Teacher behavior

Teacher behaviour is representative of both, the course content taught by them and the student outcomes. The way teachers represent themselves makes an impression on parents, teachers, colleagues, and the school administration. The student’s desire of attending school can also be dependent on the way the class is conducted by the teachers. The positive behaviour imparted by the teacher is one of the first set of characteristics to look for in an effective teacher.

Some of the characteristics that could result in inappropriate teacher behaviour include:

  • Believes that teaching is just a job.
  • Arrives late to school and class on a regular basis (for more information see Policy page Teacher absenteeism).
  • Has numerous classroom discipline problems.
  • Not sensitive to a student’s diversity, culture, or heritage.
  • Expresses bias (positive or negative) regarding students.
  • Works on paperwork during class rather than working with students.
  • Has parents complaining about what is going on in the classroom and fails to acknowledge students and parents’ concerns.
  • Uses inappropriate language and demeans or ridicules students.
  • Exhibits defensive behaviour for no apparent reason and lacks conflict resolution skills.
  • Is confrontational with students and does not accept responsibility for what occurs in the classroom.
  • Controlling behaviour within the classroom.

Strategies should thus be put in place to ensure adequate teachers’ behaviour.

References
Milner, R.M.; Tenore, F.B. 2010. ‘Classroom Management in Diverse Classrooms’. In: Urban Education. Vol.45(5), 560–603. Retrieved from: http://bottemabeutel.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Milner-Tenore_CM-in-diverse-classrooms.pdf

Promising policy options

Controlling behaviour in class

The classroom environment is said to be controlling when the teachers refuse to provide any rationale behind their teaching methodology and their actions, along with asserting their point of view onto the students. Classroom management and meeting the needs of diverse learners is about students’ opportunities to learn in a context. Teachers should work to manage student learning opportunities not to control students. The latter approach, where teachers spend their energy attempting to control students, reinforces hegemonic systems that can teach students to become complacent rather than critically engaged citizens (Milner and Tenore, 2010).

There is a need for a multidimensional instrument to measure the teacher controlling behaviour by tapping the extent to which students perceive their teacher to engage in a variety of controlling behaviours during teacher-student interactions (Milner and Tenore, 2010).

Provide opportunities for teachers to improve their classroom management and also provide them with instructional practices for working with the students in front of them. This can help them engage students and avoid misunderstandings and reactive situations (for more information consult Policy page Classroom practices).

Provide a compulsory educational or coaching program to enhance instructional leadership skills. School leaders need to build stronger curriculum and instructional leadership identities; when a stronger focus on curriculum and instruction is in place, punishment referrals decrease.

Increase community participation by giving families and community members meaningful opportunities to be involved. Teachers learn more about students’ needs and interests from their family members (for more information consult Policy page Relationship between schools and their community).

There should be strict disciplinary actions taken if the teachers engage in the following:

  • ridicule, sarcasm or remarks likely to undermine a pupil’s self-confidence should not be used in any circumstances; and
  • the use of corporal punishment is forbidden as well as any type of school-related violence, including school-related gender-based violence (For more information consult Policy page School-related violence).
References
Milner, R.M.; Tenore, F.B. 2010. ‘Classroom Management in Diverse Classrooms’. In: Urban Education. Vol.45(5), 560–603. Retrieved from: http://bottemabeutel.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Milner-Tenore_CM-in-diverse-classrooms.pdf

Teacher training

Recruited teachers need to be continuously trained (in-service teacher training) to ensure that they are in accordance with the international standards. Teachers should go through a series of workshops for gender-sensitivity for a better understanding of the gendered dimensions of school and classroom interactions. In addition to gender sensitivity, teachers should also be equipped to handle sexual harassment and eliminate it by practicing gender-equitable teaching and gender-responsive coursework (For more information consult Gender section below as well as Policy pages School climate and School-related violence).

The initial teacher education should make the classroom experience a compulsory training process. This school-based experience and community work would help improve the teaching quality, especially in rural areas.

Regular supervision and on-going training have the potential to address knowledge gaps and upgrade and reinforce acquired skills. Teachers need on-going support to help them adapt to new approaches via workshops, distance learning, and in-class support. Teachers should be provided with mentors who can assist them once they start teaching in schools, particularly in poorer countries where teachers have limited prior practical experience.

Programmes such as ‘Teach for All’ adopted by some countries provide alternative pathways into the teaching careers while ensuring that the ones who enrol in this programme are highly qualified young professionals with strong subject knowledge. This also ensures high performing graduates to teach in schools that predominantly serve disadvantaged students and schools which cannot attract trained teachers.

