deployment policies consult Policy page Teacher deployment, Teacher retention).

References
Bramwell, D.; Anderson, S.; Mundy, K. 2014. Teachers and teacher development: A rapid review of the literature. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Retrieved from: https://www.oise.utoronto.ca/cidec/UserFiles/File/Website/Rapid_Review-teacher_development_June_30_final_2.pdf

ILO (International Labour Organization) Centre for International Teacher Education. 2016. Rural teachers in Africa: A report for ILO. Geneva: ILO. Retrieved from: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—sector/documents/publication/wcms_543617.pdf

Riddell, S.; Tett, L.; Burns, C.; Ducklin, A.; Ferrie, J.; Stafford, A.; Winterton, M. 2005. Gender Balance of the Teaching Workforce in Publicly Funded Schools. Edinburgh: The Moray House School of Education, University of Edinburgh. Retrieved from: http://library.umac.mo/ebooks/b13621658a.pdf

UIS-UNESCO (UNESCO Institute for Statistics). 2019. Teachers statistics. Accessed 2 October 2019: http://data.uis.unesco.org/

One possible approach to advertise and promote a gender-balanced teaching workforce is to develop media campaigns to highlight the importance of involving all individuals in education (INEE, 2010). These campaigns can also tackle down gendered job stereotyping concerning the teaching profession –particularly when it comes to early childhood and primary education– which inhibits many potential candidates to enter the profession (Riddell et al., 2005; Johnson, 2008). If a specific population is under-represented in the teaching profession, they must be targeted specifically through a particular campaign (UNESCO Bangkok, 2006). Yet, those campaigns need to be inscribed within a general marketing strategy to promote the teaching career.

Another strategy is to work with secondary students to raise their interest in becoming teachers. For instance, Afghanistan’s Ministry of Education developed multiple strategies to increase the number of female primary and secondary teachers by 50%. One of them included the recruitment and training of 22,500 grade 12 female graduates (UNESCO and UNGEI, 2015).

References
INEE (Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2010. Gender Equality in and through Education: INEE Pocket Guide to Gender. Geneva: INEE. Retrieved from: https://toolkit.ineesite.org/resources/ineecms/uploads/1009/INEE_Pocket_Guide_to_Gender_EN.pdf

Johnson, S.P. 2008. ‘The Status of Male Teachers in Public Education Today’. In: Education Policy Briefs, Center for Evaluation & Education Policy, Vol. 6, No. 4. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/87d9/2f30d94482ee06b6fd1aa791d183633e63d9.pdf

Riddell, S.; Tett, L.; Burns, C.; Ducklin, A.; Ferrie, J.; Stafford, A.; Winterton, M. 2005. Gender Balance of the Teaching Workforce in Publicly Funded Schools. Edinburgh: The Moray House School of Education, University of Edinburgh. Retrieved from: http://library.umac.mo/ebooks/b13621658a.pdf

UNESCO Bangkok. 2006. The Impact of women teachers on girls’ education: Advocacy Brief. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000145990?posInSet=1&queryId=f01d0286-e671-41ec-958b-c4eff8692137

UNESCO, UNGEI (United Nations Girls’ Education Initiative). 2015. Gender and EFA 2000-2015, Achievements and Challenges: Gender Summary. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://www.womenforwater.org/uploads/7/7/5/1/77516286/efa_global_montoring_report_gender_and_efa_2000-2015.pdf

Teacher Education Providers

It is important to ensure that Teacher Education Providers promote trainers as well as trainees’ gender balance. Affirmative action may be needed, like in Mozambique, where the Ministry of Education encouraged teacher training colleges to raise the recruitment of female trainees by increasing the number of places allocated to them. Since then, the proportion of female teachers has not dropped below 50% (Beutel et al., 2011 cited by UNESCO, 2013a).

It is key to review the recruitment and assessment processes and tackle down indirect discrimination practices, by developing inclusive, gender-responsive, flexible teacher education programmes (UNESCO Bangkok, 2006). For instance, ensure they are family-friendly and expand the criteria for teacher training entry (see above, general policy option). For instance, since 2008 Afghanistan revised its qualification requirements to enable more women to enter teacher training (Wirak and Lexow, 2008 cited by UNESCO, 2013a). 

References
Haugen, C.S.; Klees, S. J.; Stromquist, N. P.; Lin, J.; Choti, T.; Corneilse, C. 2011. Increasing Female Primary School Teachers in African Countries: Barriers and Policies. Nairobi: University of Maryland – Forum for African Women Educationalists. Retrieved from: https://www.macfound.org/media/files/FAWE_Literature_Review.docx.

Johnson, S.P. 2008. ‘The Status of Male Teachers in Public Education Today’. In: Education Policy Briefs, Center for Evaluation & Education Policy, Vol. 6, No. 4. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/87d9/2f30d94482ee06b6fd1aa791d183633e63d9.pdf

UNESCO Bangkok. 2006. The Impact of women teachers on girls’ education: Advocacy Brief. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000145990?posInSet=1&queryId=f01d0286-e671-41ec-958b-c4eff8692137

UNESCO. 2013a. Education for All 2013-2014: Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002256/225660e.pdf

Other policy options

Provide high-quality alternative teacher training programmes

High-quality, alternative teacher training programmes may be needed in some instances, yet they should always remain a short-term policy, as they can never substitute a comprehensive pre-service training.

For example, in Bangladesh, Mobile Teacher Training Programmes (MTTP) raised the number of female teachers by allowing women to enter the teaching profession immediately while providing them in-service support. After entering the profession, they had to be qualified to government standards (Rugh, 2000 cited by Haugen et al., 2011).

It is key to keep in mind that this type of training has been widely criticized in multiple countries, such as Lesotho and Tanzania, as they were alleged of leaving trainees feeling ill-equipped to be teachers (Sinyolo, 2007 cited by Haugen et al., 2011: 31). This is why it is essential to carefully design them to ensure they prepare high-quality, well-paid teachers in the short term.

References
Haugen, C.S.; Klees, S. J.; Stromquist, N. P.; Lin, J.; Choti, T.; Corneilse, C. 2011. Increasing Female Primary School Teachers in African Countries: Barriers and Policies. Nairobi: University of Maryland – Forum for African Women Educationalists. Retrieved from: https://www.macfound.org/media/files/FAWE_Literature_Review.docx.

Policies for teachers with disabilities

Note: All the policies and strategies recommended in the general section of the present Policy Box apply to this category as well. Yet, particular attention should be paid to teachers with disabilities.

Hiring teachers with disabilities is essential to build inclusive education systems. Ministries of Education, local authorities, Teacher Education Institutes, and schools, need to explicitly commit to, invest, and support the recruitment and training of teachers with disabilities (UNICEF, 2014). Persons with disabilities should be empowered to act as powerful role models for students (IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal, 2018a; WHO, 2011; UNESCO and EFA GMR, n.d.).

