Insufficient budget

Promising policy options

Increase the overall government budget through tax revenue 

Increasing national tax revenue is key to expanding education financing. This can be achieved through measures to build up the progressive tax system, fairer taxation of multinationals and corporations, reducing exemptions and ineffective incentives, and reducing corruption and tax avoidance. Reducing tax exemptions alone could have a significant impact on the overall education budget. For example, in Kenya, it was estimated that total incentives and exemptions in 2012 equalled $1.1 billion a year, which could double the public primary education budget (Mowe & Walker, 2016).

Increase tax revenue by building up a progressive tax system, which taxes wealth, corporations, property, and high-level incomes, while limiting regressive taxes that burden the poor such as VAT. Include the informal sector in tax collection, and diversify the tax base, with small and medium businesses.

Eliminate tax breaks and exemptions, particularly the incentives which are not shown to be strong determinants for investment, such as discretionary incentives, tax holidays, free zones, and stability agreements.

Close loopholes that allow tax evasion, and push for stronger tax and royalty arrangements for extractive industries. Reduce corruption by giving civil societies roles in overseeing budgeting processes. Reduce energy subsidies, and push towards removing international restrictions on government borrowing.

References
ILO (International Labour Organization). 2012a. ‘Module 1 employment and recruitment’. In:  Handbook of Good Human Resource Practices in the Teaching Profession. Geneva: ILO http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—sector/documents/publication/wcms_187793.pdf

Mowe Jahnsen, K.; Walker, J. 2016. Financing matters: A toolkit on domestic financing for education. Johannesburg: Global Campaign for Education. Retrieved from: http://www.campaignforeducation.org/docs/resources/GCE%20Financing_Matters_EN_WEB.pdf

The Abidjan Principles. 2019. The Abidjan Principles on the human rights obligations of States to provide public education and to regulate private involvement in education. Adopted on 13 February 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.abidjanprinciples.org/en/principles/overview

UNESCO. 2014c. EFA Global Monitoring Report: Increasing tax revenues to bridge the education financing gap. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002270/227092E.pdf

Increase government spending on the education sector

It is generally recommended that governments spend at least 20% of public expenditure and 6% of GDP on education (Mowe and Walker, 2016; UNESCO, 2014c). Good quality education, including adequate school infrastructure, simply cannot be provided without a sufficient amount of domestic expenditure being allocated to the education sector, which may require reprioritizing and cutting back in other sectors.

Commit to designating at least 20% of government budgets to education. Reprioritize and rationalize spending in other sectors, through the reduction of energy subsidies, examining defense spending, and examining debt servicing.

Reduce corruption, and advocate for the public demand for education, to add political pressure to increase the portion of government spending allocated to education. 

References
ILO (International Labour Organization). 2012a. ‘Module 1 employment and recruitment’. In:  Handbook of Good Human Resource Practices in the Teaching Profession. Geneva: ILO http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—sector/documents/publication/wcms_187793.pdf

Mowe Jahnsen, K.; Walker, J. 2016. Financing matters: A toolkit on domestic financing for education. Johannesburg: Global Campaign for Education. Retrieved from: http://www.campaignforeducation.org/docs/resources/GCE%20Financing_Matters_EN_WEB.pdf

UNESCO. 2014c. EFA Global Monitoring Report: Increasing tax revenues to bridge the education financing gap. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002270/227092E.pdf

Improve budget processes and resource management

The lack of funds for school construction may be related to inadequate budget processes that do not sufficiently distribute funds between educational sectors, or that incorrectly estimate costs. Improving education financial management and budget processes can facilitate the availability of adequate school construction funds.

To reduce corruption and maximize resource efficiency, there should also be clear frameworks that promote competitiveness in the awarding of construction contracts. Reducing corruption will also involve carefully monitoring school construction expenditure to ensure that project costs stay within the designated budget. School construction is particularly susceptible to corruption because builders often have more knowledge about costs than the financers (The World Bank, 2013).

Budgets should be based on adequate and transparent information. An informed budget process should have explicit criteria to determine funds allocation, utilizing reliable and updated data. Budget needs to be planned and executed with transparent practices and comprehensive documentation, and public reports of education budgets should be made available for the general public.

Improve resource efficiency, by putting systems in place that account for the use of financial resources. Frameworks that promote transparency in and competitiveness in construction contracts should be installed, by publicly announcing awarded contracts for school construction, to ensure the best value for money and reduce corruption, by making sure contract procurement policies have a process in place to address complaints, and by making audits in educational expenditure.

Monitor and document school construction expenditure, ensuring that expenditures align with what is designated in the budget.

References
The World Bank. 2013. SABER working paper series number 2: What matters most for school finance. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://wbgfiles.worldbank.org/documents/hdn/ed/saber/supporting_doc/Background/FIN/Framework_School_Finance.pdf

Improve planning mechanisms and resource allocation

In some countries, school construction resources are not correctly allocated to reflect the actual distribution of students across geographical locations. This can result in certain schools having empty classrooms, while nearby areas are left unable to meet their infrastructure needs. There is also the issue of clientelism and corruption, which results in resources being awarded on the basis of connections. Improving construction resource allocation may require adjusting national norms and planning mechanisms, and putting in place measures to promote transparency and reduce corruption. Decentralized planning may be more effective in correctly assessing infrastructure requirements.