Teacher recruitment and skills

The quality of an education system is only as good as the quality of its teachers. People should enter the profession having received a good education themselves, having completed at least secondary schooling of appropriate quality and relevance for a sound knowledge of the subjects which they will be teaching. Policy-makers need to focus their attention also on achieving the right mix of teachers, including recruiting teachers from underrepresented groups (For more information on these subjects see Policy pages Appropriate candidates; Teaching skills, and Content knowledge).

Teachers should be able to use the right content, language, and strategies in their teaching that helps all the students, irrespective of their gender or background, and to assess every student’s learning capability and are reflective and open to learning and adapting to their needs (for more information consult Policy page Student learning assessments).

Finally, teachers should also be able to work in collaboration with other teachers, parents and the community (for more information consult Policy page Relationship between schools and their community).

Creating a more Inclusive Learning-Friendly Environment (ILFE) Schools

The government should ensure that there are regular workshops that provide assistance/support for improving the understanding of teachers on inclusive education (for more information see Policy page Individual learning needs), with regular professional training and support for improving their understanding of subject matter and developing pedagogical materials for making classrooms more interactive (consult Policy page Content knowledge). Teachers should also receive on-going support from the administration through regular observation, evaluation, and a written supervisory plan.

School academic content and assessment

Teachers usually end up using locally available resources for teaching, which may have their biases towards gender differences, ethnic minorities, religion, among others. Teachers should be involved in developing the course curriculum on a yearly basis which promotes inclusive learning.

The school curriculum should allow for different teaching methods which include discussion and role-play. The curriculum should be aligned with the needs of every student in the class, including their cultural and economic differences. For example, the curriculum material should include pictures, examples, and information from different sections of society, including girls, women, ethnic minorities, people from different castes, social and economic backgrounds and as well as people with disabilities.

Teachers should engage in providing additional tutoring provided to those students who face difficulties in reviewing the course material that is being used in class and should be trained to develop various assessment tools to measure every student’s knowledge and learning level, rather than depending upon examination scores. Finally, teachers should be encouraged to observe each other and give constructive feedback.

References
INTO (Irish National Teachers’ Organisation). 2004. Managing Challenging Behaviour: Guidelines for Teachers. Dublin: INTO. Retrieved from: https://www.into.ie/ROI/Publications/ApproachesTeachingand Learning.pdf

UNESCO. 2013a. Education for All 2013-2014: Teaching and learning: Achieving quality for all. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002256/225660e.pdf

UNESCO. 2015c. Embracing Diversity: Toolkit for creating inclusive, learning-friendly environments- Specialized booklet 3: Teaching children with disabilities in inclusive settings. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001829/182975e.pdf

Culturally Responsive Classroom

It is important to extend the notion of culturally responsive classroom management considering the ethnic background of the teachers and students (see Annex 1).

*For more on this subject, consult Policy page Socio-cultural barriers to schooling.

Annex 1

Culturally responsive classroom management

Source: Milner, R.M.; Tenore, F.B. 2010. ‘Classroom Management in Diverse Classrooms’. In: Urban Education. Vol. 45(5), 598. Retrieved from: http://bottemabeutel.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/Milner-Tenore_CM-in-diverse-classrooms.pdf

Teacher Absenteeism

Intensify the relationships between teachers, students and parents by involving parents and the whole community for various school activities (for more information consult Policy page Relationship between schools and their community).

Provide incentives to the teachers for working in rural areas, such as transportation costs, subsidized or free education for the children of the teachers, or monetary incentives.

* For more on this subject, consult Policy page Teacher absenteeism.

References
Alhassan, E.; Odame, F S. 2014. Teacher Behaviour and its effects on pupils’ attendance in Basic Schools in the Northern Region of Ghana. Accra: University for Development Studies. Retrieved from: http://www.academia.edu/31827537/Teacher_Behaviour_and_its_effects_on_pupils_attendance_in_basic_schools_in_the_Northern_Region_of_Ghana

Milner, H.R. 2018. ‘Confronting Inequity: Development Over Punishment’. In: Leading the Energized School. Vol. 75 (6)  Pg. 93-94. Retrieved from:  http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational leadership/mar18/vol75/num06/Development-Over-Punishment.aspx

Ministry of Education (Guyana). n.d. Eliminating Illiteracy, Modernizing Education, Strengthening Tolerance. Georgetown: Guyana.Retrieved from: http://education.gov.gy/web/index.php/policies/discipline-of-teachers/item/519-discipline-of-teachers

Moniz, C. 2013. How Indigenous Teachers Incorporate Traditional Worldviews and Practices into Classroom Behaviour. Vancouver: The University of British Columbia. Retrieved from: https://open.library.ubc.ca/cIRcle/collections/ubctheses/24/items/1.0058464

Teacher Evaluation

Legislation needs to be strengthened to address teacher misconduct and favouritism. Governments should work more closely with teacher unions and teachers to formulate policies and adopt codes of conduct to tackle unprofessional behaviour (for more information on how to design and implement a code of conduct consult: Poisson, M. 2009. Guidelines for the design and effective use of teacher codes of conduct. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0018/001850/185010e.pdf) .