References
Banks, L.M.; Kelly, S.A.; Kyegombe, N.; Kuper, H.; Devries, K. 2017. ‘“If he could speak, he would be able to point out who does those things to him”: Experiences of violence and access to child protection among children with disabilities in Uganda and Malawi’. In: PLoS ONE, 12(9). Retrieved from:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183736

Devries, K. M.; Kyegombe, N.; Zuurmond, M.; Parkes, J.; Child, J.C.; Walakira, E.J.; Naker, D. 2014. ‘Violence against primary school children with disabilities in Uganda: a cross-sectional study’. In: BMC Public Health, No. 14, p. 1017. Retrieved from: https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-14-1017

Kuper, H.; Banks, M.; Kelly, S.; Kyegombe, N.; Devries, K. 2016.
Protect Us! Inclusion of children with disabilities in child protection. Woking: Plan International. Retrieved from: https://plan-international.org/publications/protect-us#download-options

UNESCO. 2019a. Behind the numbers: Ending school violence and bullying. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000366483

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2014. Planning, Monitoring and Evaluation: Webinar 14 – Companion Technical Booklet. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/eca/sites/unicef.org.eca/files/IE_Webinar_Booklet_14.pdf

WHO (World Health Organization). 2011. ‘Chapter 7 Education’. In: World Report on Disability (pp. 203-232). Malta: WHO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/report.pdf

Promising policy options

Legislation, policies, and regulations to enhance the recruitment of teacher with disabilities

First, employment discrimination laws that protect the rights of individuals with disabilities who wish to work in general, and in the education sector, in particular, must be developed and passed (ILO, 2012; UNESCO, 2009d). Such legislation needs to cover retention, selection, promotion, and training aspects, among others (NUT, 2000). It is key to involve multiple stakeholders in the process, such as Disability People’s Organizations DPOs. For instance, the national DPO in Nepal performed various lobbying efforts since 1989 which culminated in supporting persons with disabilities to work as teachers in mainstream schools (Howgego, Miles and Myers, 2014). It is important to work with teacher education institutions, local authorities and schools to ensure they understand the implications of the discrimination law.

Second, it is key to review existing employment regulations, policies, and procedures to ensure no barriers are impeding persons with disabilities to become teachers (Lewis and Bagree, 2013). Some aspects to consider are:

  • Medical eligibility criteria (ILO, 2012; UNICEF, 2014);
  • job advertisements;
  • the application process;
  • the selection criteria used;
  • the interview procedure; and
  • the terms of employment offered (NUT, n.d.: 4).

Indeed, it is essential to ensure that existing employment regulations, policies, and procedures ‘actively encourage and support people with disabilities to train and work as teachers at all levels across the education system’ (Lewis and Bagree, 2013: 22). In certain contexts, a quota-based system might be necessary. For example, Nepal’s Ministry of Education introduced a quota-based system to guarantee the allocation of a certain number of teaching jobs to people with visual impairments. In 2012, 350 teachers with visual impairments worked at mainstream schools around the country (Howgego, Miles, and Myers, 2014).

Other particular strategies include shortlisting candidates with disabilities, such as the experience in East Sussex, United Kingdom, where candidates with disabilities –who meet the required criteria– are automatically short-listed to pass their interviews (ILO, 2012). It is also possible to develop special recruitment policies. For example, in France, persons with disabilities who have the required qualifications to become teachers can be hired on a one-year contract instead of passing the ‘concours’ (exam which must be passed to become a teacher). After that term –and if their performance is satisfactory– they are formally hired as civil servants (ILO, 2012).

A final strategy is to track information related to teachers with disabilities, by tracking how A final strategy is to monitor information related to teachers with disabilities. For instance, track how many persons with disabilities have applied and accessed Teacher Training Institutions, how many have been employed in mainstream schools, among others. It is indispensable to include this information in the EMIS. For instance, South Sudan’s EMIS includes data about teachers with disabilities (South Sudan, 2017).

References
Howgego, C.; Miles, S.; Myers, J. 2014. Inclusive Learning: Children with disabilities and difficulties in learning. Oxford: HEART (Health & Education Advice & Resource Team). Retrieved from: http://www.heart-resources.org/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/Inclusive-Learning-Topic-Guide.pdf?9d29f8=. 

ILO (International Labour Organization). 2012. Handbook of good human resources practices in the teaching profession. Geneva: ILO. Retrieved from: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—sector/documents/publication/wcms_187793.pdf

Lewis, I; Bagree, S. 2013. Teachers for All: Inclusive Teaching for Children with Disabilities. Brussels: IDDC (International Disability and Development Consortium). Retrieved from: https://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/IDDC_Paper_Teachers_for_all.pdf

South Sudan. 2017. Ministry of General Education and Instruction. The General Education Strategic Plan, 2017-2022. Juba: Ministry of General Education and Instruction. Retrieved from: https://www.globalpartnership.org/sites/default/files/general_education_strategic_plan_south_sudan_2017-2022.pdf

UNESCO. 2009d. Towards inclusive education for children with disabilities: A guideline. Bangkok: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0019/001924/192480e.pdf

Ensure teacher education is inclusive and accessible

Teachers with disabilities must be encouraged and supported to participate in teacher training opportunities. This can be done by promoting flexible entry policies for them, such as a flexible enrolment system, as well as ‘catch-up’ courses for candidates who do not meet the required qualifications (Lewis and Bagree, 2013). Moreover, an inclusive environment where discrimination is not tolerated must be promoted within the teacher training institution. Staff, trainers, and trainees need to know about disabilities and inclusive education, as well as be aware of disability legislation.

Other strategies involve investing in support mechanisms, such as creating a ‘Disability Office’ to support teacher trainees throughout their education (Maynooth University, n.d.), and guaranteeing a smooth and fair disclosure process. It is the right of persons with disabilities to disclose this information or not. Yet, by disclosing it they should receive all of the support they are entitled to (Sokal, Woloshyn, and Wilson, 2017). It is essential to promote a supportive, equitable and inclusive environment to ensure that no discrimination will follow the disclosure process.

Finally, it is important to ensure that infrastructure and facilities, assessments, teaching and learning materials are accessible and inclusive (Pinnock and Nichalls, 2012; UNICEF, 2014), and to create links with schools to facilitate school placement experience for teacher students with disabilities (Maynooth University, n.d.).

References
Lewis, I; Bagree, S. 2013. Teachers for All: Inclusive Teaching for Children with Disabilities. Brussels: IDDC (International Disability and Development Consortium). Retrieved from: https://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/IDDC_Paper_Teachers_for_all.pdf

Maynooth University. n.d. Guidelines for Student Teachers with Disabilities. Maynooth: Department of Education, Maynooth University. Retrieved from: https://www.maynoothuniversity.ie/sites/default/files/assets/document/Guidelines_for_supporting_SWD_0.pdf

Pinnock, H.; Nichalls, H. 2012. Global teacher training and inclusion survey: Report for UNICEF Rights, Education and Protection Project (REAP). UNICEF. Retrieved from: http://worldofinclusion.com/v3/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Annex-v_Final.pdf

Sokal, L.; Woloshyn, D.; Wilson, A. 2017. ‘Pre-service Teachers with Disabilities: Challenges and Opportunities for Directors of Student Teaching in Western Canada’. In: The Canadian Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, Vol 8., No. 3. Retrieved from http://ir.lib.uwo.ca/cjsotl_rcacea/vol8/iss3/7

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2014. Legislation and Policies for Inclusive Education: Webinar 3 – Companion Technical Booklet. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/northmacedonia/media/3961/file/MK_InclusiveEducationLegislation_Report_ENG.pdf

Ensure schools welcome, encourage and facilitate the participation of teachers with disabilities

A way of ensuring that schools welcome, encourage, and facilitate the participation of teachers with disabilities is by providing them incentives to promote inclusive hiring practices. This includes ensuring inclusive recruitment procedures (job description, interviews, etc. see above). In case a person with a disability is denied a teaching position in a school, this decision should be justified and taken within a professional panel, including DPOs and/or other teachers with disabilities.

