Methods in which direct observation transforms qualitative data –more specifically certain classroom behaviours– into quantitative data. Some examples are: Stallings, CLASS, POCET, TIPPS, MELQO, SSME, Tangerine: Tutor and Simple interactions.
The World Bank. 2017. The Stallings classroom observation system. Accessed 9 April 2018: https://www.worldbank.org/en/programs/sief-trust-fund/brief/the-stallings-classroom-snapshot
Pouezevara, S.; Pflepsen, A.; Nordstrum, L.; King, S.; Gove, A. 2016. Measures of quality through classroom observation for Sustainable Development Goals: Lessons from low-and-middle-income countries. Paris: RTI International. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002458/245841E.pdf