Buildings are not usable

Promising policy options

Developing a culture of safety and resilience in the learning environment

To develop a culture of safety and resilience in the learning environment, a number of policies and strategies can be put in place. Ensure that each new school is a safe school, built with the help of the community, which can be possibly be used as a shelter if needed. Also, ensure protection, social-equity, gender-sensitivity, psychosocial support and access to education for all children and youth, and raise public awareness through national evidence and consensus-based key messages.

Engage students and staff in disaster management to create a child-centred and child-led interactive approach. This can involve integrating risk reduction and risk management in the curriculum with quality teaching and learning materials, be it in stand-alone courses, curriculum units, or curriculum infusion, and by providing teacher training and encourage the integration of risk reduction in courses and/or extra-curricular activities. Encourage professionalization and research in DRR in higher education institutes.

References
UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2009e. Child Friendly Schools Programming: Global Evaluation Report. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/evaldatabase/files/Global_CFS_Evaluation_Report _Uploaded_Version.pdf

UNISDR (The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction), GADRRRES (The Global Alliance for Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience in the Education Sector). 2017. Comprehensive School Safety Framework. Geneva: UNISDR. Retrieved from: https://s3.amazonaws.com/inee-gadrrres/resouces/CSS-Framework-2017.pdf?mtime=20180730152450

School disaster management policies and implementation

Ensure a strong institutional basis nationwide. Link disaster management with public safety policies and plans at national and sub-national levels and create linkages between sectors. Create disaster management committees at national and/ or sub-national levels, with trained members. At the local level, such committees should include school administration, teachers, staff, parents, school neighbours, pupils, and NGOs.

Provide policies and guidance for ongoing site-based hazard assessment and planning and risk reduction and response preparedness, which should be integrated in the school management. Such policies and guidance could include early warning systems, evacuation plans, and regular emergency drills and simulations. Plans must be based on multi-hazard risk assessment, provide specific directions for immediate action, be flexible enough to allow for adjustments during unexpected situations, and have a clear chain of command.

Plans in disaster risk management should include:

  • complete contact information (telephone numbers of emergency and support agencies);
  • maps and floor plans;
  • an emergency warning system to communicate with parents (emails, mobile phones, local radio, television, internet);
  • emergency transportation; and
  • provision of emergency supplies and equipment.

Support contingency planning for educational continuity (alternative school site, television or radio delivery of lessons, mail delivery of lessons and assignments) and ensure the provision of psychosocial and support services.

References
IFC (International Finance Corporation). 2010. Disaster and Emergency Preparedness:  Guidance for Schools. Washington D.C.: IFC (International Finance Corporation). Retrieved from: https://www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/8b796b004970c0199a7ada336b93d75f/DisERHandbook.pdf?MOD=AJPERES

Petal, M. 2008. Disaster Prevention for Schools: Guidance for Education Sector Decision Makers. Geneva: UNISDR (The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction). Retrieved from: https://www.unisdr.org/we/inform/publications/7556

UNESCO; UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2012. Disaster Risk Reduction in School Curricula: Case Studies from Thirty Countries. Geneva: UNICEF. Retrieved from:  https://www.unicef.org/education/files/DRRinCurricula-Mapping30countriesFINAL.pdf

Winston, A.; Oreta, C. 2010. Guidance Notes School Emergency and Disaster Preparedness. Geneva:  UNISDR (The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction). Retrieved from: https://www.unisdr.org/files/15655_1msshguidenotesprefinal 0313101.pdf

School maintenance programmes

Good school maintenance programmes usually include policies such as:

  • performing a school building assessment. This usually covers two parts. A technical audit, covering all projects and programmes, assess appropriateness of design, achievement of school project objectives and sustainability of operations and maintenance, and a building evaluation, which involve consultation, representative or statistical sample, in-depth interviews, focus group, direct/ participatory observation;
  • educate donors, government, and communities on the usefulness of maintenance investment;
  • allocate sufficient budget to local governments for school maintenance;
  • be prepared to address maintenance of school buildings 10 to 15 years after construction starts; and
  • prioritize modification or retrofitting of existing schools that are found to be unsafe.
References
GADRRRES (The Global Alliance for Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience in the Education Sector). 2015. Towards Safer School Construction: A community-based approach. GADRRRES. Retrieved from: http://saferschoolconstruction.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/45179_towardssafer schoolconstruction2015_0-1.pdf