Overall, school ethos should be geared towards addressing discrimination and providing equal opportunities. An ‘Action Plan’ can be developed for this purpose (NUT, n.d.). Within that Action Plan, reasonable accommodation needs to be included. Teachers with disabilities must access their work without being at a substantial disadvantage compared to people without disabilities (NUT, n.d.; ILO, 2012). Although reasonable accommodation depends on individual traits, the following should be considered (NUT, n.d.; ILO, 2012):

  • school’s physical infrastructure should be accessible (for more information consult Policy page School buildings are not ready). Teachers’ place of work if the school’s infrastructure is not accessible For instance, teachers with a physical disability must be given a class on the ground floor when no ramps are available;
  • certain duties should be allocated to other teachers when necessary;
  • employment arrangements, such as altering working hours should be a possibility. For instance, allow teachers with disabilities to teach part-time or to adjust their teaching schedule when needed;
  • teaching materials need to be accessible; and
  • assistive devices should be provided to those who need them.
References
ILO (International Labour Organization). 2012. Handbook of good human resources practices in the teaching profession. Geneva: ILO. Retrieved from: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—sector/documents/publication/wcms_187793.pdf

Maynooth University. n.d. Guidelines for Student Teachers with Disabilities. Maynooth: Department of Education, Maynooth University. Retrieved from: https://www.maynoothuniversity.ie/sites/default/files/assets/document/Guidelines_for_supporting_SWD_0.pdf

NUT (National Union of Teachers). n.d. ‘Our Right to Stay in Work!’ Making reasonable adjustments for disabled teachers. London: NUT. Retrieved from: https://www.inclusivechoice.com/Making%20reasonable%20adjustments%20for%20disabled%20teachers%20(NUT).pdf

Provide incentives to persons with disabilities to join the teaching profession

One way of doing this is by providing resources through government schemes, such as general schemes, to incentivise persons with disabilities to work and to join the teaching profession.  For example, ‘Access to Work’ is a United Kingdom government scheme introduced in 1994. It offers communicators for persons with hearing impairments, a part-time reader or assistance at work for persons with visual impairments, equipment and modifications to existing equipment to meet individual needs, car adaptations and/or as taxi fares for persons who cannot use public transportation, and reasonable accommodations within the workplace, among others (NUT, 2000). It is also possible to provide additional monetary benefits. For instance, the ‘Disability Living Allowance’ in the United Kingdom, is a tax-free benefit given in addition to monthly wages (NUT, 2000).

A different way to incentivise persons with disabilities to join the teaching profession is by providing scholarships. For example, in Mozambique, scholarships are given to individuals with disabilities who wish to become teachers (WHO, 2011). Also, South Sudan’s General Education Strategic Plan 2017-2022 calls upon establishing scholarship funds to attract persons with disabilities to pursue a teaching career (South Sudan, 2017).

Finally, it is key to provide ‘tools’ to support teachers with disabilities who enter the teaching profession. For instance, the United Kingdom’s National Union of Teachers has created a ‘Tool Bag’ for teachers with disabilities.

Overall, for all of these strategies to work, it is important to advertise all of the different benefits available for persons with disabilities aiming to join the teaching profession.

References
South Sudan. 2017. Ministry of General Education and Instruction. The General Education Strategic Plan, 2017-2022. Juba: Ministry of General Education and Instruction. Retrieved from: https://www.globalpartnership.org/sites/default/files/general_education_strategic_plan_south_sudan_2017-2022.pdf

WHO (World Health Organization). 2011. ‘Chapter 7 Education’. In: World Report on Disability (pp. 203-232). Malta: WHO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/report.pdf.

Policies for displaced populations

Research shows that ‘almost without exception, a large-scale influx of refugees or IDPs leads to severe teacher shortages’ (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018: 3). In this context, attracting more candidates into the teaching profession is key to solve teacher supply issues and ensure access to quality educational services to all displaced populations.

Various studies emphasise that in refugee contexts ‘the teacher is the most important in-school factor affecting the quality of education’ as the ‘teacher is sometimes the only resource available to students’ (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018: 9). While the great majority of refugees –two thirds following 2016 UNHCR data– live outside camp settings, insufficient data and research exist on teachers teaching refugees outside those settings (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). This lack of data and research also applies to teachers teaching asylum seekers and asylum-seeker teachers themselves, as well as teachers teaching internally displaced populations (IDP) and IDP teachers themselves.

Based on available information, this section will explore key factors to acknowledge when developing an attractive and comprehensive teacher management policy that enables the recruitment of teachers for displaced populations.

References
Education Development Trust; IIEP-UNESCO. 2018. Teachers of refugees: a review of the literature. Retrieved from: https://www.educationdevelopmenttrust.com/EducationDevelopmentTrust/files/8e/8ebcf77f-4fff-4bba-9635-f40123598f22.pdf

Mendenhall, M; Gomez, S.; Varni, E. 2018. Teaching amidst conflict and displacement: persistent challenges and promising practices for refugee, internally displaced and national teachers. Background paper prepared for the 2019 Global Education Monitoring Report Migration, displacement and education: Building bridges, not walls. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000266080

Promising policy options

Produce quality data to assess teacher supply needs in displacement settings

To ensure an adequate supply of teachers for displaced populations it is key to collect data both on teachers and displaced populations (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018). Such data is particularly important in crisis and developing contexts (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018). The collection of teacher data can be facilitated through the development and implementation of a Teacher Information Management System (TIMS) (IIEP-UNESCO, UNICEF, and Education Development Trust, 2020). In countries where such a system already exists, it is key to ensure that it also tracks information on teachers who teach refugees, asylum seekers, and internally displaced populations.

A TIMS allows to track key data on teachers, such as their (IIEP-UNESCO, UNICEF, and Education Development Trust, 2020; Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018):

  • subject of specialisation;
  • status (if they are national teachers, IDP teachers, refugee or asylum seeker teachers);
  • teacher background, certification and training;
  • gender, linguistic, ethnic and religious background.

All that data is key to ensure effective teacher recruitment, selection, and deployment processes (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). Quality data allows national governments and other key stakeholders involved in the education of displaced populations, such as UN agencies and NGOs, to have a clear picture of how many teachers (UNHCR, 2015; Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018):

  • are available to teach displaced populations;
  • are currently teaching them;
  • are and will be needed.