Some elements to consider to achieve this are:

  • strive for transparency in allocation decisions;
  • use financial simulation models;
  • review and modify national norms and standards on resource allocation;
  • consider decentralized planning methods; and
  • engage with school communities to correctly assess and address construction needs.
References
The World Bank. 2013. SABER working paper series number 2: What matters most for school finance. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://wbgfiles.worldbank.org/documents/hdn/ed/saber/supporting_doc/Background/FIN/Framework_School_Finance.pdf

Theunyck, S. 2002. School construction in developing countries: What do we know? Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://humanitarianlibrary.org/sites/default/files/2014/02/Theunynck%2520(2002)%520School%2520Construction%2520in%2520Developing%2520Countires.pdf

Maintenance of existing schools

School maintenance is a proven cost-effective strategy that is often overlooked. Regular school maintenance reduces the need for premature renovation and repairs, thereby freeing up funds that can then be used towards new school construction. The government should allocate funds specifically dedicated to on-going school maintenance throughout a building’s life when originally budgeting for classroom construction and should prioritize the use of durable materials during the construction process. Regular school maintenance is also a valuable opportunity for community involvement; simple daily chores can be performed by the school children themselves, while parents and other community members can contribute to larger repair tasks.

References
Leathes, B. 2009. Briefing note: Key factors in the cost effective design and construction of primary school facilities in low income countries. TI-UP Resource Centre. Retrieved from: https://www.humanitarianlibrary.org/sites/default/files/2014/02/Briefing%2520Note%2520-%2520Classroom%2520Costs%2520Final%252023%2520Jan%252009.pdf

The World Bank. 2013. SABER working paper series number 2: What matters most for school finance. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://wbgfiles.worldbank.org/documents/hdn/ed/saber/supporting_doc/Background/FIN/Framework_School_Finance.pdf

Theunyck, S. 2002. School construction in developing countries: What do we know? Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://humanitarianlibrary.org/sites/default/files/2014/02/Theunynck%2520(2002)%520School%2520Construction%2520in%2520Developing%2520Countires.pdf

Decreasing unit costs

* See Policy page High unit costs.

Other policy options

Funding support from development partners and/or local contribution

When national resources cannot sufficiently cover school construction costs, funding support can be provided from external partners (consult and apply the Abidjan Principles). In some countries, construction projects are heavily dependent on foreign aid, with donor funds accounting for 100% of school construction costs (Theunyck, 2002). Construction projects can be attractive to international donors because there are often restrictions on providing aid for recurrent costs such as teacher salaries. However, aid for construction projects is often delivered through stand-alone projects and separate project implementation units (PIUs) which can result in undermined government leadership, policy fragmentation and the weakened development of long-term institutional capacity (Theunyck, 2009). Sector-wide approaches, as described below, can allow aid for construction projects to be better aligned with national programmes, and contribute to strengthened national capacity and leadership.

Favour sector-wide approaches, to donor programmes such as (Theunyck, 2009) :

  • collaboration and harmonization with country system and priorities;
  • strong country government leadership, defining their own construction strategies;
  • pooled donor resources. Expenditure framework linked with country’s macroeconomic framework and poverty reduction strategy;
  • donors should utilize communities and the private sector in construction projects.

Additional support in the face of restricted resources can also include contributions from local authorities and communities, who can provide cash contributions as well as in-kind contributions such as building materials, and labour. These types of contributions can promote community involvement and ownership over construction projects.

References
Rose, P.; Steer, L. 2013. Financing for global education: Opportunities for multilateral action. UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Basic-Education-Financing-Final-webv2.pdf

Theunyck, S. 2002. School construction in developing countries: What do we know? Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: https://humanitarianlibrary.org/sites/default/files/2014/02/Theunynck%2520(2002)%520School%2520Construction%2520in%2520Developing%2520Countires.pdf

Theunynck, S. 2009. School construction for universal primary education in Africa: Should communities be empowered to build their schools? Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/109291468007863249/pdf/488980PUB0prim101Official0Use0Only1.pdf

The Abidjan Principles. 2019. The Abidjan Principles on the human rights obligations of States to provide public education and to regulate private involvement in education. Adopted on 13 February 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.abidjanprinciples.org/en/principles/overview

Use of existing buildings for schools

Existing unoccupied buildings within communities can be utilized as learning spaces in lieu of new school construction. This strategy is most appropriate for sparsely populated rural areas in which one-roomed schooling would be required. This solution is not ideal, as the spaces may not be adapted to be optimal learning environments for students, however, it can be a short-term solution in the face of budget constraints. It generally uses community spaces, youth centres, religious centres, and even homes. It is particularly appropriate in sparsely populated, rural areas. However, this is only a short-term strategy.