Sanoff, H. 2001. School Building Assessment Methods. Washington D.C.: National Clearinghouse for Educational Facilities. Retrieved from: http://www.ncef.org/pubs/sanoffassess.pdf

Theunynck, S. 2009. School Construction for Universal Primary Education in Africa: Should Communities Be Empowered to Build Their Schools? Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/109291468007863249/pdf/488980PUB0prim101Official0Use0Only1.pdf

UNISDR (The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction). 2012. Assessing School Safety from Disasters A Global Baseline Report. Geneva: UNISDR. Retrieved from: https://www.unisdr.org/files/35274_2012schoolsafetyglobalbaseline.pdf

Policy options for improving Equity and Inclusion

Gender-responsive policies

Promising policy options

Mainstream gender throughout the development of a culture of safety and resilience in the learning environment

All of the recommended strategies in the general section of the present Policy page apply. Yet, it is important to ensure that gender is being mainstreamed throughout it (UNISDR, 2012). Learning material used to teach disaster risk reduction should be gender-responsive: special attention is provided to the language, content, and pictures included (For precise information on how to make learning material gender-responsive consult Policy page Availability of textbooks).

When integrating disaster risk reduction (DRR) in the curriculum, decision-makers should include the links between DRR, climate change and gender. For example, in 2015 Nigeria performed a curriculum review in order to include climate change adaptation, disaster risk reduction, and gender issues within it. A Teacher’s Guidance Pack which was developed which included a section on gender and climate change (UNISDR, 2015).

Decision-makers, school leaders and teachers should analyse if gendered roles and responsibilities, as well as cultural norms, affect the way in which girls, boys, and LGBTIQ pupils:

  • access the information concerning DRR;
  • are taught the necessary knowledge, skills, and competencies for DRR in schools (Shreve and Fordham, 2018); and
  • are effectively participating in disaster risk identification (or if it is less likely for girls, boys or LGBTIQ children to participate) (Shreve and Fordham, 2018; UNESCO, 2014).
References
Shreve, C.; Fordham, M. 2018. Child-Centred Risk Reduction Research-into-Action Brief: Gender and Disasters: Considering Children. GADRRRES (The Global Alliance for Disaster Risk Reduction and Resilience in the Education Sector.Retrieved from: https://www.preventionweb.net/files/61526_genderr2abriefeng2018.pdf

UNESCO. 2014. A Teacher’s Guide to Disaster Risk Reduction: Stay Safe and Be Prepared. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000228963?posInSet=5& queryId=cc26e6ee-a50f-4af8-b99e-80bf736deed0

UNISDR (The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction). 2012. International Day for Disaster Reduction 2012:  Women & Girls – The inVisible Force of Resilience. Geneva: UNISDR. Retrieved from: http://www.unisdr.org/2012/iddr/

UNISDR (The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction). 2015. Disaster Risk Reduction And Resilience In The 2030 Agenda For Sustainable Development. Geneva: UNISDR. Retrieved from: https://www.unisdr.org/files/46052_disasterriskreductioninthe2030agend.pdf

Mainstream gender in school disaster management policies and implementation

Develop gender-responsive disaster risk reduction (DRR) programmes in schools by analysing the different gender-specific capacities, roles, vulnerabilities, stereotypes, needs, and concerns to develop gender-responsive DRR programmes in school (UNDP Armenia, 2011; UNESCO, 2014; UNISDR, 2012; UNESCO, n.d.). Mainstream gender to develop gender-responsive DRR programmes through cost-effective strategy (UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN, 2009); ‘It makes programming more effective, helps to better target assistance and protection efforts, and provides foundations for sustainable recovery’ (INEE, 2010: 10). For example, previous to 2015’s category-five tropical cyclone Pam, CARE International in Vanuatu had been working with multiple communities to develop gender-responsive DRR programming. After the tropical cyclone, findings revealed that the impact and damage in communities where gender-responsive DRR programmes were implemented were minor to those without it (Care International in Vanuatu, 2016).