This data also allows estimating the cost to pay and train these teachers. Moreover, having quality data on teacher supply is key to meet nationally acceptable pupil-teacher ratios, ensure an adequate deployment across regions, and guarantee the recruitment of adequate teacher candidates for grades and subjects with high teacher shortages.

In case there is no TIMS, independent surveys can be conducted to estimate available candidates and teacher supply needs to support the educational demand of displaced populations (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010). Surveys must include information on gender, language, educational qualifications, and teaching experience (including subject and grades taught as well as those the teacher is qualified to teach) (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010: 7). Those surveys can help identify qualified and educated members of the affected community who can get involved in the provision of education (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010).

Concerning IDP populations, data is key to identify and redistribute national teachers ‘to meet the educational needs of the moving population’ (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010: 10). That data should be accompanied by a flexible system that enables teachers’ transfers where IDP populations are and that ensures IDP teachers themselves can still work and receive their salary in the new location (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010). 

In addition to teacher data, it is key to have adequate data on displaced populations. For instance, in Ethiopia, a strategy to improve documentation for refugees will support the general improvement of data on refugee populations (IIEP-UNESCO, UNICEF, and Education Development Trust, 2020). The registration process to get a refugee identification card encourages them to specify their education and skills. This data can be mobilised to identify potential appropriate teacher candidates (IIEP-UNESCO, UNICEF, and Education Development Trust, 2020). Overall, information on the influx of displaced populations is necessary to estimate teacher supply needs.

Finally, for data to be effective it must be updated and disaggregated (UNHCR, 2015). It must also be ‘collected and analysed in a timely fashion’ (IIEP-UNESCO, UNICEF, and Education Development Trust, 2020: 93). Moreover, the indicators used within refugee or IDP settings should be the same as those used by the Ministry of Education for the national education system (IIEP-UNESCO, UNICEF, and Education Development Trust, 2020). This ensures a ‘comparative analysis and ultimately provides a clearer picture of teacher-related issues in refugee [displacement] settings’ (IIEP-UNESCO, UNICEF, and Education Development Trust, 2020: 93).

References
Education Development Trust; IIEP-UNESCO. 2018. Teachers of refugees: a review of the literature. Retrieved from: https://www.educationdevelopmenttrust.com/EducationDevelopmentTrust/files/8e/8ebcf77f-4fff-4bba-9635-f40123598f22.pdf

IIEP-UNESCO. 2010. ‘Chapter 3.1: Identification, selection and recruitment of teachers and education workers’. In: Guidebook for planning education in emergencies and reconstruction (pp.1-24). Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.iiep.unesco.org/sites/default/files/Guidebook%20Chapters/GB_2009_3.1_final.pdf

IIEP-UNESCO; UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund); Education Development Trust. 2020. Teacher management in refugee settings: Ethiopia. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.iiep.unesco.org/en/publication/teacher-management-refugee-settings-ethiopia

Mendenhall, M; Gomez, S.; Varni, E. 2018. Teaching amidst conflict and displacement: persistent challenges and promising practices for refugee, internally displaced and national teachers. Background paper prepared for the 2019 Global Education Monitoring Report Migration, displacement and education: Building bridges, not walls. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000266080

UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). 2015. Refugee teacher management. Education Issue Brief 5. Geneva: UNHCR. Retrieved from: https://www.unhcr.org/publications/education/560be1629/education-brief-5-refugee-teacher-management.html

Harmonise recruitment criteria

Displacement contexts are typically characterised by ‘a fragmented education architecture’ where various actors, including humanitarian agencies and development actors, are involved in educational provision and consequently teacher management (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018: 10). A lack of coordination between all involved actors impedes the adequate recruitment and deployment of teachers for displaced populations (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018). In this context, it is key to bring all involved stakeholders together to ensure the implementation of ‘common, standardized teacher policies and practices’ (UNHCR, 2015: 3). A harmonised framework should guide the recruitment, deployment, compensation, training and professional development opportunities of teachers teaching displaced populations (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018; UNHCR, 2015). Overall, a standardised and transparent teacher management system is essential to attract appropriate teacher candidates for displaced populations and to guarantee their retention in the teaching profession (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). 

Specific criteria for teacher recruitment in displacement contexts must be defined, including teachers’ education level and training, previous teaching experience, the content and pedagogical knowledge required, among others (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010). Countries can ensure the selection of the right teacher candidates by harmonising minimum requirements to enter the profession. Ethiopia has done various efforts in that sense, particularly through its upcoming Education and Training Roadmap (IIEP-UNESCO, UNICEF, and Education Development Trust, 2020).

It is recommended that recruitment criteria also include measures to recognise the qualifications of displaced teachers. To ensure that no valuable resources are being wasted, it is key to implement a ´flexible pathway for certification of displaced teachers, including cross-border recognition of teaching qualifications’ as well as ‘fast track qualifications’ (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018:25). For this to work, it is key to develop and implement standardised teacher accreditation frameworks in collaboration with other countries. Those frameworks should define the types of evidence accepted to prove one’s teaching qualifications or experience and ‘the type of documentation required and the type of teacher training accepted’ to enter the profession (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010: 17).

Although it is important to recruit qualified teachers with recognised credentials, this is not always possible in displacement settings (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). Alternative methods must be provided in case the candidate has lost the required documentation. For instance, it is possible to put in place ‘a standardized interview procedure’ or ‘develop a written test to gauge literacy, numeracy, language skills and if possible, a practical test of teaching proficiency’ (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010: 14). In this regard, NGOs in Pakistan have developed qualification tests for refugee teachers (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). Yet, issues surrounding ‘emergency credentialing’ should be considered as research shows that such a practice can lead to a ‘lack of trust, respect, and accountability and, ultimately, negatively impact the status of teachers’ (Ring and West, 2015: 115).

Overall, recruitment criteria and selection processes must be transparent and meet the needs of displaced populations (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010). Transparency can be ensured by involving key stakeholders, such as community leaders, displaced populations, refugee teachers, IDP teachers, ministry of education representatives, educational authorities at the local level, as well as humanitarian and development partners (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010; Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018). That transparency can also be guaranteed by publicly posting teaching positions, ensuring access to information about the recruitment and selection process, as well as implementing impartial, equitable and inclusive recruitment practices (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018; IIEP-UNESCO, 2010). A ‘constant awareness of ethnic, gender, religious and language considerations in the selection process’ are of utmost importance (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010: 14). This will lead to a diversified teaching force, representative of the community itself (INEE, n.d.).

Other aspects to attract adequate teacher candidates will be analysed below, including teacher profiles, teacher training, and adequate compensation.