Additionally, strategies need to be formulated to prevent private tutoring by the teachers who are responsible for teaching in the same school as the students who take private lessons. This would ensure full coverage of the curriculum in class and avoid student absenteeism and favouritism.

Policy options for improving Equity and Inclusion

Gender-responsive policies

Promising policy options

Mainstream gender issues throughout teacher training offer

Teachers’ comprehension of gender issues and their ability to implement gender-responsive pedagogy are essential to address gender disparities in education (Bramwell et al., 2014). Through quality pre- and in-service teacher training teachers can enhance their gender-responsive knowledge, skills, and attitudes. The training should help teachers:

  • become aware of their own gender-related attitudes, beliefs, perceptions, and expectations;
  • demystify their preconceived ideas (such as entrenched gender-roles);
  • gain gender-related knowledge and learn practical ways to implement gender-responsive pedagogy; and
  • recognize gender-issues in the current curricula (both formal and hidden) and provide the necessary skills and knowledge to rectify them within the classrooms (UNESCO, 2015).

Implement effective and practical follow-up methods to ensure that the knowledge gained by teachers is being translated into gender-responsive classrooms.

Implement an observation system to monitor gender-responsive practices within the classrooms and perform practice sessions to enhance teachers’ gender-responsive skills (for more information consult the Policy page Classroom practices supervision).

For more details consult Policy page Content knowledge.

References
Bramwell, D.; Anderson, S.; Mundy, K. 2014. Teachers and teacher development: A rapid review of the literature. Toronto: Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. Retrieved from: https://www.oise.utoronto.ca/cidec/UserFiles/File/Website/Rapid_Review-teacher_development_June_30_final_2.pdf

UNESCO Bangkok. 2017a. Gender-Responsive Classrooms Need Gender-Sensitive Teachers. Accessed 1 May 2019: https://bangkok.unesco.org/content/gender-responsive-classrooms-need-gender-sensitive-teachers

UNESCO. 2015. A Guide for Gender Equality in Teacher Education Policy and Practices. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000231646/

UNESCO. 2017. Evaluation of UNESCO’s Programme Interventions on Girls’ and Womens’ Education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000258978?posInSet=22&queryId=df97886c-2701-4a75-bfdb-46986e8ebf8e

Gender-responsive classrooms

Teachers must value equally the ability to learn of all students and facilitate their learning process and progress to the fullest extent possible (USAID, n.d.). They should treat all students fairly and ensure their active participation, making all assessments based on the pupil’s skills, not their gender (UNESCO, 2015). Pay attention and encourage an equal contribution of all students, employing learner-centred collaborative teaching methods that help improve the learning experience for all children (UNESCO and UNGEI, 2015).

Class sessions should be free of gender-bias, be geared towards deconstructing gender roles and stereotypes, guide students to question gender-biased attitudes and consider different approaches that move away from binary gender norms (cultural-sensitivity must be taken into account) (Girard, 2015). Likesiwer, teachers should pay attention to the language they employ (see below), and they should make sure their classroom is a safe environment for all students.

Promote school’s anti-bullying policy, communicate it to all students. Identify and respond to any type of school-related gender-based violence as well as any gender-biased, homophobic, transphobic or biphobic comment or discriminatory attitude (New Zealand, 2019), and develop a confidential classroom system which encourages students to share information and seek help when needed.

(For more information, consult Policy pages School climate and School-related violence).

References
Girard, C. 2015. Four Ways To Make a Classroom Gender-Inclusive. Accessed 13 May 2019: https://www.hrc.org/blog/four-ways-to-make-a-classroom-gender-inclusive

New Zealand. 2019. Ministry of Education. Inclusive Education: Develop inclusive classroom routines. Wellington: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: www.inclusive.tki.org.nz/guides/supporting-lgbtiqa-students/develop-inclusive-classroom-roles-routinesand-systems

UNESCO, UNGEI (United Nations Girls’ Education Initiative). 2015. Gender and EFA 2000-2015, Achievements and Challenges: Gender Summary. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.ungei.org/234809E.pdf

UNESCO. 2015. A Guide for Gender Equality in Teacher Education Policy and Practices. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000231646/

USAID (United States Agency for International Development). n.d. Introduction to Gender-Responsive Teaching Methods. Retrieved from: https://www.mcsprogram.org/wp-content/uploads/dlm_uploads/2018/11/PowerPoint-Introduction-to-Gender-Responsive-Teaching-Methods.pdf

Develop a gender-responsive, non-violent and non-abusive language

Use inclusive, gender-responsive language inside the classroom (FAWE, 2006). Provide training opportunities to teachers regarding gender-responsive language, promoting support systems. Changing own’s beliefs and language is difficult and takes time, which means the process must be very supportive and non-judgemental. Teachers, school staff and students should help each other recognize when they are not employing a gender-responsive language.