Ensure an adequate amount of resources are provided to create gender-responsive DRR programmes (UNISDR, 2012) and empower women to be part of the planning and implementation of school disaster management policies. For example, the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2039 states that ‘Women and their participation are critical to effectively managing disaster risk and designing, resourcing and implementing gender-sensitive disaster risk reduction policies, plans and programmes’ (UNDRR, 2015: 23).

Empower girls and women to ensure their active participation in school disaster management policies. Provide adequate and continued capacity building opportunities (CARE International in Vanuatu, 2016; UNDRR, 2015; UNESCO, n.d.; UNISDR, 2015) and promote advocacy and public awareness rising campaigns for disaster preparedness and prevention (UNESCO, n.d.; UNISDR, 2015).

Ensure that the disaster management committees, such as the School Disaster and Climate Change Committees (SDCCC):

  • are gender-balanced (CARE International in Vanuatu, 2016);
  • guarantee equitable participation between women and men (support and empower women to take leadership roles); and
  • involve trusted leaders in the community (UNDP Armenia, 2011).

Mainstream gender into the development of early warning systems; research shows that ‘gender-neutral’ warning systems are not effective as they do not reach the entire population and can ultimately cost lives (UNISDR, UNDP and IUCN, 2009). Tailoring the school’s warning systems to ‘the needs of the users, including social and cultural requirements, in particular, gender’ is thus a cost-effective measure (UNDRR, 2015: 21).

References
CARE International in Vanuatu (Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere). 2016. Does gender responsive disaster risk reduction make a difference? A comparative study of Category Five Tropical Cyclone Pam in Vanuatu. Port Vila: CARE International in Vanuatu. Retrieved from: https://www.care.org.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/CARE_Vanuatu_DRR_Impact_Study_3 _FINAL_web_amend.pdf

INEE (Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies). 2010. Gender Equality in and through Education: INEE Pocket Guide to Gender. Geneva: INEE. Retrieved from: https://toolkit.ineesite.org/resources/ineecms/uploads/1009/INEE_Pocket_Guide_to_Gender_EN.pdf

UNDP Armenia (United Nations Development Programme). 2011. Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Reduction: Training of Trainers Manual. Yerevan: UNDP. Retrieved from: https://www.un.am/up/library/Gender%20Mainstreaming_DRR_eng.pdf

UNDP Armenia (United Nations Development Programme). 2011. Gender Mainstreaming in Disaster Risk Reduction: Training of Trainers Manual. Yerevan: UNDP. Retrieved from: https://www.un.am/up/library/Gender%20Mainstreaming_DRR_eng.pdf

UNDRR (United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction). 2015. Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015 – 2030. Geneva: UNDRRR. Retrieved from: https://www.unisdr.org/files/43291_sendaiframeworkfordrren.pdf

UNESCO. 2014. A Teacher’s Guide to Disaster Risk Reduction: Stay Safe and Be Prepared. Paris: UNESCO. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000228963?posInSet=5& queryId=cc26e6ee-a50f-4af8-b99e-80bf736deed0

UNESCO. n.d. Gender Equality and Disaster Risk Reduction. Accessed 1 August 2019: http://www.unesco.org/new/en/natural-sciences/priority-areas/gender-and-science/cross-cuttingissues/gender-equality-and-disaster-risk-reduction/

UNISDR (International Strategy for Disaster Reduction); UNDP (United Nations Development Programme); IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature). 2009. Making Disaster Risk Reduction Gender-Sensitive: Policy and Practical Guidelines. Geneva: UNISDR; UNDP; IUCN. Retrieved from: https://www.unisdr.org/files/9922_MakingDisasterRiskReductionGenderSe.pdf

UNISDR (The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction). 2012. International Day for Disaster Reduction 2012:  Women & Girls – The inVisible Force of Resilience. Geneva: UNISDR. Retrieved from: http://www.unisdr.org/2012/iddr/