References
Education Development Trust; IIEP-UNESCO. 2018. Teachers of refugees: a review of the literature. Retrieved from: https://www.educationdevelopmenttrust.com/EducationDevelopmentTrust/files/8e/8ebcf77f-4fff-4bba-9635-f40123598f22.pdf

IIEP-UNESCO. 2010. ‘Chapter 3.1: Identification, selection and recruitment of teachers and education workers’. In: Guidebook for planning education in emergencies and reconstruction (pp.1-24). Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.iiep.unesco.org/sites/default/files/Guidebook%20Chapters/GB_2009_3.1_final.pdf

IIEP-UNESCO; UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund); Education Development Trust. 2020. Teacher management in refugee settings: Ethiopia. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.iiep.unesco.org/en/publication/teacher-management-refugee-settings-ethiopia

INEE (Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies). n.d. ‘Domain 4: Teachers and Other Education Personnel. Standard 1: Recruitment and Selection’. In: INEE Minimum Standards. Accessed 25 October 2021: https://inee.org/minimum-standards/domain-4-teachers-and-other-education-personnel/standard-1-recruitment-and-selection#guidance-nid7563-1

Mendenhall, M; Gomez, S.; Varni, E. 2018. Teaching amidst conflict and displacement: persistent challenges and promising practices for refugee, internally displaced and national teachers. Background paper prepared for the 2019 Global Education Monitoring Report Migration, displacement and education: Building bridges, not walls. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000266080

Ring, A.; West, H. 2015. ‘Teacher retention in refugee and emergency settings: the state of the literature’. In: International Education Journal: Comparative Perspectives 14 (3), 106–121. Retrieved from: https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1086716

UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). 2015. Refugee teacher management. Education Issue Brief 5. Geneva: UNHCR. Retrieved from: https://www.unhcr.org/publications/education/560be1629/education-brief-5-refugee-teacher-management.html

Advertise teacher recruitment

Teacher recruitment advertisement campaigns can be launched to attract more teacher candidates. There are various strategies to publicise that information, including:

  • ‘Contacting community leaders.
  • Advertising by radio, newspaper, or television.
  • Making announcements at community gathering points such as markets or churches.
  • Creating basic recruitment posters.
  • Developing specific advertising strategies for women and minority groups (for example, advertising in women’s hairdressing salons in Africa’ (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010: 15).

The advertisement campaign must specify the harmonised recruitment criteria, including (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010):

  • the required qualifications and/or teaching experience;
  • the required background aspects, such as gender and languages;
  • the compensation;
  • a complete description of the job and associated responsibilities, among others.
References
IIEP-UNESCO. 2010. ‘Chapter 3.1: Identification, selection and recruitment of teachers and education workers’. In: Guidebook for planning education in emergencies and reconstruction (pp.1-24). Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.iiep.unesco.org/sites/default/files/Guidebook%20Chapters/GB_2009_3.1_final.pdf

Understand who teaches displaced children and address key challenges

Teacher supply in refugee and IDP situations is particularly hybrid, composed of national (and host community) teachers, internally displaced teachers, as well as refugee (and asylum seeker) teachers (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018). Teacher recruitment should be dependent on context and based on the needs of the displaced community (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). In this sense, it is key to acknowledge and address different deterrents, including legal, policy and administrative ones, impeding an adequate pool of quality teacher candidates for displaced populations (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018; Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018).

In many host countries, refugee teachers are not legally allowed to work for a salary, leading them to work only as volunteers, ‘incentive teachers’ or teacher assistants, receiving ´incentives´ (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018; Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). Those legal impediments block qualified and trained refugee teachers to join the public education system’s workforce (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018; Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). Moreover, in many contexts, existing barriers push adequate teacher candidates away, towards other sectors (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018).

To address those issues, various countries have put in place measures to ensure refugees’ right to work. For example, in Uganda refugees can work after competent authorities recognise their credentials (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). In Turkey, a decree was issued to allow Syrian refugees to obtain work permits (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). Moreover, conjoint actions, such as the Djibouti Declaration on Regional Refugee Education and its Plan of Action on Refugee Education, calls upon signatories to ‘[s]trengthen regional frameworks to promote the inclusion of refugee teachers, and their professional development and certification, in national education systems and support of equivalency’ (IGAD, 2017: 2).

Other initiatives include the Refugee Teacher Programme, launched by the University of Potsdam in Germany to ensure refugee teachers can work and serve as ´bridge-builders between German schools and new arrivals’ (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018: 16). In Chad, refugee teachers can also become certified teachers authorised to work in public schools after completing teacher training (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018).

IDP teachers, even though they are national teachers, face various administrative barriers as well, challenging their work as teachers in the new location. Research shows that IDP teachers ‘often experience difficulties being re-deployed in their host community, collecting salaries, and claiming basic entitlements and benefits’ (Dolan et al., 2012 as cited in Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018: 16). Indeed, in many countries ‘internally displaced teachers continue to be managed from their district of origin, even when education offices are adversely affected by conflict or disaster’ (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018: 6). It is key that decision-makers acknowledge those barriers and find pertinent solutions to guarantee IDP teachers continue to work in the new location.

Various studies highlight the importance of selecting teachers from the affected community given their comprehension of social, economic, political and displacement issues, as well as their knowledge of displaced populations’ mother tongue and academic background (INEE, n.d.; IIEP-UNESCO, 2010; Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018; Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018). Yet, recruiting host communities and national teacher candidates is also appropriate, as they can ‘bring good knowledge of the national curriculum and education system. They can serve as leaders in schools, build capacity of unqualified refugee teachers and provide a much needed boost to quality teaching and learning’ (UNHCR, 2015: 6). They can also foster positive relations between the displaced populations and the host communities and enhance displaced population’s knowledge of the language of instruction in the host country (INEE, n.d.).

Research highlights the difficulty of finding national teachers willing to teach in displacement settings, particularly due to the associated challenges, such as high teacher-pupil ratios, remote locations, tough working conditions, among others (IIEP-UNESCO, UNICEF, and Education Development Trust, 2020; UNHCR, 2015). UNHCR’s brief (2015) highlights that to motivate national teachers to teach displaced populations it is key to provide support and incentives, and ‘promote links with refugee teachers or community members to facilitate understanding of refugee communities’ educational background, displacement experience and assist with language, culture, religion’ (UNHCR, 2015: 6).

Overall, the final decision should not rely on choosing between displaced teachers and national teachers, but rather addressing existing barriers impeding the mobilisation of all potential teacher candidates to ensure an adequate teacher supply for all displaced populations.