References
The World Bank. 2009d. Six steps to abolishing primary school fees: Operational guide. Washington D.C.: The World Bank Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Six_Steps_to_Abolishing_Primary_School_Fees.pdf

Small school model with multi-grade teaching

While there is a tendency for large school construction, a small school model with multi-grade teaching might be more appropriate for rural areas with low population density. This model can be less costly overall, and minimizes travel distance, which is another prominent barrier to schooling. A one-room school could effectively accommodate a village population of under 240 has been found to be at least effective or even more effective for learning outcomes compared to single-grade teaching and schools can then be expanded if the population increases (see Annex 1).

Annex 1

School size and minimum village population required

Source: Theunynck, S. 2009. School construction for universal primary education in Africa: Should communities be empowered to build their schools? Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/109291468007863249/pdf/488980PUB0prim101Official0Use0Only1.pdf

References
Theunynck, S. 2009. School construction for universal primary education in Africa: Should communities be empowered to build their schools? Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/109291468007863249/pdf/488980PUB0prim101Official0Use0Only1.pdf

Double-shift Schooling

Double-shift or multiple-shift schooling allows schools to hold multiple sessions during the day for different sets of students. This permits the use of existing school infrastructure, rather than creating new buildings or investing in expansion, allowing significant cost-savings. However, this shortened school day often means an overall lower quality of education and reduced student learning outcomes. (For more on this subject, see Policy page Double-Shift Schooling).

References
Bray, M. 2010. Double-shift schooling: Design and operation for cost-effectiveness. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0016/001636/163606e.pdf

Open and Distance Learning

Distance education or open and distance learning, refers to education where the constraints of time and space are removed, and students can learn remotely using various information and communication technologies, rather than attending a school campus. Mobile electronic devices such as phones, media players, and tablet computers are becoming increasingly affordable and common throughout the world, and offer new possibilities in reaching populations that are unable to attend physical school campuses. While open and distance learning is primarily used for tertiary education, teacher training, and other programmes targeting adults, there are also opportunities for it to be applied to primary levels. Kenya recently launched a distance learning program using radio broadcasts, to reach nomadic populations. However, programmes may not be sufficiently developed yet to adequately replace in-person primary education models. Other challenges include safety and privacy issues, and education quality.

References
Kenya. 2010. Ministry of State for Development of Northern Kenya and Other Arid Lands. Getting to the hardest-to-reach: A Strategy to provide education to nomadic communities in Kenya through distance learning. Retrieved from: http://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/G02742.pdf

UNESCO. 2002. Open and distance learning: Trends, policy and strategy considerations. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001284/128463e.pdf

UNESCO. 2013c. Policy guidelines for mobile learning. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0021/002196/219641E.pdf

Policy options for improving Equity and Inclusion

Gender-responsive policies

Investing in gender-responsive school infrastructure can, directly and indirectly, support the access and retention of children in school, as well as strengthen gender equity and inclusion.

Decision-makers should keep in mind the following measures along with those suggested  in the general section of the present Policy page.

*For information concerning gender-responsive school infrastructure per se consult Policy pages School physical infrastructure and Buildings are not ready

References
UNESCO, UNGEI (United Nations Girls’ Education Initiative). 2015. Gender and EFA 2000-2015, Achievements and Challenges: Gender Summary. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.ungei.org/234809E.pdf

The World Bank. 2008. Project Performance Assessment Report Arab Republic of Egypt: Basic Education Improvement Project (CR. 2476), Education Enhancement Program Project (CR. N008). Report Number 44464. Retrieved from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/371621468022150042/pdf/444640PPAR0P0010Box327410B01PUBLIC1.pdf

GPE (Global Partnership for Education), UNGEI (United Nations Girls’ Education Initiative). 2017. Guidance for Developing Gender-Responsive Education Sector Plans. Washington D.C.: The Global Partnership for Education. Retrieved from: https://www.globalpartnership.org/content/guidance-developing-gender-responsive-education-sector-plans

Promising policy options

Gender-responsive budgeting and gender analysis

Gender-responsive budgeting (GRB) means that gender should be mainstreamed throughout budget frameworks and allocation systems. Public funds attributed to school construction should equally meet the needs of all boys, girls, women and men and LGBTIQ communities.

(For general information about gender-responsive budgeting consult UNESCO Bangkok, 2010).

Gender-responsive budgeting should be based on in-depth gender analysis. A number of examples of the impact of increasing the supply and quality of gender-responsive school infrastructure on girls’ and boys’ access and retention within schools are presented. For example, through the Education Enhancement Programme –implemented by the Government of Egypt from 1996 to 2006 with funding support from the European Union and the World Bank–, new schools were built in rural areas where girls’ enrolment was particularly low (UNESCO and UNGEI, 2015). As a result, ‘enrolment in the catchment areas of the new schools increased by 7-26 percent in some sites (5-21.5 percent for boys and 9-30.5 percent for girls)’ (The World Bank, 2008: 6). Although enrolment rates increased for all children, this project particularly benefited girls in 81.2 percent of the school districts (The World Bank, 2008).

A study done in Afghanistan emphasised that the demand for girls’ education is highly dependent on the availability of gender-responsive infrastructure and facilities (Jackson, 2011 cited by GPE and UNGEI, 2017).