UNISDR (The United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction). 2015. Disaster Risk Reduction And Resilience In The 2030 Agenda For Sustainable Development. Geneva: UNISDR. Retrieved from: https://www.unisdr.org/files/46052_disasterriskreductioninthe2030agend.pdf

School maintenance programmes

All of the recommended strategies in the general section of the present Policy page apply. In particular, all of the gender-responsive infrastructure and facilities should be maintained (e.g. WASH facilities). In the case of partially or completely destroyed schools, a significant opportunity to build new gender-responsive facilities is given (‘Build Back Better’) (UNDRR, 2015).

References
UNDRR (United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction). 2015. Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015 – 2030. Geneva: UNDRRR. Retrieved from: https://www.unisdr.org/files/43291_sendaiframeworkfordrren.pdf

Policies for children with disabilities

Promising policy options

Develop a culture of safety and resilience in the learning environment

Ensure that all of the information and materials for disaster risk reduction are accessible (GFDRR, 2018). Information should be represented through multiple ways –such as Braille, large print, sign language interpretation or captioning, audio, video and images. Ensure that persons with disabilities within the school –and the community– gain the indispensable knowledge and skills if an emergency situation were to happen.

References
GFDRR (Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery). 2018.  Five Actions for Disability-Inclusive Disaster Risk Management.  Washington, D.C.: GFDRR. Retrieved from: https://www.gfdrr.org/sites/default/ files/GFDRR%20Disability%20inclusion%20in%20DRM%20Brief_FO.pdf

Conceive and implement disability-inclusive school disaster management policies

Routine emergency protocols should consistently provide directions on how to support students with disabilities (NCD, 2009). Disaster risk reduction policies, plans, standards and response preparedness should be disability-inclusive (IFRC, 2007). To make this possible, it is essential to:

  • empower persons and children with disabilities to actively participate throughout the planning and implementation of school disaster management policies (GFDRR, 2018; UNDRR, 2015); and
  • remove all of the physical, informational and communicational barriers that hinder their involvement in the planning and response preparedness phases (GFDRR, 2018).

Capacity building opportunities for disaster risk prevention should be accessible and benefit equally persons/children with disabilities compared to other stakeholders (IFRC, 2007). One way of achieving this is by making sure that disaster management committees –such as the School Disaster and Climate Change Committees (SDCCC)– include persons and children with disabilities. This can be done by involving representatives from the local Disability People’s Organizations (DPOs).

Provide appropriate emergency evacuation from school buildings and accessible warning systems so that no child/person is left behind. This can be facilitated by improving schools’ infrastructure with the concept of Universal Design (UNICEF, 2014). Identify and test key strategies within schools to ensure persons with disabilities are kept safe during risk situations (United States, 2008).

Provide training and perform preparedness exercises so that the evacuation of school members is done in a coordinated manner and no one is left behind (GFDRR, 2018; UNICEF, 2014; United States, 2008). Conceive inclusive and accessible warning systems to reach all persons with disabilities within the school in case of an emergency. Appropriate audio, visual, tactile protocols should be conceived within the school (United States, 2008).

References
GFDRR (Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery). 2018.  Five Actions for Disability-Inclusive Disaster Risk Management.  Washington, D.C.: GFDRR. Retrieved from: https://www.gfdrr.org/sites/default/ files/GFDRR%20Disability%20inclusion%20in%20DRM%20Brief_FO.pdf

IFRC (International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies). 2007. World Disasters Report—focus on discrimination. Geneva: IFRC. Retrieved from:  https://www.ifrc.org/PageFiles/99876/2007/WDR2007-English.pdf

NCD (National Council on Disability). 2009. Effective Emergency Management: Making Improvements for Communities and People with Disabilities. Washington, D.C.: NCD. Retrieved from: https://www.ncd.gov/rawmedia_repository/50b76caf_054c_491d_ae88_587c096d8b3a.pdf

Ronoh, S.; Gaillard, J.C.; Marlowe, J. 2015. ‘Children with Disabilities and Disaster Risk Reduction: A Review’. In: Int J Disaster Risk Sci, 6, pp.38–48. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2Fs13753-015-0042-9.pdf

