‘Absence without permission’ (ADEA and WGEMPS, n.d.: 2). Truancy ‘varies across countries depending on the monitoring systems in place and the accountability of the head teacher’ (ADEA and WGEMPS, n.d.: 2).

ADEA (Association for Development of Education in Africa) WGEMPS (Working Group on Education Management and Policy Support). n.d. Policy Brief, Reducing Teacher Absenteeism: Solutions for Africa. Harare: ADEA WGEMPS. Retrieved from:

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