Finally, in India, ‘the construction of single-sex toilets also had a positive impact on the share of female teachers at schools, which may also indirectly benefit girls’ (Adukia, 2014, cited by  UNESCO and UNGEI, 2015: 37). (For specific details on the importance of female teachers’ recruitment, deployment and retention consult Policy pages Appropriate candidates and Teachers deployment and retention). 

References
GPE (Global Partnership for Education), UNGEI (United Nations Girls’ Education Initiative). 2017. Guidance for Developing Gender-Responsive Education Sector Plans. Washington D.C.: The Global Partnership for Education. Retrieved from: https://www.globalpartnership.org/content/guidance-developing-gender-responsive-education-sector-plans

The World Bank. 2008. Project Performance Assessment Report Arab Republic of Egypt: Basic Education Improvement Project (CR. 2476), Education Enhancement Program Project (CR. N008). Report Number 44464. Retrieved from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/371621468022150042/pdf/444640PPAR0P0010Box327410B01PUBLIC1.pdf

UN Women National Committee Australia. 2019. What is Gender Responsive Budgeting? Accessed 10 October 2019: https://unwomen.org.au/our-work/focus-areas/what-is-gender-responsive-budgeting/

UNESCO Bangkok. 2010. Gender Responsive Budgeting in Education – Advocacy Brief. Bangkok: UNESCO Bangkok. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000189456

UNESCO, UNGEI (United Nations Girls’ Education Initiative). 2015. Gender and EFA 2000-2015, Achievements and Challenges: Gender Summary. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://www.ungei.org/234809E.pdf

Policies for children with disabilities

Although all of the measures recommended in the general section of the present Policy page apply, they should be analysed by having inclusion on the mind. Complimentary remarks and examples will be given in the present section regarding some of them, as well as additional specific policy recommendations.

Promising policy options

Increase the overall government budget through tax revenue 

All of the previously recommended policy options apply for this section, particularly the implementation of progressive taxation as well as tackling down tax avoidance (IDDC Inclusive Education Task Team, 2016). For example, a study revealed that the revenue lost due to tax avoidance in Tanzania would have covered the construction of 97,000 accessible new classrooms (GCE Global, 2013, cited by IDDC Inclusive Education Task Team, 2016).

References
IDDC Inclusive Education Task Team (International Disability and Development Consortium). 2016. #Costing Equity: The case for disability-responsive education financing. Brussels: IDDC. Retrieved from: https://iddcconsortium.net/sites/default/files/resources-tools/files/costingequity_full_report.pdf

Increase government spending on the education sector

*All of the previously recommended policy options apply for this section.

In order to build inclusive education systems, governments should prioritise the education sector and thus invest at least 20% of public expenditure and 6% of GDP (IDDC Inclusive Education Task Team, 2016; Mowe and Walker, 2016; UNESCO, 2014c).

Political commitment is necessary to ensure that the budget allocated to the education sector is geared towards building an inclusive system (for instance, by building accessible physical infrastructure). This political commitment should be highlighted through the Education Sector Plan, when available. For example, through a study done by the GPE, twenty-two out of the fifty-one ESPs analysed included specific activities related to improving schools’ facilities and infrastructure by investing in schools’ accessibility (GPE, 2018).

References
GPE (Global Partnership for Education). 2018. Disability and Inclusive Education: A Stocktake of Education Sector Plans and GPE-Funded Grants. Washington, D.C.: GPE. Retrieved from: https://www.globalpartnership.org/sites/default/files/2018-07-gpe-disability-working-paper.pdf

IDDC Inclusive Education Task Team (International Disability and Development Consortium). 2016. #Costing Equity: The case for disability-responsive education financing. Brussels: IDDC. Retrieved from: https://iddcconsortium.net/sites/default/files/resources-tools/files/costingequity_full_report.pdf

Mowe Jahnsen, K.; Walker, J. 2016. Financing matters: A toolkit on domestic financing for education. Johannesburg: Global Campaign for Education. Retrieved from: http://www.campaignforeducation.org/docs/resources/GCE%20Financing_Matters_EN_WEB.pdf

Sæbønes, A.-M.; Berman Bieler, R.; Baboo, N.; Banham, L.; Singal, N.; Howgego, C.; Vuyiswa McClain-Nhlapo, C.; Riis-Hansen, T. C.; Dansie, G. A. 2015. ‘Towards a disability inclusive education’. Background paper for the Oslo Summit on Education for Development, 6-7 July 2015. Retrieved from: https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1865/Oslo_Ed_Summit_DisabilityInclusive_Ed.pdf

UNESCO. 2014c. EFA Global Monitoring Report: Increasing tax revenues to bridge the education financing gap. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002270/227092E.pdf

Disability-inclusive budgeting

Through the implementation of disability-inclusive budgeting, environmental barriers impeding children with disabilities to access, remain and learn in mainstream settings can be tackled down (IDDC Inclusive Education Task Team, 2016).

Budget directed towards inclusion should be mainstreamed throughout the entire education budget (instead of creating a separate budget specifically for children with disabilities) (IIEP-UNESCO, 2019). For instance, instead of mentioning in the budget ‘build new classrooms’, governments should specify ‘build new accessible classrooms’. In some cases –for example, when reasonable accommodations are needed–, specific and additional budget allocations may be necessary. 