UNDRR (United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction). 2015. Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015 – 2030. Geneva: UNDRRR. Retrieved from: https://www.unisdr.org/files/43291_sendaiframeworkfordrren.pdf

UNICEF (United Nations Children’s Fund). 2014. Access to School and the Learning Environment I – Physical, Information and Communication: Webinar 10 – Companion Technical Booklet. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/eca/sites/unicef.org.eca/files/IE_ Webinar_Booklet_10.pdf

United States. 2008. United States Department of Education. Emergency management research and people with disabilities: a resource guide. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Education. Retrieved from: https://www2.ed.gov/rschstat/research/pubs/guide-emergency-management-pwd.pdf

WHO (World Health Organization). 2011. World Report on Disability. Malta: WHO. Retrieved from: http://www.who.int/disabilities/world_report/2011/report.pdf.

School maintenance programmes

Ensure that school facilities are designed, constructed and maintained in a manner that provides both access and safety for persons with disabilities (for more information consult the Policy page Buildings are not ready).

In the aftermath of a disaster, the recovery and reconstruction phases could provide the opportunity not only to rebuild but also to improve disability-specific facilities and services (GFDRR, 2018).

References
GFDRR (Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery). 2018.  Five Actions for Disability-Inclusive Disaster Risk Management.  Washington, D.C.: GFDRR. Retrieved from: https://www.gfdrr.org/sites/default/ files/GFDRR%20Disability%20inclusion%20in%20DRM%20Brief_FO.pdf

Sæbønes, A.-M.; Berman Bieler, R.; Baboo, N.; Banham, L.; Singal, N.; Howgego, C.; Vuyiswa McClain-Nhlapo, C.; Riis-Hansen, T. C.; Dansie, G. A. 2015. ‘Towards a disability inclusive education’. Background paper for the Oslo Summit on Education for Development, 6-7 July 2015. Retrieved from: https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1865/Oslo_Ed_Summit_DisabilityInclusive_Ed.pdf

Policies for displaced populations and host communities

Other policy options

Maintenance of Existing Schools

School maintenance is a proven cost-effective strategy that is often overlooked. Regular school maintenance reduces the need for premature renovation and repairs, thereby freeing up funds that can then be used towards new school construction. The government should allocate funds specifically dedicated to ongoing school maintenance throughout a building’s life when originally budgeting for classroom construction and should prioritize the use of durable materials during the construction process.  Regular school maintenance is also a valuable opportunity for community involvement; simple daily chores can be performed by the school children themselves, while parents and other community members can contribute to larger repair tasks.

References
Leathes, B. 2009 . Briefing Note: Key Factors in the Cost Effective Design and Construction of Primary School Facilities in Low Income Countries . TI-UP Resource Centre. Retrieved from: https://www.humanitarianlibrary.org/sites/default/files/2014/02/Briefing%2520Note%2520-%2520Classroom%2520Costs%2520Final%252023%2520Jan%252009.pdf

Theunyck, S. 2002. School Construction in Developing Countries: What Do We Know? Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from:  https://humanitarianlibrary.org/sites/default/files/2014/02/Theunynck%2520(2002)%520School%2520Construction%2520in%2520Developing%2520Countires.pdf

The World Bank. 2013. SABER Working Paper Series Number 2: What Matters Most for School Finance. The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://wbgfiles.worldbank.org/documents/hdn/ed/saber/supporting_doc/Background/FIN/Framework_School_Finance.pdf

Practical Action. 2009. School Buildings in Developing Countries . Warwickshire: Practical Action. Retrieved from : http://www.worldwidehelpers.org/wwhweb/uploads/files/School%20Buildings%20in%20Developing%20Countries.pdf

Theunynck, S. 2009. School Construction for Universal Primary Education in Africa: Should Communities Be Empowered to Build Their Schools? Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retreived from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/109291468007863249/pdf/488980PUB0prim101Official0Use0Only1.pdf

Investing funds into school constructions

The lack of funds for school construction may be related to inadequate budget processes that do not sufficiently distribute funds between educational sectors, or that incorrectly estimate costs. Improving education financial management and budget processes can facilitate the availability of adequate school construction funds. Budgets should be based on adequate and transparent information, with explicit criteria to determine what to fund. Budgets should utilise reliable and updated data, using transparent practices and comprehensive documentation, and should be used to produce public reports of education budgets.

