There is a wide range of arrangements under the term contract teachers, ‘including volunteers, parents, community members, student teachers, recent trainees fulfilling national services obligations, expatriate teachers, retired teachers. In some countries, contract teachers [are] paid precariously through the communities, through the parents, leading to uncertain salary conditions. In other countries, there [are] much more formally-instituted government approaches to contract teacher hiring and payment’ (Chudgar, Muralidharan and Honeyman, 2017).
Chudgar, A.; Muralidharan, K.; Honeyman, C. 2017. Contract teachers: effective policy solution or inadequate response to deeper problems? IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. Accessed 21 April 2020: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/blog/contract-teachers-effective-policy-solution-or-inadequate-response-to-deeper-problems