Evaluate the total cost which represents the education of children with disabilities. The costs and different budgetary expenditures –such as building and/or accommodating classrooms to make them accessible– should be clearly defined (IIEP-UNESCO, 2019). Make sure to prioritize budget allocation for inclusive education, analyze and specify which expenditures can be covered by the governments, and integrate the budget for inclusive education within the Education Sector Plan.

Education systems do not necessarily have to increase resources to build an inclusive system. Instead, they should effectively mobilize and allocate existing funds for this purpose (Cheshire, 2019).

Choosing between centralized or decentralized budgeting can have an important impact on inclusive education. National budgeting means that the national government can guarantee that budgets are effectively being allocated towards building an inclusive education system, while decentralized systems imply that funds can adapt to local needs and support innovative inclusive practices (IIEP-UNESCO, 2019). In both cases, there must be a clear understanding and commitment to financing an inclusive education system (IDDC Inclusive Education Task Team, 2016).

References
Cheshire, L. 2019. Inclusive education for persons with disabilities – Are we making progress? Background paper prepared for the International Forum on inclusion and equity in Education – Every learner matters, Cali, Colombia, 11-13 September 2019. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000370386?posInSet=11&queryId=8251b10e-fda6-4bf5-a11e-a077d7076fa4

IDDC Inclusive Education Task Team (International Disability and Development Consortium). 2016. #Costing Equity: The case for disability-responsive education financing. Brussels: IDDC. Retrieved from: https://iddcconsortium.net/sites/default/files/resources-tools/files/costingequity_full_report.pdf

IIEP-UNESCO. 2019. Technical Round Table: Inclusion of children with disabilities in education sector planning in French-speaking Africa. Paris: IIEP-UNESCO. [Unpublished document]. 

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2014. Financing of Inclusive Education: Webinar 8 – Companion Technical Booklet. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: http://www.inclusive-education.org/sites/default/files/uploads/booklets/IE_Webinar_Booklet_8.pdf

Improve data availability concerning the accessibility of the school’s physical infrastructure and facilities

Gather data about the school’s accessibility to ensure adequate budget allocation: Include information concerning school’s physical accessibility through the Education Management Information Systems EMIS as well as national surveys. The Child Functioning Module (CFM) developed by UNICEF and United Nation’s Washington Group on Disability Statistics can be added to the existent EMIS in order to collect information about the school’s accessibility (UNICEF Data, 2018).

To have a comprehensive picture of the environmental barriers impeding children with disabilities to access the school and thus tackle them down,  schools’ accessibility should not be based solely on the availability of specific features such as ramps. It should also include data on how children are ‘getting to, entering and moving through the school; using water, sanitation and recreational facilities’ as well as school evacuation measures, among others (UNESCO-Global Education Monitoring Report, 2016: 311).

References
IDDC Inclusive Education Task Team (International Disability and Development Consortium). 2016. #Costing Equity: The case for disability-responsive education financing. Brussels: IDDC. Retrieved from: https://iddcconsortium.net/sites/default/files/resources-tools/files/costingequity_full_report.pdf

UNESCO-Global Education Monitoring Report. 2016. Global Education Monitoring Report 2016: Education for people and planet: Creating Sustainable Futures for All. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000245752

UNICEF Data (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2018. Child Functioning. Accessed 17 July 2019: https://data.unicef.org/topic/child-disability/module-on-child-functioning/

Other policy options

Funding support from development partners

Funding support from development partners should be geared towards ensuring the right to education for all and building inclusive, accessible, acceptable, adaptable education systems (reinforce the general education system). Support schemes should be time-bound and transparent (for more information consult: The Abidjan Principles, 2019).

Gear those funds towards building inclusive education systems, and thus building or upgrading school facilities so as to make them accessible. Development partners and agencies should include disability-responsiveness as the main criteria to allocate funds. For example, the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development (DFID) solely finances school construction projects which incorporate Universal Design principles. For instance, through the Humqadam Schools Construction and Rehabilitation Programme (2015-2018), DFID supported the construction of 20 000 additional accessible classrooms (IECD, n.d.).

Development partners should publish and disaggregate their aid data in order to have a clear picture of the number of projects which contributed to building inclusive education systems, for instance, by making schools’ physical infrastructure accessible, among others.

Development partners and governments should work together to agree on minimum standards for the school’s physical accessibility and thus provide appropriate financial support. For example, this has been done in Ghana with the support of UNICEF (for more information consult Ghana, 2015).