References
Education Development Trust; IIEP-UNESCO. 2018. Teachers of refugees: a review of the literature. Retrieved from: https://www.educationdevelopmenttrust.com/EducationDevelopmentTrust/files/8e/8ebcf77f-4fff-4bba-9635-f40123598f22.pdf

IGAD (Inter-Governmental Authority on Development). 2017. [Annex to the Djibouti Declaration on Regional Refugee Education] Djibouti Plan of Action on Refugee Education in IGAD Member States. Retrieved from: https://globalcompactrefugees.org/sites/default/files/2019-12/IGAD%20Djibouti%20Plan%20of%20Action%20on%20Education%20(2017).pdf

IIEP-UNESCO. 2010. ‘Chapter 3.1: Identification, selection and recruitment of teachers and education workers’. In: Guidebook for planning education in emergencies and reconstruction (pp.1-24). Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.iiep.unesco.org/sites/default/files/Guidebook%20Chapters/GB_2009_3.1_final.pdf

IIEP-UNESCO; UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund); Education Development Trust. 2020. Teacher management in refugee settings: Ethiopia. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.iiep.unesco.org/en/publication/teacher-management-refugee-settings-ethiopia

INEE (Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies). n.d. ‘Domain 4: Teachers and Other Education Personnel. Standard 1: Recruitment and Selection’. In: INEE Minimum Standards. Accessed 25 October 2021: https://inee.org/minimum-standards/domain-4-teachers-and-other-education-personnel/standard-1-recruitment-and-selection#guidance-nid7563-1

Mendenhall, M; Gomez, S.; Varni, E. 2018. Teaching amidst conflict and displacement: persistent challenges and promising practices for refugee, internally displaced and national teachers. Background paper prepared for the 2019 Global Education Monitoring Report Migration, displacement and education: Building bridges, not walls. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000266080

UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). 2015. Refugee teacher management. Education Issue Brief 5. Geneva: UNHCR. Retrieved from: https://www.unhcr.org/publications/education/560be1629/education-brief-5-refugee-teacher-management.html

Provide teacher training to displaced populations’ teachers

Training opportunities must be provided to ensure teacher candidates are adequately prepared for the job. Ministries of Education and partners involved in the training of teachers of displaced populations should consider the following strategies to ensure access to teacher training and teacher qualification:

  • Collaborate with teacher training institutions and universities and provide more scholarships to teacher training (UNHCR, 2015);
  • Provide distance training programmes. This type of training requires more effort from the teacher, yet, it is a cost-effective option, particularly as teachers may pursue their duties throughout the training (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018; UNHCR, 2015) (for more information consult the general section of the present Policy Page).
  • Negotiate with the ‘MoE or universities to allow for stackable credit for on-site, short-term training or courses which can lead to qualification’ (UNHCR, 2015: 5).

Providing training requires resources and support. The Ministry of Education must collaborate with the training institutions, as well as development and humanitarian partners, to ensure that teachers working with displaced populations benefit from training opportunities. For instance, South Sudan’s Education Sector Plan (2012-2017) developed a training certification mechanism for national teachers and teachers working in displacement settings (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). Kenya has put in place measures to ensure untrained refugee teachers obtain the P1 Diploma and Early Childhood Development Certificates (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). In Ethiopia ‘Colleges of Teacher Education (CTEs) in refugee-hosting regions have been involved in the provision of continuing professional development (CPD) and in-service diploma courses for refugee teachers’ (IIEP-UNESCO, UNICEF, and Education Development Trust, 2020: 7). Overall, providing official or formal training to teachers of displaced populations is key ‘so they can eventually join the regular teaching force’ (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018: 47).

Providing higher education opportunities to displaced populations is also a keen strategy to create a new cohort of teachers (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). In this regard, the Borderless Higher Education for Refugees consortium has been working with various partners in Dadaab, such as Windle Trust Kenya, Kenyatta University, and World University Service of Kenya, to provide physical and online courses and certificates to refugees.

Providing in-service professional development opportunities to teachers of displaced populations is also key, particularly in emergencies (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). Various initiatives have been developed in this sense, for instance, the TiCC (Teachers in Crisis Contexts) Training Pack developed by INEE, Teachers College of Columbia University and other contributors, piloted in Kakuma, is now being implemented in Bangladesh, Jordan, South Sudan, and Uganda (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). TiCC is ‘a free, open-source tool that offers a multi-pronged form of professional development, incorporating in person training, ongoing peer coaching and teacher learning circles, and mobile monitoring, using WhastApp’ (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018: 50). While those training opportunities do not lead to national certification, they are still essential to ensure teachers on the ground have the necessary knowledge and support to meet the educational needs of displaced populations (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018).

To explore further

To learn more about the teacher training initiative launched by Teachers College of Columbia University consult:

References
Barragan, J.; Rocca, J. 2017. Mobile Learning Week: 5 innovations for education in emergencies and crises. Retrieved from: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/blog/mobile-learning-week-5-innovations-for-education-in-emergencies-and-crises

Teachers College Columbia University. N.d. Training. Accessed 9 November 2021: https://www.tc.columbia.edu/refugeeeducation/projects/teachers-for-teachers/training/
References
Education Development Trust; IIEP-UNESCO. 2018. Teachers of refugees: a review of the literature. Retrieved from: https://www.educationdevelopmenttrust.com/EducationDevelopmentTrust/files/8e/8ebcf77f-4fff-4bba-9635-f40123598f22.pdf

IIEP-UNESCO; UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund); Education Development Trust. 2020. Policy brief: Ensuring the effective management of primary-level teachers in refugee settings in Ethiopia. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000374915/PDF/374915eng.pdf.multi

UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). 2015. Refugee teacher management. Education Issue Brief 5. Geneva: UNHCR. Retrieved from: https://www.unhcr.org/publications/education/560be1629/education-brief-5-refugee-teacher-management.html

Competitive salaries, incentives, and benefits

As explained in the general section of the present Policy page, one of the main deterrents that prevent qualified candidates from entering the teaching profession is the lack of adequate salary and remuneration. Increasing teacher salaries is key to improving the status of the teaching profession, attracting qualified candidates to teach displaced populations, and ultimately improving the quality of teaching and displaced children’s learning outcomes. 

An appropriate payment structure for teachers working with displaced populations, including teachers with a displacement status themselves, should be established (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). Research shows that in many contexts refugee teachers ‘earn less than a living wage’ (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018: 57). Even though resources are limited, it is key to ensure competitive salaries and benefits, not only to attract and keep appropriate teacher candidates but also to ensure quality learning opportunities for displaced children. The present section will analyse the various issues regarding IDP teachers and refugee teachers’ compensation and different strategies to address them.

Internally displaced populations, although on the payroll, face various challenges when it comes to collecting their salary ‘outside their district of origin’ (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018: 9). This is due to the fact that ‘governments often register teachers to work in a specific region and their salaries do not necessarily follow them if they move’ (IIEP-UNESCO, 2010: 2). To ensure that IDP teachers do not leave the teaching profession, and thus ensure enough quality teacher candidates for displaced populations, decision-makers should acknowledge and address administrative issues affecting them.

Concerning refugee teachers, the situation is very complex as well, as in many contexts they are not legally allowed to work or gain a salary (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018). Instead, they are usually paid small ‘incentives’ or stipends. Research shows that in ‘in camp settings teachers often earn the same amount as other unskilled workers in less demanding jobs’ pushing potential teacher candidates away (Dadaab Education Working Group, 2013; Ring and West, 2015 as cited in Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018: 10). In addition, ‘incentive payment scales typically do not provide increments that account for qualifications, experience, and cost of living’ (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018: 10).

Moreover, in displacement contexts, many stakeholders are involved in teacher management, and there is usually a lack of harmonisation among them regarding teacher compensation (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018; Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). This factor causes many inconveniences, including tensions between teachers and partners (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018). To tackle this issue, ‘equitable, graduated and sustainable’ incentive scales that ‘reflect qualifications, experience, teaching hours and performance’ are needed (as Talbot advocates, cited by Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018: 56). Partners must work together towards harmonising the compensation for different professions (UNHCR, 2015; Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018). In this regard, the Education Cluster in Erbil, Iraq, ‘brought partners together to agree on a coordinated incentive scale with standards rates for teachers and other types of workers’ (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018). Turkey’s Ministry of Education, with the support of UNICEF, has implemented a ‘standardised incentive scheme for Syrian “volunteer” teachers’ (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018: 56). In Lebanon, the Education Working Group has developed a standardised incentive scale as well (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018).

