‘Normally conducted system-wide. These commonly serve to make or influence decisions by the system, a school, and, in the case of examinations, the child and her/his parents about their continued education or training and of their post-education professional and social roles. They may also serve to hold teachers, schools, districts and other responsible actors accountable for their students’ learning outcomes…‘Census-based’ signifies that the assessment is administered to all students fitting the test criteria (e.g., for a certain grade level) within the full population of schools of the administering entity (e.g., a national ministry or a district)’ (Muskin, 2017: 7).
Muskin, J.A. 2017. Continuous Assessment for Improved Teaching and Learning: A Critical Review to Inform Policy and Practice. Geneva: IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0025/002555/255511e.pdf