References
Ghana. 2015. Ministry of Education. Standards and Guidelines for Practice of Inclusive Education In Ghana. Accra: Ministry of Education. Retrieved from: http://planipolis.iiep.unesco.org/sites/planipolis/files/ressources/ghana_final_standards_guidelines_cd.pdf

ICED (Infrastructure & Cities for Economic Development). n.d. ICED Evidence Library – Case Study: Disability inclusive education in Pakistan. Retrieved from: http://icedfacility.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/ICED_Case_Disability-inclusive-education-in-Pakistan.pdf

IDDC Inclusive Education Task Team (International Disability and Development Consortium). 2016. #Costing Equity: The case for disability-responsive education financing. Brussels: IDDC. Retrieved from: https://iddcconsortium.net/sites/default/files/resources-tools/files/costingequity_full_report.pdf

The Abidjan Principles. 2019. The Abidjan Principles on the human rights obligations of States to provide public education and to regulate private involvement in education. Adopted on 13 February 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.abidjanprinciples.org/en/principles/overview

Finding new sources of financing

Governments should explore new possibilities of collaboration with the private sector and local communities in order to fund their inclusive education system and thus construct accessible infrastructure and facilities (while respecting the Abidjan Principles).  

Public and private partnerships are very common regarding infrastructure projects (Brookings, 2015b cited by IDDC Inclusive Education Task Team, 2016). Governments should ensure that these partnerships are geared towards building accessible schools to ensure the right to education. For example, in Scotland, public and private partnerships were explored in order to construct new accessible schools and adapt existent ones (Audit Scotland and HMIE, 2003).

Mobilise and involve the community so as to finance accessible, cost-effective school infrastructure. For instance, involve local builders, local product suppliers, children with disabilities and their families, the local community, Disability People’s Organisations, teachers, school leaders, local education planners, among others, to fund the construction of accessible schools (UNICEF, 2014). 

References
Audit Scotland; HMIE (Her Majesty’s Inspectorate of Education). 2003. Moving to mainstream. The inclusion of pupils with special educational needs in mainstream schools. Edinburgh: Auditor General Accounts Commission. Retrieved from: http://www.audit-scotland.gov.uk/docs/local/2003/nr_030529_special_educational_needs.pdf

Sæbønes, A.-M.; Berman Bieler, R.; Baboo, N.; Banham, L.; Singal, N.; Howgego, C.; Vuyiswa McClain-Nhlapo, C.; Riis-Hansen, T. C.; Dansie, G. A. 2015. ‘Towards a disability inclusive education’. Background paper for the Oslo Summit on Education for Development, 6-7 July 2015. Retrieved from: https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1865/Oslo_Ed_Summit_DisabilityInclusive_Ed.pdf

Stubbs, S. 2008. Inclusive Education: Where there are few resources. Oslo: The Atlas Alliance. Retrieved from: http://atlas-alliansen.no/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/Inclusive-Education-Where-there-are-few-resources-2008.pdf

The Abidjan Principles. 2019. The Abidjan Principles on the human rights obligations of States to provide public education and to regulate private involvement in education. Adopted on 13 February 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.abidjanprinciples.org/en/principles/overview

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2014. Financing of Inclusive Education: Webinar 8 – Companion Technical Booklet. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: http://www.inclusive-education.org/sites/default/files/uploads/booklets/IE_Webinar_Booklet_8.pdf

Policies for displaced populations and host communities

All of the measures recommended in the general section of the present Policy page apply.

For more information on budgeting for inclusive education, refer to the Equity section which explores this in more detail.

Other policy options

Improve budget processes and resource management

The lack of funds for school construction may be related to inadequate budget processes that do not sufficiently distribute funds between educational sectors, or that incorrectly estimate costs. Improving education financial management and budget processes can facilitate the availability of adequate school construction funds. (Plan International n.d.)

At the local and national level, managing and maximising the non-material resources which are available to schools can further help with resource management. These include the skill levels of teachers, the quality of management, the degree of community support for inclusion, and the willingness of parents to become involved with schools (UNESCO 2001).

These are all crucial resources for supporting inclusive education, which requires investment into capacity-building and development rather than fuelling additional finances into new material resources.

States must allocate the maximum of their available resources towards ensuring free, quality education, which must be continuously improved. The maximum available resources should not fall below the level required by domestic or international education funding commitments, such as the percentage of the gross domestic product set in development goals (Refer to the Abidjan Principles, 2019)

References
Plan International. n.d. Planning for Inclusion: How education budgets and plans target the most marginalized. Summary version. Retrieved from: https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/planning_for_inclusion_summary_nov17.pdf

UNESCO. 2001. Open file on inclusive education: support materials for managers and administrators. Retrieved from:  https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000125237

The Abidjan Principles. 2019. The Abidjan Principles on the human rights obligations of States to provide public education and to regulate private involvement in education. Adopted on 13 February 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.abidjanprinciples.org/en/principles/overview

Save the Children. 2014. Save the Children Stands for Inclusive Education. Retrieved from :  http://www.savethechildren.net/sites/default/files/libraries/Standing%20for%20I nclusive%20Education%20Position%20Paper_0.pdf

Addressing challenges in the public financial management (PFM) and auditing systems

A strong public financial management system is needed to efficiently and effectively provide public services, such as the provision of teacher salaries. Common issues within the PFM related to teacher salaries include capacity constraints such as lack of human resources, lack of electronic databases, and the logistical difficulties and corruption issues of cash-based payments (Dolan et al., 2012).