For more details consult Policy page Language of instruction.

References
FAWE (Forum for African Women Educationalists). 2006. Gender Responsive Pedagogy. Working Document Draft for the Biennale on Education in Africa. Libreville: ADEA (Asosciation for the Development of Education in Africa). Retrieved from:  http://www.adeanet.org/adea/biennial-2006/doc/document/B5_2_fawe_en.pdf

School academic content and assessment

Curricula should be gender-responsive, or at least, free of gender-bias. It should help students to develop a critical understanding of entrenched gender-roles and stereotypes in society (UNESCO, 2018) (for more information consult Policy page Curriculum). Likewise, teachers must ensure that their continuous classroom-based assessments are free from gender bias (for more information consult Policy page Student learning assessments).

References
Thompson, S.J.; Johnstone, C.J.; Thurlow, M.L. 2002. Universal Design Applied to Large Scale Assessments. Minnesota: NCEO (National Center on Educational Outcomes). https://nceo.umn.edu/docs/OnlinePubs/Synth44.pdf

UNESCO. 2018. Global Education Monitoring Report Gender Review: Meeting our commitments to gender equality in education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000261593?posInSet=7&queryId=d9c1c9db-c2d7-4f64-a94f-f13dc872d3a4

Build a gender-responsive school climate

School’s management should be geared around ensuring an inclusive, gender-responsive environment (FAWE, 2006). Training school staff in gender-responsiveness is ideal in order to mainstream gender within the system.

Mainstream gender in policies aimed at providing a safe and nurturing environment for all. Ensure that the multiple measures are taken actively aim to reduce harmful effects such as gender-bias, stereotypes, and sexism within the school (GPE and UNGEI, 2017). Accept and encourage gender diversity within the school’s climate policy (UNESCO Bangkok, 2016), and prevent and respond to any school-related gender-based violence within schools (for more information and specific policy options consult Gender section in Policy page School-related violence).

Enhance the active participation and cooperation among multiple stakeholders:

  • Peer-to-peer support: Help contextualize, sustain and embed gender-responsive practices inside the school. Encourage teachers to work together and share the knowledge gained.
  • School’s Head leadership: Provide ongoing support to teachers building gender-responsive knowledge and skills as well as constructive feedback.  
  • Actively engage community members and families within schools to promote children’s access and retention by building inclusive, gender-responsive schools (physically, academically and socially).
References
FAWE (Forum for African Women Educationalists). 2006. Gender Responsive Pedagogy. Working Document Draft for the Biennale on Education in Africa. Libreville: ADEA (Asosciation for the Development of Education in Africa). Retrieved from:  http://www.adeanet.org/adea/biennial-2006/doc/document/B5_2_fawe_en.pdf

GPE (Global Partnership for Education), UNGEI (United Nations Girls’ Education Initiative). 2017. Guidance for Developing Gender-Responsive Education Sector Plans. Washington D.C.: The Global Partnership for Education. Retrieved from: https://www.globalpartnership.org/content/guidance-developing-gender-responsive-education-sector-plans

Greytak, E.A.; Kosciw, J.G.; Villenas, C.; Giga, N.M. 2016. From Teasing to Torment: School Climate Revisited, A Survey of U.S. Secondary School Students and Teachers. New York: GLSEN. Retrieved from: https://www.glsen.org/sites/default/files/TeasingtoTorment2015_ExecSumm%20FINAL.pdf

Meijer, C.J.W. 2001. Inclusive Education and Effective Classroom Practices. Odense: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. Retrieved from: https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/inclusive-education-and-effective-classroom-practice_IECP-Literature-Review.pdf

UNESCO Bangkok. 2016. Happy Schools! A Framework for Learner Well-being in the Asia-Pacific. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002441/244140e.pdf

UNESCO. 2004. Teacher Education Resource Pack Student materials. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000137881?posInSet=4&queryId=8c276c0b-c4a9-450d-b9c9-96641e8bb69e

UNESCO. 2017a. A guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002482/248254e.pdf

Policies for children with disabilities

Promising policy options

Adapt the teacher training offer

Teacher training must be redesigned or adapted to develop inclusive values and attitudes so that teachers have the necessary skills to respond to the needs of all children. Support them to become aware of their biased perceptions towards children with multiple learning abilities and disabilities, as this is proven to inhibit pupils’ academic progress, accept and welcome diversity within the classroom, believe in the capacity of all of the children to learn, and believe in their capacity, understand their responsibility and commit to teaching to all children.