It is also key to analyse and compare compensation given to national teachers and that of refugee teachers to make them equitable so that no tensions arise among them. For instance, Ethiopia’s Education and Training Roadmap aims to ‘conduct a thorough comparative analysis of the compensation package for national teachers in host communities, national (ARRA) teachers and refugee teachers’ to recognise disparities in remuneration (IIEP-UNESCO, UNICEF, and Education Development Trust, 2020: 101).

Concerning national teacher candidates, it is also key to attract them into teaching displaced populations, particularly in camp settings. Research shows that ‘without [a] higher salary, many national teachers would not choose to work in refugee camps’, particularly since in camp settings they do not have the opportunity to supplement their income (IIEP-UNESCO, UNICEF, and Education Development Trust, 2020: 95).

To increase and ensure a sufficient supply of teachers in displacement settings, it is key to mobilise new funding approaches and initiatives with international partners, while fostering a ‘paradigm shift that prioritizes high levels of multi-year funding for teachers’ (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018: 11). Strategies such as ‘budget support, multi-donor trust funds (MDTFs) and pooled funding for joint programmes can help fund government expenditures for salaries’ (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018: 59).

In addition to incentives or salaries, it is key to provide other non-monetary benefits to ensure and attract teacher candidates into teaching displaced populations, particularly in camp settings. Even though there is a lack of research on non-monetary compensation within displacement contexts, various strategies exist to motivate teachers such as providing housing, transportation, electricity, and in-kind benefits such as additional rations (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018).

(For more information about non-monetary benefits consult the general section of the present Policy page).  

References
Education Development Trust; IIEP-UNESCO. 2018. Teachers of refugees: a review of the literature. Retrieved from: https://www.educationdevelopmenttrust.com/EducationDevelopmentTrust/files/8e/8ebcf77f-4fff-4bba-9635-f40123598f22.pdf

IIEP-UNESCO. 2010. ‘Chapter 3.1: Identification, selection and recruitment of teachers and education workers’. In: Guidebook for planning education in emergencies and reconstruction (pp.1-24). Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.iiep.unesco.org/sites/default/files/Guidebook%20Chapters/GB_2009_3.1_final.pdf

IIEP-UNESCO; UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund); Education Development Trust. 2020. Teacher management in refugee settings: Ethiopia. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.iiep.unesco.org/en/publication/teacher-management-refugee-settings-ethiopia

Mendenhall, M; Gomez, S.; Varni, E. 2018. Teaching amidst conflict and displacement: persistent challenges and promising practices for refugee, internally displaced and national teachers. Background paper prepared for the 2019 Global Education Monitoring Report Migration, displacement and education: Building bridges, not walls. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000266080

UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). 2015. Refugee teacher management. Education Issue Brief 5. Geneva: UNHCR. Retrieved from: https://www.unhcr.org/publications/education/560be1629/education-brief-5-refugee-teacher-management.html

Other policy options

Contract teachers, volunteers, and teacher assistants

To respond to teacher shortages, teacher supply in refugee and IDP settings is ‘characterized by mixed employment conditions, including teachers employed through the state teacher service, hired on short-term contracts, enlisted as volunteers, or recruited as “incentive” teachers from the community and paid a nominal stipend for their work’ (Ring and West, 2015; Kirk and Winthrop, 2007, cited by Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018: 5). These teachers often have fewer qualifications and training, plus they receive lower salaries than national teachers and have no access to benefits such as pensions or social security (Mendenhall, Gomez, and Varni, 2018; Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018).

That mix of employment conditions is sometimes necessary to ensure a sufficient teacher supply. It works as a short-term, flexible solution. Yet, it raises clear quality issues, as well as a concern that a dual system could be created, further harming the overall esteem of the teaching profession (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). In cases where this panoply of teachers is hired to meet the educational demands of displaced populations, professional development and training should be provided as well as opportunities for them to become fully qualified (UNHCR, 2015).

References
Education Development Trust; IIEP-UNESCO. 2018. Teachers of refugees: a review of the literature. Retrieved from: https://www.educationdevelopmenttrust.com/EducationDevelopmentTrust/files/8e/8ebcf77f-4fff-4bba-9635-f40123598f22.pdf

Mendenhall, M; Gomez, S.; Varni, E. 2018. Teaching amidst conflict and displacement: persistent challenges and promising practices for refugee, internally displaced and national teachers. Background paper prepared for the 2019 Global Education Monitoring Report Migration, displacement and education: Building bridges, not walls. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000266080

UNHCR (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees). 2015. Refugee teacher management. Education Issue Brief 5. Geneva: UNHCR. Retrieved from: https://www.unhcr.org/publications/education/560be1629/education-brief-5-refugee-teacher-management.html

Alternative and flexible entries to the teaching profession

To address teacher shortages, it is possible to consider alternative pathways into the teaching profession. For instance, national apprentices could be hired ‘initially to work at lower costs and subsequently providing them with incentives including accelerated career pathways to the teaching profession’ (IIEP-UNESCO, UNICEF, and Education Development Trust, 2020: 10). Volunteers or assistant teachers, particularly from the displaced community, can be hired to work together with national teachers. For example, research done in Jordanian camps highlighted how Syrian assistant teachers ‘help[ed] smooth the transition to the new curriculum, mediate between children and help new Jordanian teachers in large classes’ (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018). It is also possible to recruit language assistant teachers, to ensure students can learn in their mother tongue while being introduced to the host community language (IIEP-UNESCO, UNICEF, and Education Development Trust, 2020).

In case volunteer or assistant teachers are working together with national teachers, ‘the World Bank recommends clarifying the role of volunteer teachers and encouraging the development of mentoring partnerships between experienced and volunteer teachers’ (Education Development Trust and IIEP-UNESCO, 2018: 39). These strategies can help bring in more appropriate candidates into the teaching profession in the long term –if the host country’s legal and administrative procedures allow it– while providing immediate support to national teachers working in displacement settings. 

References
Education Development Trust; IIEP-UNESCO. 2018. Teachers of refugees: a review of the literature. Retrieved from: https://www.educationdevelopmenttrust.com/EducationDevelopmentTrust/files/8e/8ebcf77f-4fff-4bba-9635-f40123598f22.pdf

IIEP-UNESCO; UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund); Education Development Trust. 2020. Teacher management in refugee settings: Ethiopia. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.iiep.unesco.org/en/publication/teacher-management-refugee-settings-ethiopia

Policies for minority populations

All of the policies and strategies recommended in the general section of the present Policy page apply to this category as well.