Improving resource efficiency, putting systems in place that account for the use of financial resources, frameworks that promote transparency in and competitiveness in construction contracts, and audits in educational expenditure.

Finally, monitor and document school construction expenditures, ensuring that expenditures align with what is designated in the budget. Doing this aids in reducing corruption and fosters transparency with the community.

References
The World Bank. 2013. SABER Working Paper Series Number 2: What Matters Most for School Finance. The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://wbgfiles.worldbank.org/documents/hdn/ed/saber/supporting_doc/Background/FIN/Framework_School_Finance.pdf

Bonner, R. ; Das, P. ; Kalra, R. ; Leathes, B. ; Wakeham, N. (n.d.) Delivering cost Effective and Sustainable School Infrastructure . TI-UP Resource Center. Accessed 1 April 2018: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/67620/del-cost-eff-sust-sch-infra.pdf

Rwanda. 2009. Ministry of Education. Child Friendly Schools and Infrastructure Standards and Guidelines. Retrieved from : https://www.preventionweb.net/files/15377_rwandachildfriendlyschoolsinfrastru.pdf

Theunynck, S. 2009. School Construction for Universal Primary Education in Africa: Should Communities Be Empowered to Build Their Schools? Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retreived from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/109291468007863249/pdf/488980PUB0prim101Official0Use0Only1.pdf

Use of Existing Buildings for Schooling

Existing unoccupied buildings within communities can be utilized as learning spaces in lieu of new school construction. This strategy is most appropriate for sparsely populated areas in which one-roomed schooling would be required. This solution is not ideal, as the spaces may not be adapted to be optimal learning environments for students, however, it can be a short-term solution in the face of budget constraints. Usually, governments use community spaces, youth centres, religious centres or even homes, and it is particularly appropriate in sparsely populated, rural areas.

References
Practical Action. 2009. School Buildings in Developing Countries . Warwickshire: Practical Action. Retrieved from : http://www.worldwidehelpers.org/wwhweb/uploads/files/School%20Buildings%20in%20Developing%20Countries.pdf

UNICEF. 2009. Child Friendly Schools Manual. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Child_Friendly_Schools_Manual_EN_040809.pdf

Gershberg A.I. 2014. Educational Infrastructure, School Construction, & Decentralization in Developing Countries: Key Issues for an Understudied Area. International Center for Public Policy Working Paper 14-12. Retreived from: https://scholarworks.gsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1020&context=icepp

Theunynck, S. 2009. School Construction for Universal Primary Education in Africa: Should Communities Be Empowered to Build Their Schools? Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retreived from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/109291468007863249/pdf/488980PUB0prim101Official0Use0Only1.pdf

Policies for minority populations

Other policy options

Maintenance of Existing Schools

School maintenance is a proven cost-effective strategy that is often overlooked. Regular school maintenance reduces the need for premature renovation and repairs, thereby freeing up funds that can then be used towards new school construction. The government should allocate funds specifically dedicated to ongoing school maintenance throughout a building’s life when originally budgeting for classroom construction and should prioritize the use of durable materials during the construction process.  Regular school maintenance is also a valuable opportunity for community involvement; simple daily chores can be performed by the school children themselves, while parents and other community members can contribute to larger repair tasks.