Support teachers to gain the necessary knowledge regarding inclusive education and inclusive pedagogy. This can be done by implementing practical follow-up methods to ensure that the knowledge gained by teachers is being effectively translated into the classroom (for more information consult the Policy page Classroom practices supervision).

*For more details consult Policy page Content knowledge (section Children with disabilities).

References
Ainscow, M. 2005. ‘Developing inclusive education systems: what are the levers for change?’ In: Journal of Educational Change, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 109-124.

IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). 2016.Training Tools for Curriculum Development – Reaching Out to All Learners: a Resource Pack for Supporting Inclusive Education. Geneva: IBE-UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000243279?posInSet=26&queryId=583170d7-cb0d-430f-bc8e-c0ced5165649

IDDC (International Disability and Development Consortium). 2013. Every child needs a quality, inclusive teacher. Brussels: IDDC. Retrieved from: http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/IDDC_Every_Child_Needs_a_Teacher_leaflet.pdf

Spratt, J.; Florian, L. 2013. ‘Applying the principles of inclusive pedagogy in initial teacher education: from university based course to classroom action’. In: Revista de Investigación en Educación, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 133-140.

UNESCO. 2004. Teacher Education Resource Pack Student materials. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000137881?posInSet=4&queryId=8c276c0b-c4a9-450d-b9c9-96641e8bb69e

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2014. Teachers, Inclusive, Child-Centred Teaching and Pedagogy: Webinar 12 – Companion Technical Booklet. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/eca/education

Inclusive classrooms

Implement inclusive pedagogy in order to find ways to work ‘with and through others’ (Spratt and Florian, 2013: 136). Understand and take into consideration pupils’ individual needs, by providing a wide range of options and make them available to all of the children within the classroom in order to help all of them to meet their full potential.

Provide the means for the teacher to teach through multiple mediums and allow students to express their understanding through multiple ways as well, promoting a classroom environment where all students feel welcomed, valued and supported. Encourage them to observe student’s emotional well-being and promote a culture of support within the classroom (foster constructive interactions among learners), having a positive attitude towards students with disabilities. Teachers should uphold the same kind of expectations for all students and should provide additional support to students who need it.

Ensure a safe classroom. Teachers and students should have the adequate knowledge and skills to respond to any attitude or commentary meaning to label, stereotype or bully children with disabilities.

*For more details about inclusive pedagogy consult Policy page Content knowledge.

References
Florian, L. 2015. ‘Inclusive Pedagogy: A transformative approach to individual differences but can it help reduce educational inequalities?’. In: Scottish Educational Review, Vol. 47, No.1, pp. 5-14.

IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). 2016.Training Tools for Curriculum Development – Reaching Out to All Learners: a Resource Pack for Supporting Inclusive Education. Geneva: IBE-UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000243279?posInSet=26&queryId=583170d7-cb0d-430f-bc8e-c0ced5165649

IIEP-UNESCO Learning Portal. 2018c. Brief 3: Effective and appropriate pedagogy. Accessed 1 April 2018: https://learningportal.iiep.unesco.org/en/issue-briefs/improve-learning/teachers-and-pedagogy/effective-and-appropriate-pedagogy

Loreman, T. 2017. Pedagogy for Inclusive Education. Oxford Research Enclyclopedias. Retrieved from: https://oxfordre.com/education/view/10.1093/acrefore/9780190264093.001.0001/acrefore-9780190264093-e-148

Save the Children. 2016. Inclusive Education: What, Why, and How – A Handbook for Program Implementers.  London: Save the Children. Retrieved from: https://www.savethechildren.it/sites/default/files/files/uploads/pubblicazioni/inclusive-education-what-why-and-how.pdf

Spratt, J.; Florian, L. 2013. ‘Applying the principles of inclusive pedagogy in initial teacher education: from university based course to classroom action’. In: Revista de Investigación en Educación, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 133-140.