Promising policy options

Building academic support strategies for minority teacher candidates

To provide minority teacher candidates with appropriate academic support, it is important to conduct individual, diagnostic student assessments to help them choose appropriate courses as well as determine the amount and types of support services required to improve their skills. For example, personalised academic advising can help guide teacher candidates in their course selection. Tutoring services can help candidates understand course content better. Study and test-taking skills can also be taught through a course or several sessions with pertinent follow-ups. Overall, it is key to monitor the candidate’s progress continually to ensure a positive outcome.

‘Mentoring is another area that researchers and students have identified as a key support for minority teacher candidates’ (Judith et al., 2004: 91). Yet, for various reasons, this is an aspect where minorities are underrepresented (Judit et al., 2004). It is key to pay particular attention to this issue and ensure inclusive systems so that minority students do access adequate mentoring opportunities throughout their teaching studies.

Universities also need to provide teaching and training with greater cultural awareness and provide candidates with hands-on, real-world experiences through systems such as internships and volunteer work. Identifying these courses or activities and evaluating their components and outcomes is key to prepare successful teachers.

References
Ingersoll, R., May, H., & Collins, G. 2017. Minority teacher recruitment, employment, and retention: 1987 to 2013. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from: https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Minority_Teacher_Recruitment_REPORT.pdf

Judith, T; Janet, S; Nancy, L. P.; Lydia, C. 2004. Minority teacher Recruitment, Development, and Retention. The Education Alliance. Brown University. Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED484676.pdf

Zeichner, K. M. 2003. The adequacies and inadequacies of three current strategies to recruit, prepare, and retain the best teachers for all students. Teachers College RecordRetrieved from: https://www.academia.edu/25558221/The_Adequacies_and_Inadequacies_of_Three_Current_Strategies_to_Recruit_Prepare_and_Retain_the_Best_Teachers_for_All_Students

Favourable policies for High School to Teacher College Partnership

Studies reviewed ‘the demographic distribution of minorities at various points along the teacher pipeline and concluded that numerous potential teachers are lost before college preparation even begins’ (Mitchell et al., 2000 as cited in Judith et al., 2004: 63). This finding supports the contention that recruitment programs must reach middle and high schools to strengthen awareness and promote interest in teaching as a career. To do so, colleges and universities with teacher education programmes need to create partnerships with school districts.

As explained by Judith et al. (2004), these partnerships should comprise the following elements:

  • Forming clubs in school to promote Future Teachers;
  • creating student awareness programmes that focus on teaching as a career;
  • tutoring experiences for after-school programmes;
  • providing hands-on campus experience for middle and high school students;
  • providing residential campus experiences during the summer months;
  • providing scholarships and other financial incentives for graduating seniors, with reciprocal agreements built-in;
  • providing individual counselling and career counselling;
  • providing assistance with critical thinking skills and test-taking skills;
  • organising workshops to promote cultural awareness and cultural inclusivity;
  • providing various expanded internship placements; and
  • organising group activities involving searches for funding opportunities to finance teacher recruitment programmes.

In the United States, various programmes have been developed to promote minority populations’ interest in teaching as a career. This is the case of projects such as the South Carolina Minority Access to Teacher Education and the Aide-to-Teacher Project.

The South Carolina Minority Access to Teacher Education (MATE) ‘began as a teacher recruitment initiative in 1987 and is designed to motivate rural, minority high school students to attend college and pursue degrees in education’ (Judith et al, 2004: 65). This programme provides forgivable loans to minority students at Benedict College who choose to major in education. It also provides individualised support to teacher students throughout the programme.

The Aide-to-Teacher Project’s goal is to recruit culturally diverse paraprofessional classroom aides to the teaching workforce. This programme was developed on California State University campuses, in close collaboration with seven local school districts. ‘The program provides paraprofessionals with the financial, academic, and personal support they need to continue employment as classroom aides while completing their undergraduate degrees and obtaining their teaching credentials’ (Judith et al, 2004: 67). Additionally, once they become eligible teachers, the programme supports participants to be hired by one of the seven school districts as ‘full-time teachers’ (Judith et al., 2004: 67).

References
Ingersoll, R., May, H., & Collins, G. 2017. Minority teacher recruitment, employment, and retention: 1987 to 2013. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from: https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Minority_Teacher_Recruitment_REPORT.pdf

Judith, T; Janet, S; Nancy, L. P.; Lydia, C. 2004. Minority teacher Recruitment, Development, and Retention. The Education Alliance. Brown University. Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED484676.pdf

United States of America State Education Resource Centre. 2014. Minority teachers in Connecticut: A Durational Shortage Area, Technical Report. Retrieved from: https://ctserc.org/documents/misc/equity-2017-09-20-minority-teachers.pdf

Other policy options

Provide support to minority teacher recruitment

To reach minority populations and motivate them to become teachers, it is key to identify target populations and develop strong marketing and outreach programmes. Additionally, research done in the United States suggests that developing ‘alternative route certification’ programmes could solve the minority teacher shortage issue (Judith et al., 2004). Yet, it should be kept in mind that alternative certificate programmes vary widely from place to place, particularly due to a lack of clear standards which is why this type of programme has raised so many concerns. In this regard, ‘[p]roponents of alternative certification point out that it will diversify the teaching workforce by attracting more men, minorities, and mature workers, whereas opponents argue that it will lower standards and negatively affect student learning (Darling-Hammond, 1999)’ (Judith et al., 2004: 69).    

Overall, research shows that the ‘[m]ost successful minority recruitment programs that provide alternative certification have some combination of the following characteristics’ (Judith et al., 2004: 69): 

  • include a diverse talent pool, composed of teacher assistants, substitute teachers without certification, provisionally certified teachers, as well as people who wish to change of career;
  • ensure diverse admission criteria which allow expanding the recruitment net;
  • are composed of motivated candidates wishing to become teachers for life;
  • are composed of participants over 30 years old and who have been out of college for over 10 years;
  • provide flexible course schedules to accommodate participants who already work;
  • ensure multicultural curricula including practical, hands-on teaching experiences;
  • include courses with an emphasis on urban education, multicultural education, special education, and science and mathematics;
  • provide financial incentives such as scholarships, teaching assistantships, loan forgiveness, and stipends, among others;
  • provide enhanced support services such as individual and group counselling, mentoring, and orientation for families of participants;
  • provide academic support such as tutoring and special sessions arranged when necessary on topics such as study skills and test-taking skills; and
  • ensure support to prepare for teaching exams.
References
Ingersoll, R., May, H., & Collins, G. 2017. Minority teacher recruitment, employment, and retention: 1987 to 2013. Palo Alto, CA: Learning Policy Institute. Retrieved from: https://learningpolicyinstitute.org/sites/default/files/product-files/Minority_Teacher_Recruitment_REPORT.pdf

Judith, T; Janet, S; Nancy, L. P.; Lydia, C. 2004. Minority teacher Recruitment, Development, and Retention. The Education Alliance. Brown University. Retrieved from: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED484676.pdf

United States of America State Education Resource Centre. 2014. Minority teachers in Connecticut: A Durational Shortage Area, Technical Report. Retrieved from: https://ctserc.org/documents/misc/equity-2017-09-20-minority-teachers.pdf
Updated on 2022-01-25

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