A number of proposed policy options include:

  • financial and technical support from donors to improve PFM systems, which in turn involves capacity building of key institutions within PFM and budget capacity in line Ministries;
  • using school management committees to pay teacher salaries;
  • contracting salary disbursement to a third party such as an accounting firm;
  • improve accountability mechanisms when using cash-based payments. For instance, in the Katanga province in the DRC, the Provincial Office for Teacher Salaries and Monitoring was given more responsibilities in salary dissemination which aided in reducing corruption (Dolan et al., 2012);
  • develop a digital Public Financial Monitoring system to monitor salary expenditure;
  • reduce bureaucracy and streamline processes.

A well-functioning audit system helps to prevent corruption and mismanagement of education funds. Audit systems are often limited by capacity constraints, such as lack of personnel or systems for judicial processes, as well as lack of access to the financial information.

Involve civil society groups (and/or parents and teacher unions) in auditing and tracking budgets. Set up an internal audit office within the Ministry of Education, automate audit processes, and use a digital Public Financial Monitoring system to track expenditures.

References
Baudienville, G. 2012. Public financial management reforms in fragile states: The case of Democratic Republic of the Congo. London: Overseas Development Institute. Retrieved from: https://www.odi.org/sites/odi.org.uk/files/odi-assets/publications-opinion-files/7853.pdf

Dolan, J.; Golden, A.; Ndaruhutse, S.; Withrop, R. 2012. Building effective teacher salary systems in fragile and conflict-affected states. Washington D.C.: The Center for Universal Education at Brookings. Retrieved from: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/09_CfBT_BrookingsReport.pdf

European Commission. 2014. Financing Schools in Europe: Mechanisms, Methods and Criteria in Public Funding. Eurydice Report. Luxembourg. Retrieved from : http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/thematic_reports/17 0EN.pdf

Fritz, V.; Hedger, E.; Lopes Fialho, A.P. 2011. Strengthening public financial management in postconflict countries. Retrieved from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/715661468162861843/pdf/608170BRI0EP540BOX358330B001PUBLIC1.pdf

Office of the Prime Minister and Ministry of Finance (Kenya). 2012. Public finance notes: Reforms in public finance management. Nairobi. Retrieved from: http://www.treasury.go.ke/economy1/regulations/category/3-public-financial-management-reforms-programme-s-dissemination-notes.html?download=3:teachers-service-commission-dissemination-notes

Collaborate with organisations which help with additional resources

Examples of organisations which help with additional resources for education for displaced populations and host communities are:

  • Aga Khan Foundation (AKF): This foundation operates world-wide and it focuses on a few selected sectors (education, health, rural development and the strengthening of civil society) which gives it a holistic reach. The AKF provides grants to governments, NGOs and grassroots organisations to promote innovative approaches to improve the quality of basic education with a focus on better early caring and learning environments for young children, increasing access to education, learner retention in schools, and raising levels of academic achievement. It specifically targets girls, the very poor, and geographically remote populations.
  • BRAC: BRAC is based in Bangladesh but runs a number of education programmes in Afghanistan, Pakistan, Uganda, Southern Sudan, and Haiti. It focuses extensively on non-formal primary education programmes operating low-cost models for teaching children who had never enrolled or had dropped out of primary school.
  • Enabling Education Network (EENET): EENET is an inclusive education information-sharing network, open to everyone. The website has an extensive resources database, containing over 400 short articles, longer documents, posters, training manuals, videos and much more from around the world. There is also information about regional networks on inclusive education and upcoming events.
  • Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE): An open global network of representatives from NGOs, UN agencies, donor agencies, governments, academic institutions, schools and affected populations working together to ensure all persons have the right to quality and safe education in emergencies and post-crisis recovery.

(Links are listed below, referred from the European Union Inclusive Education briefing paper.)

Aga Khan Foundation (AKF): http://www.akdn.org/akf

BRAC – http://www.brac.net/content/about-braceducation

Enabling Education Network (EENET) – http://www.eenet.org.uk

Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE): www.ineesite.

References
European Commission. 2013. Briefing Paper on Inclusive Education. Retrieved from:  https://europa.eu/capacity4dev/file/17526/download?token=XVmuxiyt.

Policies for minority populations

All of the measures recommended in the general section of the present Policy page apply.

For more information on budgeting for inclusive education, refer to the Equity section which explores this in more detail.

Other policy options

Promoting new resourcing partnerships

According to the Principle 6 of the Abidjan Principles 2019, promoting new partnerships should be carried out by keeping in mind that international assistance and cooperation, where provided, must reinforce the building of free, quality, public education systems, and refrain from supporting, directly or indirectly, private educational institutions in a manner that is inconsistent with human rights.

It is difficult for education systems to provide all the resources from the State funds alone. Hence, it is imperative for national and local governments to establish partnerships with other potential resource providers.

International donors and NGOs could provide additional resourcing. Programa Aorda Brasil, launched in 1995, urged companies, local governments, communities and citizens to work together to guarantee successful elementary school experience for all children and to combat failures. Partners include the Federation of Industries, governmental and private foundations and media associations. These contribute to a range of resources which include funds and technical aids.