UNESCO. 2017a. A guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002482/248254e.pdf

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2014. Teachers, Inclusive, Child-Centred Teaching and Pedagogy: Webinar 12 – Companion Technical Booklet. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/eca/education

Provide an inclusive, safe and positive school climate

To build the basis for a positive school environment where teachers will deploy the knowledge and skills learned throughout their training on inclusive education, Ministries of Education should:

  • ensure there is a common understanding among all relevant stakeholders of the concept of inclusive education (Ainscow, 2005);
  • conduct general awareness-raising campaigns on the importance of inclusive education; and
  • provide training on general knowledge about disabilities and inclusive education systems to relevant stakeholders (IDDC, 2013).

Provide a safe school climate with specific school-based interventions, supported by national-level policies, which should address school-related violence and bullying against children with disabilities (Devries et al., 2014; Banks et al., 2017). Enhance the active participation and cooperation among multiple stakeholders in order to tackle down attitudinal barriers against the schooling of children with disabilities:

  • Peer-to-peer support. Share knowledge and help teachers identify effective teaching strategies and classroom practices to promote equitable participation and address the diverse needs of all learners and promote peer-feedback.
  • School Head: Provide on-going support.
  • Promote ‘school-to-school collaboration’ (Ainscow and Miles, 2008: 29).
  • Actively engage community and family members as well as DPOs.
References
Ainscow, M. 2005. ‘Developing inclusive education systems: what are the levers for change?’ In: Journal of Educational Change, Vol. 6, No. 2, pp. 109-124.

Ainscow, M.; Miles, S. 2008. ‘Making Education for All inclusive: where next?’. In: Prospects, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 15-34. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11125-008-9055-0

Banks, L.M.; Kelly, S.A.; Kyegombe, N.; Kuper, H.; Devries, K. 2017. ‘“If he could speak, he would be able to point out who does those things to him”: Experiences of violence and access to child protection among children with disabilities in Uganda and Malawi’. In: PLoS ONE, 12(9). Retrieved from:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183736

Devries, K. M.; Kyegombe, N.; Zuurmond, M.; Parkes, J.; Child, J.C.; Walakira, E.J.; Naker, D. 2014. ‘Violence against primary school children with disabilities in Uganda: a cross-sectional study’. In: BMC Public Health, No. 14, p. 1017. Retrieved from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/14/1017

IDDC (International Disability and Development Consortium). 2013. Every child needs a quality, inclusive teacher. Brussels: IDDC. Retrieved from: http://www.eenet.org.uk/resources/docs/IDDC_Every_Child_Needs_a_Teacher_leaflet.pdf

UNESCO. 2001. Open File on Inclusive Education: Support Materials for Managers and Administrators. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000125237

School academic content and assessment

An inclusive curriculum is flexible, accessible and promotes the values and principles of inclusive education. Teachers and school leaders must ensure that inclusive curricula are being applied in practice (hidden curricula are as important as the formal one) (for more information consult Policy page Curriculum).

Implement continuous formative assessments and provide immediate and constructive feedback to students (for more information consult Policy page Student learning assessments).

References
European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. 2007. Assessment in inclusive settings: key issues for policy and practice. Odense: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. Retrieved from: https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/assessment-in-inclusive-settings-key-issues-for-policy-and-practice_Assessment-EN.pdf

IBE-UNESCO (UNESCO International Bureau of Education). 2016. Training Tools for Curriculum Development. Reaching Out to All Learners: a Resource Pack for Supporting Inclusive Education. Geneva: IBE-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.ibe.unesco.org/sites/default/files/resources /ibe-crp-inclusiveeducation-2016_eng.pdf

UNESCO. 2017a. A guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002482/248254e.pdf

Policies for displaced populations and host communities

All the policies mentioned in the general section of this page apply to this category.

Other policy options

Build teacher motivation to maintain an inclusive classroom

Set up induction and mentoring programmes, which are aimed at supporting teachers who are new to the profession. The effectiveness of the induction and mentoring programmes depends upon the interaction quality with the mentors. For example, according to the 2013 TALIS analysis of the 34 countries, only 66% of teachers at all levels were provided with a support mechanism. Additionally, provide in-service training, which assists in building teacher motivation. For instance, during the 2013 TALIS, 88% reported participation in at least one professional development activity in a span of one year.

To assess a country’s commitment and involvement to provide professional development opportunities for the teachers, the national policies must be assessed. For example, in Europe, government expectations differ in terms of the need for professional development. In countries such as France and Poland, professional development is necessary only for promotion. In Spain, professional development plans are compulsory and monetary incentives are provided for it.

Teaching as a profession needs to become more socially valued as a viable and attractive career option, which is only possible if a competitive remuneration package is provided. The remuneration package will only be worthy if it is comparable with an external benchmark. Another approach would be to look at the labour force survey data.