References
Leathes, B. 2009 . Briefing Note: Key Factors in the Cost Effective Design and Construction of Primary School Facilities in Low Income Countries . TI-UP Resource Centre. Retrieved from: https://www.humanitarianlibrary.org/sites/default/files/2014/02/Briefing%2520Note%2520-%2520Classroom%2520Costs%2520Final%252023%2520Jan%252009.pdf

Theunyck, S. 2002. School Construction in Developing Countries: What Do We Know? Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retrieved from:  https://humanitarianlibrary.org/sites/default/files/2014/02/Theunynck%2520(2002)%520School%2520Construction%2520in%2520Developing%2520Countires.pdf

The World Bank. 2013. SABER Working Paper Series Number 2: What Matters Most for School Finance. The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://wbgfiles.worldbank.org/documents/hdn/ed/saber/supporting_doc/Background/FIN/Framework_School_Finance.pdf

Practical Action. 2009. School Buildings in Developing Countries . Warwickshire: Practical Action. Retrieved from : http://www.worldwidehelpers.org/wwhweb/uploads/files/School%20Buildings%20in%20Developing%20Countries.pdf

Theunynck, S. 2009. School Construction for Universal Primary Education in Africa: Should Communities Be Empowered to Build Their Schools? Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retreived from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/109291468007863249/pdf/488980PUB0prim101Official0Use0Only1.pdf

Investing funds into school constructions

The lack of funds for school construction may be related to inadequate budget processes that do not sufficiently distribute funds between educational sectors, or that incorrectly estimate costs. Improving education financial management and budget processes can facilitate the availability of adequate school construction funds. Budgets should be based on adequate and transparent information, with explicit criteria to determine what to fund. Budgets should utilise reliable and updated data, using transparent practices and comprehensive documentation, and should be used to produce public reports of education budgets.

Improving resource efficiency, putting systems in place that account for the use of financial resources, frameworks that promote transparency in and competitiveness in construction contracts, and audits in educational expenditure.

Finally, monitor and document school construction expenditure, ensuring that expenditures align with what is designated in the budget. This process aids in reducing corruption and fosters community participation.

References
The World Bank. 2013. SABER Working Paper Series Number 2: What Matters Most for School Finance. The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://wbgfiles.worldbank.org/documents/hdn/ed/saber/supporting_doc/Background/FIN/Framework_School_Finance.pdf

Bonner, R. ; Das, P. ; Kalra, R. ; Leathes, B. ; Wakeham, N. (n.d.) Delivering cost Effective and Sustainable School Infrastructure . TI-UP Resource Center. Accessed 1 April 2018: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/67620/del-cost-eff-sust-sch-infra.pdf

Rwanda. 2009. Ministry of Education. Child Friendly Schools and Infrastructure Standards and Guidelines. Retrieved from : https://www.preventionweb.net/files/15377_rwandachildfriendlyschoolsinfrastru.pdf

Theunynck, S. 2009. School Construction for Universal Primary Education in Africa: Should Communities Be Empowered to Build Their Schools? Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retreived from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/109291468007863249/pdf/488980PUB0prim101Official0Use0Only1.pdf

Use of Existing Buildings for Schooling

Existing unoccupied buildings within communities can be utilized as learning spaces in lieu of new school construction. This strategy is most appropriate for sparsely populated areas in which one-roomed schooling would be required. This solution is not ideal, as the spaces may not be adapted to be optimal learning environments for students, however, it can be a short-term solution in the face of budget constraints. Usually, governments use community spaces, youth centres, religious centres or even homes, and it is particularly appropriate in sparsely populated, rural areas.

References
Practical Action. 2009. School Buildings in Developing Countries . Warwickshire: Practical Action. Retrieved from : http://www.worldwidehelpers.org/wwhweb/uploads/files/School%20Buildings%20in%20Developing%20Countries.pdf

UNICEF. 2009. Child Friendly Schools Manual. New York: UNICEF. Retrieved from: https://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Child_Friendly_Schools_Manual_EN_040809.pdf

Gershberg A.I. 2014. Educational Infrastructure, School Construction, & Decentralization in Developing Countries: Key Issues for an Understudied Area. International Center for Public Policy Working Paper 14-12. Retreived from: https://scholarworks.gsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1020&context=icepp

Theunynck, S. 2009. School Construction for Universal Primary Education in Africa: Should Communities Be Empowered to Build Their Schools? Washington D.C.: The World Bank. Retreived from: http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/109291468007863249/pdf/488980PUB0prim101Official0Use0Only1.pdf

Updated on 2020-09-04

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