Pratham Foundation, in India, was established on the foundation of Education for All. This organisation was a collaborative effort between the Mumbai Municipal Corporation and group of volunteers. This organisation also received funding from UNICEF. It started as a training institute for teachers to support pre-schooling. It further went onto providing mid-day meals, extra coaching to students who faced difficulties in learning and incentives to girl students.

Commitments from international donors can help bridge the financing gaps that may still exist even after governments have committed 20% of national budgets to education. International partners can also support strengthening developing country’s tax systems and reducing multinational tax avoidance to increase developing countries’ national revenue.

Long-term commitment to close financing gaps must be predictable, aim at supporting countries to develop sustainable domestic financing, and allow countries to set their own priorities.

Assistance in strengthening tax systems and preventing tax avoidance including supporting international tax transparency initiatives.

A final possibility is to remove wage bill caps. The International Monetary Fund and other international donors sometimes request the MoF to implement wage bill caps on public sector employees as a condition for loans, in efforts to restrict public spending and maintain fiscal balance. However, wage bill caps can have negative consequences in the education sector, including preventing additional teachers from being hired or paid, restricting donors from paying teacher salaries, discrepancies in pay between rural and centrally located teachers and the informal recruitment of new teachers (Dolan and Golden, 2012). Removing or raising wage bill caps can prevent these issues and allow new teachers to be hired and sufficiently paid.

For more information, refer to Policy pages High unit costs and Financial Constraints.

References
Dolan, J.; Golden, A.; Ndaruhutse, S.; Withrop, R. 2012.  Building effective teacher salary systems in fragile and conflict-affected states. Washington D.C.: The Center for Universal Education at Brookings. Retrieved from: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/09_CfBT_BrookingsReport.pdf

Mowe Jahnsen, K.; Walker, J. 2016. Financing matters: A toolkit on domestic financing for education. Johannesburg: Global Campaign for Education. Retrieved from: http://www.campaignforeducation.org/docs/resources/GCE%20Financing_Matters_EN_WEB.pdf

Rose, P.; Steer, L. 2013. Financing for global education: Opportunities for multilateral action. UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Basic-Education-Financing-Final-webv2.pdf

UNESCO. 2014c. EFA Global Monitoring Report: Increasing tax revenues to bridge the education financing gap. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0022/002270/227092E.pdf

Plan International. n.d. Planning for Inclusion: How education budgets and plans target the most marginalized. Summary version. Retrieved from: https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/planning_for_inclusion_summary_nov17.pdf

UNESCO. 2001. Open file on inclusive education: support materials for managers and administrators. Retrieved from:  https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000125237

The Abidjan Principles. 2019. The Abidjan Principles on the human rights obligations of States to provide public education and to regulate private involvement in education. Adopted on 13 February 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.abidjanprinciples.org/en/principles/overview

European Commission. 2014. Financing Schools in Europe: Mechanisms, Methods and Criteria in Public Funding. Eurydice Report. Luxembourg. Retrieved from : http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/education/eurydice/documents/thematic_reports/17 0EN.pdf

Transfer of funds between different government levels

One of the ways to generate more funds for inclusive education entails managing the nationally allocated funds between different governmental levels, such as the local government or even at the school level. This can be done in the following ways:

  • by allocating funds to provincial levels or local levels where they can be turned into resources such as teachers, equipment, materials, and services and hence, be transferred to schools directly;
  • directing funds to individual schools which can provide schools with the autonomy for deciding how to turn them into resources; and
  • directing funds to cluster of schools which can then decide how best to resource individual schools or how to set up joint provisions.

If funds are transferred to lower levels, it is easier for schools to access them. However, sometimes this can make it difficult to monitor and control their use. It could be possible for schools to then not use the funds to promote inclusivity, but instead redirecting them for competing with other schools for more students. (UNESCO 2001)

References
European Agency for Special Needs and Inclusive Education. 2016. Financing of Inclusive Education: Background Information Report. Denmark. Retrieved from : https://www.european-agency.org/sites/default/files/Financing%20of%20Inclusive%20Education%20-%20Background%20Information%20Report.pdf

European Commission. 2015. National Sheets on Education Budgets in Europe 2015. Eurydice Facts and Figures. Luxembourg. Retrieved from: https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/fpfis/mwikis/eurydice/images/8/8f/194EN.pdf

Plan International. n.d. Planning for Inclusion: How education budgets and plans target the most marginalized. Summary version. Retrieved from: https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/planning_for_inclusion_summary_nov17.pdf

UNESCO. 2001. Open file on inclusive education: support materials for managers and administrators. Retrieved from:  https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000125237

The Abidjan Principles. 2019. The Abidjan Principles on the human rights obligations of States to provide public education and to regulate private involvement in education. Adopted on 13 February 2019. Retrieved from: https://www.abidjanprinciples.org/en/principles/overview

Menne, S.; and Stein, A. 2012. Effective Investments in Education – Background Paper. Global Economic Symposium 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.global-economicsymposium.org/knowledgebase/the-global-economy/effective-investments-ineducation/background-paper/effective-investments-in-education

Updated on 2020-09-04

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