The teacher attrition rate is also an indicating factor of the level of teacher motivation. If the voluntary attrition rate is higher, this only shows that the motivation level of the teachers is low. For example, the voluntary attrition rate in countries such as Togo is as high as 15%. Even in the United States, the attrition rate rose from 6.4% in 1988-89 to 9% in 2008-09. (OECD 2014). Introducing incentives is a way to reduce attrition rates. For example, in Mexico, the attrition rate in remote areas reduced from 22% to 17% after the introduction of a monthly stipend incentive and in Uganda, the attrition rate came down to 24% from 33% due to an increase in the salary.

References
Greytak, E.A.; Kosciw, J.G.; Villenas, C.; Giga, N.M. 2016. From Teasing to Torment: School Climate Revisited, A Survey of U.S. Secondary School Students and Teachers. New York: GLSEN. Retrieved from: https://www.glsen.org/sites/default/files/TeasingtoTorment2015_ExecSumm%20FINAL.pdf

Meijer, C.J.W. 2001. Inclusive Education and Effective Classroom Practices. Odense: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. Retrieved from: https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/inclusive-education-and-effective-classroom-practice_IECP-Literature-Review.pdf

UNESCO Bangkok. 2016. Happy Schools! A Framework for Learner Well-being in the Asia-Pacific. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002441/244140e.pdf

UNESCO. 2004. Teacher Education Resource Pack Student materials. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000137881?posInSet=4&queryId=8c276c0b-c4a9-450d-b9c9-96641e8bb69e

UNESCO. 2017a. A guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002482/248254e.pdf

UNESCO. 2016. Global Monitoring report. Education for people and planet: creating sustainable futures for all. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://www.eda.admin.ch/dam/deza/en/documents/aktuell/news/20160923-weltbildungsbericht_EN.pdf

OECD. 2014. TALIS 2013 Results: An International Perspective on Teaching and Learning, TALIS, OECD Publishing. Paris. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264196261-en.

Promote teacher collaboration and cooperation

Teacher collaboration helps improve instruction and monitoring of teacher practices with collaboration tending to encourage participatory learning that supports the changes in teaching practices. Researches and studies focusing on collaboration between teachers have pointed out that collaboration helps develop a more purposeful professional knowledge base.

When teachers collaborated to review and assess student outcomes and provide feedback the level of instruction issues improved. Teachers also question and learn from each other in order to improve their practice. The level of cooperation and collaboration among teachers who tend to report to each other regarding their activities, by presenting evidence and explaining the instructions, tend to form a base of accountability amongst the teacher community.

According to TALIS 2013, schools that have a higher percentage of students with special educational needs, teachers tend to be more engaged in reflective dialogue and collaboration. There is more teacher collaboration in schools that have relatively higher number of low socioeconomic status and teachers who have a full-time appointment at their school also are inclined towards collaborating with other teachers.

Some OECD countries, and in particular Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, have more of a history of teamwork and co-operation among their teaching staff, especially in primary schools. Others, such as Ireland, are shifting to encourage such practice.

References
Greytak, E.A.; Kosciw, J.G.; Villenas, C.; Giga, N.M. 2016. From Teasing to Torment: School Climate Revisited, A Survey of U.S. Secondary School Students and Teachers. New York: GLSEN. Retrieved from: https://www.glsen.org/sites/default/files/TeasingtoTorment2015_ExecSumm%20FINAL.pdf

Meijer, C.J.W. 2001. Inclusive Education and Effective Classroom Practices. Odense: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. Retrieved from: https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/inclusive-education-and-effective-classroom-practice_IECP-Literature-Review.pdf

UNESCO. 2016. Global Monitoring report. Education for people and planet: creating sustainable futures for all. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://www.eda.admin.ch/dam/deza/en/documents/aktuell/news/20160923-weltbildungsbericht_EN.pdf

UNESCO Bangkok. 2016. Happy Schools! A Framework for Learner Well-being in the Asia-Pacific. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002441/244140e.pdf

UNESCO. 2004. Teacher Education Resource Pack Student materials. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000137881?posInSet=4&queryId=8c276c0b-c4a9-450d-b9c9-96641e8bb69e

UNESCO. 2017a. A guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002482/248254e.pdf

OECD. 2014. TALIS 2013 Results: An International Perspective on Teaching and Learning, TALIS, OECD Publishing. Paris. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264196261-en.

Policies for minority populations

All policies in the general section apply to this category.

Other policy options

Build teacher motivation to maintain an inclusive classroom

Set up induction and mentoring programmes, which are aimed at supporting teachers who are new to the profession. The effectiveness of the induction and mentoring programmes depends upon the interaction quality with the mentors. For example, according to the 2013 TALIS analysis of the 34 countries, only 66% of teachers at all levels were provided with a support mechanism.

Provide in-service training, as this assists in building teacher motivation. During the 2013 TALIS, 88% reported participation in at least one professional development activity in a span of one year. To assess a country’s commitment and involvement to provide professional development opportunities for the teachers, the national policies must be assessed. For example, in Europe, the government’s expectations differ in terms of the need for professional development. In countries such as France and Poland, professional development is necessary only for promotion, while in Spain, professional development plans are compulsory and monetary incentives are provided for it.

Teaching as a profession needs to become more socially valued as a viable and attractive career option, which is only possible if a competitive remuneration package is provided. The remuneration package will only be worthy if it is comparable with an external benchmark.

The teacher attrition rate is also an indicating factor of the level of teacher motivation. If the voluntary attrition rate is higher, this only shows that the motivation level of the teachers is low. For example, the voluntary attrition rate in countries such as Togo is as high as 15%. Even in the United States, the attrition rate rose from 6.4% in 1988-89 to 9% in 2008-09. (OECD 2014)

Introducing incentives is a way to reduce attrition rates. For example, in Mexico, the attrition rate in remote areas reduced from 22% to 17% after the introduction of a monthly stipend incentive. In Uganda, the attrition rate came down to 24% from 33% due to an increase in the salary.

References
UNESCO Bangkok. 2016. Happy Schools! A Framework for Learner Well-being in the Asia-Pacific. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002441/244140e.pdf

UNESCO. 2004. Teacher Education Resource Pack Student materials. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000137881?posInSet=4&queryId=8c276c0b-c4a9-450d-b9c9-96641e8bb69e

UNESCO. 2017a. A guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002482/248254e.pdf

UNESCO. 2016. Global Monitoring report. Education for people and planet: creating sustainable futures for all. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://www.eda.admin.ch/dam/deza/en/documents/aktuell/news/20160923-weltbildungsbericht_EN.pdf

OECD. 2014. TALIS 2013 Results: An International Perspective on Teaching and Learning, TALIS, OECD Publishing. Paris. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264196261-en.

Promote teacher collaboration and cooperation

Teacher collaboration helps improve instruction and monitoring of teacher practices since it tends to encourage participatory learning that supports the changes in teaching practices. Researches and studies focusing on collaboration between teachers have pointed out that collaboration helps develop a more purposeful professional knowledge base.

When teachers collaborate to review and assess student outcomes and provide feedback the level of instruction improves, with teachers questioning and learning from each other in order to improve their practice. The level of cooperation and collaboration among teachers who tend to report to each other regarding their activities, by presenting evidence and explaining the instructions, tend to form a base of accountability amongst the teacher community.

According to TALIS 2013, schools that have a higher percentage of students with special educational needs, teachers tend to be more engaged in reflective dialogue and collaboration, while also finding that there is more teacher collaboration in schools that have a relatively higher number of low socioeconomic status. Teachers who have a full-time appointment at their school also are inclined towards collaborating with other teachers.

Some OECD countries, and in particular Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, have more of a history of teamwork and co-operation among their teaching staff, especially in primary schools. Others, such as Ireland, are shifting to encourage such practice.

References
Greytak, E.A.; Kosciw, J.G.; Villenas, C.; Giga, N.M. 2016. From Teasing to Torment: School Climate Revisited, A Survey of U.S. Secondary School Students and Teachers. New York: GLSEN. Retrieved from: https://www.glsen.org/sites/default/files/TeasingtoTorment2015_ExecSumm%20FINAL.pdf

Meijer, C.J.W. 2001. Inclusive Education and Effective Classroom Practices. Odense: European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education. Retrieved from: https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/inclusive-education-and-effective-classroom-practice_IECP-Literature-Review.pdf

UNESCO. 2016. Global Monitoring report. Education for people and planet: creating sustainable futures for all. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://www.eda.admin.ch/dam/deza/en/documents/aktuell/news/20160923-weltbildungsbericht_EN.pdf

UNESCO Bangkok. 2016. Happy Schools! A Framework for Learner Well-being in the Asia-Pacific. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002441/244140e.pdf

UNESCO. 2004. Teacher Education Resource Pack Student materials. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000137881?posInSet=4&queryId=8c276c0b-c4a9-450d-b9c9-96641e8bb69e

UNESCO. 2017a. A guide for ensuring inclusion and equity in education. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0024/002482/248254e.pdf

OECD. 2014. TALIS 2013 Results: An International Perspective on Teaching and Learning, TALIS, OECD Publishing. Paris. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264196261-en.
Updated on 2021-06-16

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